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Echinodorus: types and cultivation

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Beautiful medium-sized echinodorus for planting in the middle ground in nano-aquariums or in the foreground in large natural aquascapes. It grows up to 20 cm high under favorable conditions.

The necessary conditions:

PH value 6—9

Temperature 22 - 25 ° С

Carbonate hardness 8 - 15 ° DKH

Fertilizing CO2: 3 - 5 mg / l

Timely water change

Liquid complex fertilizers

0.5 W / L Lighting

Daylight hours at least 10 hours a day

Medium decorative primer

The container with the plant is sterile, so do not open the jar before planting directly into the aquarium.

It can be stored until landing in the aquarium at temperatures from +5 to + 25C.

Landing Tips:

Open the packaging container without squeezing the side walls.

Remove one plant with tweezers or its entire contents.

Rinse the nutrient gel off the plant under running water.

Ground cover plants must be divided into several parts.

Use tweezers to drop your plants into the aquarium.

Botanical properties

Echinodorus (from Latin Echinodorus) is a perennial marsh herb with leaves of various shapes, sizes and colors. A typical species sign is the presence or absence of a transparent (and sometimes even darker than the base) color of the pattern, consisting of lines or dots. Being a fairly unpretentious plant in terms of water hardness, pH and temperature, it is loyal to changes, which is why it is easy to grow, and some varieties feel completely comfortable on land.

The sizes of echinodorus vary from a few centimeters to one and a half meters in height, depending on the type and conditions of detention. During the flowering period, forms a long peduncle with a small inflorescence at the apex.

Amazonian

Amazonicus is a dense bushy shoot of elongated green leaves up to 40 cm high and up to 4 cm wide. Growth is uniform all year round. Intensive sunlight is desirable, however, partial shade also stays out. The soil layer should be at least 5 cm (fine gravel or coarse sand).

Hearty

Cordifolius is a rather large hard-leaved marshy plant, with sweeping green, sometimes with red dots, egg-shaped leaf plates, the tip of which is pointed or round, with a pronounced veining pattern and a heart-shaped base. An excellent choice for large aquariums, the recommended minimum of which is 200 liters. With a daylight of 8 hours, it grows only under water, reaching 30 cm, with an increase to 11 it begins to grow violently, forming airy and floating leaves up to 80 cm high, and even bloom. Leaving includes periodic cutting by removal of large leaves.

Rose is a hybrid up to 25 cm high and in diameter up to 40 cm. Leaves are narrow, ellipsoid green in shades, sometimes with dark red splashes. Young growth - pink. Needs regular feeding.

Red Devil

Red Devil - bush 25 cm in diameter. Green lanceolate leaf plates that tend to twist. The young growth is distinguished by its bright ruby ​​color. Requires nutritious, well-silted soil. As a basis, sand is suitable, but it is advisable to put a little clay under the plant.

Ruby

Rubin is a large hybrid. Recommended aquarium - a minimum of 300 liters. Narrow, sometimes ribbon-like leaves up to 35 cm, on a tall petiole up to 25 cm. There is a smaller variation - Narrow leaves, bright red leaves of which are lighter veins than those of the older brother, and up to 20 cm high. Requirements: increased illumination, nourishing soil, periodic fertilizing.

Ocelot

Ozelot is a medium-sized culture bred by selection. There are two types of color: brown with dark red interspersed and light green with brown dots. Peduncles above water. Unpretentious to lighting. Water of any hardness, neutral pH.

Lights of St. Elmo

Sankt Elmsfeuer - medium-sized hybrid, up to 30 cm. Leaves are ellipsoidal, up to 5 cm wide, the color of which varies from olive to bright red with small dots. Young growth - purple, sometimes to shades of eggplant, thereby recalling the lights of St. Elmo. Illumination is average.

Vesuvius

Vesuvius is characterized by narrow, ribbon-like leaves of bright green color, which tend to twist. The height of the outlet is up to 15 cm. To preserve its unique decorative properties, it requires intensive lighting and a stable living environment. The soil should be used nutritious and well silted.

Gentle

Tenellus (tenellus, grassy) differs from other varieties of echinodorus in its small size (up to 6 cm) and the absence of rhizomes. Narrow green leaves up to 10 cm long and 1-3 mm wide. A fast-growing plant, ideal for small sized aquariums, and for the large frontal part. Photophilous, finicky to the ground: a substrate of small fractions at least 2 cm high.

