English: Croaking gourami
German: Knurrende Gurami
Gourami grumbles in reservoirs rich in vegetation (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand and northern Indonesia).
The body is high, slightly elongated in length and compressed on the sides. The mouth is small and slightly pointed up. The eyes are big. The ventral fins are long, threadlike. Caudal - wide, rounded, pointed in the center. Anal fin is long, large.
Gourami grumbling is painted in golden brown with a bluish-green sheen. 2-4 brownish-black longitudinal stripes pass along the body. Fins with red, blue or violet tint and reddish and greenish spots.
Sexual differences: the female is paler and slimmer than the male; in the male, the dorsal and anal fins are elongated and pointed at the end.
Peaceful, a little shy and schooling fish.
In nature, grumbling gourams live in extremely harsh conditions, often in standing water with low oxygen content. In order to survive, they adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, after which they rise to the surface of the water, swallow, and then they are absorbed using a special organ. That is why, these fish are called labyrinth.
Aquarium size - from 70 liters.
Water acidity - pH 6.0 - 8.0.
Hardness of water - dH 10 - 25 °.
Optimal water temperature 22 - 25 ° C.
Water change - weekly change of up to 20% of the volume of water
Lighting - muffled.
Plants - floating, trefoil, wallisneria, elodea.
Priming - coarse river sand.
The content is not complicated. Very unpretentious. Not demanding on feed. The only thing they need is a stable, relatively high temperature. It is quite possible to recommend a fish for maintenance to novice lovers.
They eat both cereal and pellets.
In nature, the basis of nutrition is various insects, both living in water and falling on the surface of the water.
Also in the aquarium, they are happy to eat ice cream and live food: bloodworms, coronet, artemia, and tubule.
Grunting gourami Trichopsis vittata, a fish that got its name for the sounds made to it periodically.
If you keep a group, you will hear grunts, especially when males show off in front of females or in front of other males.
Among the pathogens of gourami diseases, the following living organisms can be distinguished: viruses, bacteria, worms, ciliates, microscopic fungi.
Among the most famous diseases of gourami, lymphocystosis can be distinguished. It is not difficult to recognize the disease: open wounds appear on the body of the fish, as well as grayish-colored nodules or flat growths, mainly of black color. The affected area is surrounded by a slight swelling.
Water parameters for breeding gourami grunts: hardness 4-10 °, pH 6.0-7.0, temperature 27-30 ° С. Before breeding for breeding (they take a male with several females or a group of fish, because not every male is able to fertilize eggs) they are kept separately for two weeks. The male builds a nest near the surface of the water, which sometimes can consist of only a few bubbles. The female tosses from 70 to 180 eggs, after which it is planted. The male remains to care for the offspring, removing the dead eggs, and putting back hatching after 2-3 days and dropped out of the nest of larvae. After another 2 days, the fry begin to swim and eat. The male is removed from the spawning and include weak aeration with tiny bubbles. The water level is lowered to 5-10 cm and does not change until a labyrinth is formed in the fish and it begins to gasp at the surface of the mouth. Starting feed: ciliates, rotifers, egg yolk. The grouchy reaches puberty at the age of 4-6 months.
Description of the genus "Trichopsis (Trichopsis)"
Order: Perciformes (Perciformes)
Family: Belontidae (Belontidae)
Inhabit the peninsula Indochina and Malacca, the islands of Sumatra and Java. They are kept in ponds overgrown with plants.
The body is elongated, flattened laterally. The snout is sharp, the mouth is small. The ventral fins are long, threadlike. Anal fin is long, large. In the male, the dorsal fin and anal fin at the end are elongated and pointed.
Fish breathe atmospheric air through the gill maze.
Peaceful, fairly mobile fish make during the period of excitement, especially males, grunting sounds. It can be kept in a general aquarium, which is desirable to be closed from above so that warm air is above the surface of the water, as otherwise the fish catching cold may catch a cold.
Water for maintenance: 24-26 ° C, dH 5-20 °, pH 6.5-7.5.
Feed: lively, substitutes.
Spawning aquarium with a length of 20 cm for a couple, a water level of 10-15 cm, in places overgrown, a bush of a plant with large leaves, a floating plant with large leaves. The incentive to spawn is an increase in temperature to 27-30 ° C. The male builds a nest of foam under the leaf of the plant both at the surface and in the water column.
The female spawns eggs up to 700 eggs, after which it is removed. The male cares for eggs and larvae.
The incubation period is 1-2 days, the fry swim after 2-4 days, after which the male is removed.
Starter feed: live dust (ciliates, rotifers).
Gourami grumbling: keeping and breeding fish.
Photo: Trichopsis vittatus
Trichopsis vittatus (Cuvier, Valenciennes, 1831).
The main body color is yellowish to brownish, side in the incident light with a bluish or blue-green sheen. Along the body are 2-4 dark brown to black longitudinal stripes. Fins with reddish, bluish or violet tint and reddish and greenish spots.
The gourami grumbling, the contents of which usually do not cause difficulties, feel great in small aquariums - there is enough volume of 50-60 liters. Where about optimally run 4 -5 individuals. It is desirable that there are more females.
The interior space is filled with a large number of plants to create thickets. However, do not deprive the fish of free space for swimming maneuvers. Therefore, the seating is done around the perimeter so that there is enough space in the middle. As shelters suitable snags, branches, roots and other decor.
Since the gourami grunts swallows air from the surface and so that it is warm (to prevent colds in fish), the aquarium is covered with a lid on top. Optimal biotope mode:
- medium temperature 24 - 28 C,
- hardness 2 - 6 dH,
- acidity 6 - 7 pH.
Must have good aeration and filtration. It is not recommended to install a powerful filter, since even the insignificant oscillatory movements by the gourami cannot be tolerated by the grunts and refuses to build nests. Water is replaced weekly by 30% of the total.
Compatible with other fish
Pugnacious during the mating season, the rest of the time gourami grumblers are peaceful and even timid, so they will constantly hide with hostile neighbors. Incompatibility with Siamese cockerels, goldfish, and Akaras is noted. Shrimp perceives as food.
The following will be ideal companions:
The larger the aquarium and the more planted it is, the more powerfully the fish behave in relation to their surroundings.
The gourami grumbling is a predator, but in miniature and in wild living conditions it feeds mainly on insects, fish trifles, and larvae. In captivity, he eats everything that is offered. Any kind of feed is suitable: industrial, live, frozen.
It prefers to take food from the surface or from the middle water layers. However, at the bottom, food does not last long.
The grouchy achieves sexual stability by 6-7 months - this applies to females. Males mature later, by one and a half years. For reproduction, a ten-liter spawning is prepared. Pour water at a level of 15 - 20 cm.
Floating vegetation is located inside the tank. The outer wall is closed so that prying eyes do not cause discomfort to the fish.
Shortly before spawning, the parental couple is evacuated from a common reservoir. It is the male’s responsibility to build a nest of air bubbles among the leaves, and the female lays eggs there - about 150 at a time. After that, the father protects and takes care of the offspring.
Incubation lasts about 3-4 days, and after a couple of days the fry move freely in search of food. Then the manufacturer is precipitated, and the level of water filling is reduced to five centimeters. Juveniles are fed a living trifle from brine shrimp, ciliates or egg yolk.
Males differ from females in elegant forms and rich color. Their fins are more elongated.
The grunts live at home with gourami for 5-6 years. In general, these are friendly, but a little shy fish, leading a flock of daily life. This constantly trivial trifle is quite interesting to watch.
Gourami grumbling in nature
The Trichopsis vittata homeland is considered to be the reservoirs of Southeast Asia (Laos, Java, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, the north of Indonesia), where it has chosen fresh, standing, heavily overgrown ponds, lakes, streams and even roadside ditches.
The oxygen content in them is often reduced, so the fish prefers the upper layers of water and periodically jumps out of it for a breath of air. Then it is absorbed by a special organ characteristic of the labyrinth.
What does a grumbling gourami look like?
The body of the fish is high, it is compressed from the sides, and slightly elongated in length. The maximum size is 7.5 cm. The mouth is small, slightly pointed up.
The eyes are expressive, their iris can be red, golden or blue.
The fins located on the belly resemble long threads. Anal - large with elongated rays, as well as the dorsal.
The tail is wide, has a rounded, pointed shape in the center. There are veins on the pectoral fins, with the help of which the fish makes a quiet cracking sound (grunt).
The gourami grunts are clearly audible in the video:
Coloring golden brown with a bluish-green sheen. Fins can cast red, blue or purple and have small reddish or greenish spots. The thoracic, as a rule, are colorless, and the abdominal ones are bluish. The presence of two to four longitudinal stripes along the body (black, brown or dark red) is characteristic.
Males are larger, brighter, with elongated and pointed dorsal and anal fins.
In the females, after the internal organs and the swimming bladder, the ovaries are visible (the sac is yellowish or cream-colored), and in the males this place is empty.
Species of grumbling gourami can have large differences in color, due to habitats, but contain them in the same conditions.
Character and Compatibility
Trichopsis vittata have a friendly and even a little shy disposition. Prefer to live in a flock. They lead a daily lifestyle, swimming in the upper and middle layer of water.
If there are several males in the aquarium, then sometimes you can see how they freeze in front of each other, spreading all the fins and figuring out which one is cooler.
At this moment, they resemble cockerels, but fights are extremely rare and with minimal damage to the enemy.