Rubra

Tenellus rubra. He is a dwarf chain sword. Narrow, up to 2 mm, elongated leaf plates up to 7 cm long in dark green. Under optimal conditions, young growth of purple shades. Requires intensive lighting, nutrient soil of a small fraction.

Quadricostatus

Quadricostatus is a small broad-leaved bush of bright green color, up to 15 cm, perfect for designing an aquarium of any size. Light - from moderate to intense. Requires nutritious soil, top dressing with iron.

Rainers Felix

Rainer’s Felix - small, up to 10 cm in diameter. Green growth with reddish-brown pigment. Young shoots are distinguished by a golden hue and a more distinct pattern. Ideal for nano aquariums. Lighting is moderate to intense. Nutrient soil, CO2 top dressing required.

Narrow-leaved

Angustifolius forms medium-sized bushes. Narrow tape green color sheet plates up to 60 cm long, up to 4 mm wide. Prefers bright sunlight. It tolerates water of any hardness. Neutral pH required.

Bleher

Bleheri. He is a yarrow. It looks like an Amazon variety, but its leaves are wider (up to 8 cm) and straighter. A lush, dense bushy, stemless plant, up to 60 cm high, dark green in color. Unpretentious in lighting. The substrate - crushed gravel not less than 5 cm, under the rhizome - small pieces of clay. At the same time, the culture can be planted in a separate pot, at the same time ensuring a good level of soil. With a lack of iron, the leaves turn yellow.

Argentinian

Argentinensis is a giant representative of echinodorus, reaching, under good marshy conditions, heights of more than a meter, in the aquatic habitat - about half a meter. Dense dark green leaves of various shapes: round, oval, pear-shaped, elongated, etc. Soil with a thickness of at least 5 cm.

Latifolius

Latifolius (Dwarf sword) - a dense bushy plant with a powerful rhizome and narrow elongated light green leaf blades. It can reach a height of 15 cm. Requires intensive lighting, additional supply of CO2. Soil - fine gravel or sand, not less than 3 cm high. With a lack of iron, the leaves turn yellow.

Maghribino

Maghribino is a medium sized hybrid. The recommended minimum aquarium size is 30 l, up to 30 cm in diameter. The young shoot is dark pink in color, while adult leaves become more brownish. Both are characterized by wavy edges, an elongated shape.

Python

Python is a large culture, reaching half a meter high and 40 cm wide. Thick broad-leaved rosette in green with a brown tint. Young growth - light cherry with dark pigment. Requires intensive lighting, nutrient soil, top dressing.

Schluter

Schlueteri distinguish among other varieties small bright green leaves of an ellipsoidal shape with a reddish splash. Slow-growing culture up to 20 cm in height. Requires moderate light, nutritious soil.

Red pearl

Hadi Red Pearl - a compact plant up to 20 cm. An excellent aquarium inhabitant, even for small tanks, from 40 liters. Green wide leaves are elliptical in shape. Young growth - bright red shades, based in the center of the outlet. The water is soft, with an acidity of 6-7.5 pH.

Nazgul

Nazgul - a hybrid of large sizes, up to half a meter. Green leaves with purple dots. Young shoots, like a peduncle, are bright pink. Requires intensive lighting, moderately nutritious soil.

Aflame

Aflame is a compact culture with large bright burgundy lanceolate leaf plates up to 25 cm high. Intensive lighting (at least 0.7 W / l), daylight hours up to 14 hours. Nutritious soil, regular top dressing.

Veronica

Veronicae (Florence) is a large, thick, rosette-type hybrid with narrow lanceolate leaves up to 40 cm long in green or olive color. Young growth - red shades. It can form the surface part. Lighting is intense. Well silted soil.

Small bear

Kleiner Baer is a large, dense broadleaf hybrid, up to 40 cm high. Green leaves are elliptical in shape, wavy at the edges. Young growth - light red shades. Lighting is intense. Requires nutritious, highly silted soil of small fractions.

Difficulties in caring, planting and breeding

Being mainly hardy representatives of the plant world, echinodorus are rarely exposed to diseases, but there are still some difficulties in caring for this type of plant. A number of requirements include:

  1. Intensive lighting (for some - over 0.7 W / l, extended daylight hours up to 11-14 hours).
  2. A nutrient of fine fractions is a substrate (sand or pebbles with the addition of pieces of clay and boiled peat under the rhizome, or without them, depending on the root system). Often among the description of the conditions is well-silted soil of a certain height. They need periodic application of micronutrient fertilizers (selected strictly individually), and some require additional CO2 supply.
  3. Regular replacement of part of the water, cleaning the soil.
  4. Temperature - most often +20 ... + 28 ° C. Neutral pH, medium hardness of water. However, there are individual preferences.
  5. It is advisable to periodically transplant the plant. Moreover, varieties with powerful rhizomes need a more frequent transplant than those that do not form it.