They need neighbors just as calm and peaceful. A good solution would be to lodge them with other labyrinth - cockerels, laliuses, moon gouras. Grunts are not dangerous even for small fish.
Creating conditions in the aquarium
The gourami is grumbling rather unpretentious. Here is all he needs:
Aquarium. For two fish, a small vessel with a capacity of 30 liters will be enough. For a small flock of six individuals, you need a larger aquarium, from 70 liters. The volume can be calculated by the formula: for each adult, 15 liters of water are needed.
Organization. It is recommended to plant a home pond densely with plants, leaving small spaces for swimming. Above it should be covered with a lid, but not close to the water. In this case, the air above the surface will remain warm. This is important, as the fish rise to the surface and swallow it. And if the air is cold, then they will get cold.
Water parameters: temperature 24-28 degrees, acidity 6.0-7.5 pH, hardness 5-20 dH. A low power filter that does not create a strong current will be sufficient. Aeration is optional. But weekly thirty percent fluid changes are needed.
Lighting should be good, but muffled.
Plants it is better to plant live, in large quantities. On the surface of the water their floating species will not be superfluous.
Decor. Snags are ideal for decoration and shelters.
How to feed the grumbling gourami?
Trichopsis vittata are omnivores. In nature, they are used to eating insects, small crustaceans and zooplankton. In the aquarium, their menu can consist of their dry (in the form of flakes or granules), live and frozen food of good quality. Bloodworms, coronetra, artemia, pipe-maker - all this will do.
First you need to prepare a spawning ground. Adequate volume - 15 liters. Soil in it is optional. The water level can be 10-15 cm. Its parameters: hardness 4-10 °, acidity 6.0-7 and temperature 27-30 degrees.
On the surface of the water, ricchia and a water fern should be placed. The male will build them them.
It is advisable not to disturb the fish during this period; you can even close the sight glass of the aquarium.
Two weeks before spawning, females and males are kept separately. Then they are placed in a prepared container.
The male builds a nest of air bubbles under the plants. The female spawns about 70-180 eggs into it. To be more precise, the male in a kind of dance squeezes caviar from it. Then the female can be deposited.
The male will take care of the nest for some time: remove dead eggs and place them in the place of the larvae that have fallen.
As a rule, after two days, the yolk sacs are completely absorbed, and the fry begin to swim and eat themselves.
The male is removed. Include weak aeration. Water is not changed until the maze is fully formed.
As you can see, grumbling gourami is quite a beautiful and interesting fish. And caring for her and breeding is not difficult and is accessible even to beginner aquarists.
All fish are the same in size, reaching 7-8 cm in length with a tail. The main color of the fish is brown, on the body there is a row of three or four horizontal stripes. Stripes can be brown, blue, sometimes dark red. One lane usually runs from the end of the muzzle through the eye and back to the tail, ending in a large spot. Some Far Eastern fish have a dark brown spot behind the gill covers; many fish from their southern and western regions of Hindustan do not have this feature. The eyes are red or gold with a bright blue pupil. The anal and caudal fins of males have long lobes, often in black, sometimes the dorsal fin will go back to the middle of the tail. These fins are usually covered in metallic blue and red.
Take a look at the grumbling gourami.
Females are a little dull, but still have the color of males. They are usually a little smaller. The easiest way to determine the sex of the fish, especially when they are young, is to “shine through” it. Place them in a transparent container with flat walls, and give a good flashlight on the body. If you see a bag of internal organs, a dark triangular shape, behind which a swimming bladder, this is a female. The yolks in the cream pouch below the swim bladder are the ovaries. In males this space is empty.
If you keep a fish grumbling with gourami in a flock, you will notice that the males show their elongated fins to the males, but do not enter into fights. Instead, they evaluate each other's power capabilities, hustling among themselves. The “fight” can be resolved without harm. In doing this “battle,” they often make a sound reminiscent of frogs croaking, which is the source of their common name. This sound can be loud enough to be heard across the entire house.The croaking of several males can be published within an hour or more.
Look how the males grunting goura find out the relationship.
Conditions of detention
One pair of fish can be kept in an aquarium measuring 60 * 30 * 30 cm; more fish require more space. Permissible water temperature: 22-28 degrees Celsius, acidity pH 5.0 - 7.5, hardness up to 5-18 o. A gap must be left between the aquarium and the aquarium lid so that the fish can breathe in atmospheric air. The character of the gourami fish is grumbling peaceful, non-conflict. You can settle in a species aquarium with other small gouras, after providing them with shelter and a place for swimming.
Analysis of the contents of the stomach of fish caught in nature showed that grouching gourami preys on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Gourami grumbling eats dry food well as soon as he recognizes food in it. Small live or frozen foods can be served to fish: daphnia, artemia and chiromonid larvae (bloodworms), which will ensure health and rich color of the scales.