Breeding is mainly carried out by daughter plants, however, some species are still capable of propagation by seeds and (or) division of the rhizome.

Compatibility

Starting to plant echinodorus in an artificial pond, it should be taken into account its compatibility with other species of the plant world. So, choosing according to the requirements of lighting, temperature and other important indicators of the living environment, it is imperative to take into account the size of the final form in order to avoid further shading and / or crowding out of the culture.

It is not particularly advised to plant next to cryptocoryne, but sagittaria will become a pretty good neighbor.

Echinodorus is an excellent choice for landscaping aquariums, including cichlids, as well as paludariums, terrariums, and even greenhouses, while becoming not only an indispensable element of decor, but also a complete shelter and source of oxygen for both fish and amphibians with reptiles.

General information

In nature, these representatives of the Chastukhovye family grow on a vast territory from central North America to Argentina. Echinodorus are marsh plants that are able to grow both under water and simply in humid areas along lakes and rivers. Most importantly, the growth areas should be well lit by the sun. The lack of natural light leads to rapid inhibition of the plant.

Echinodorus is an extremely heterogeneous group of plants. Here you can find a rich variety of species that differ in size, color and shape of the leaves, conditions of detention and other features. Do not forget that for a long time of use in the aquarium culture, numerous varieties and varieties of echinodorus were also obtained.

A distinctive feature of the external structure of echinodorus is the absence of a stem, even among the largest representatives. The leaves grow directly from the thick rhizome, on which rhizomes are formed - thickenings on which the kidneys develop. Later, new plants may appear from the buds. So there is a vegetative reproduction of echinodorus.

New echinodorus plants develop on peduncles.

The leaves of the species are dense, the shape varies from spear-shaped to oval. The color of the leaf blade can vary from pale green to almost red.

Echinodorus can bloom even in an aquarium. At the same time, a long peduncle is thrown into the water, with an inflorescence at the end. The peduncle is also unusual in representatives of the genus; branches can form on it and leaves grow, which take root and subsequently separate from the mother plant. And this is another way of propagating certain species of echinodorus.

Flowering Echinodorus cardiac

Seed propagation in echinodorus is also possible, but involves some difficulties and is not always advisable.

Simple

This group includes the most common types of echinodorus, such as horizontal echinodorus, large echinodorus, echinodorus Osiris and others. All of these species have stable underwater forms. In adulthood, the size usually does not exceed 20 cm. Most species of this group do not require specific conditions, it is enough to adhere to the general rules for the maintenance of echinodorus.

First of all, you need a suitable aquarium in size, because the leaves of some species can reach 60 cm in length. Usually a plant is planted in the center of an aquarium composition, it acts as an excellent tapeworm - a single design element on which emphasis is placed.

Echinodorus often act as the center of aquarium composition

Coarse sand or fine gravel is best used as soil. The size of the granules is preferably 3-7 mm. The fact is that echinodorus cranes do not tolerate acidification of the soil poorly. Therefore, it is important that it is well ventilated, and a weekly siphon of soil with a change of ¼ water should become an indispensable element in the maintenance of echinodorus.

Water for representatives of the genus should not be very hard (6-10 dGH), the active reaction of the water is neutral or slightly alkaline. The optimum temperature for the content is from 18 to 26 ° C.

The most important parameter for the successful cultivation of echinodorus is the level of lighting. All species are very photophilous, the illumination should be at the level of 60 Lm / l. The creation of daily peaks of illumination will also favorably affect the growth of the plant. The length of daylight should be about 10-12 hours per day.

The presence of good lighting entails the need to introduce additional portions of carbon dioxide into the aquarium, which is actively consumed in intense light. Therefore, it is necessary to use a balloon installation for CO2 supply, or use a liquid conditioner with bioavailable carbon - Tetra CO2 Plus. Fertilizers can be applied as needed, complex preparations, for example, Tetra PlantaMin, are perfect for this.

Like other marsh plants, echinodorus can grow without problems in a greenhouse or paludarium. Unfortunately, most of the plants that go on sale are grown in this way, so after planting in an aquarium such plants experience tremendous stress and often die. To avoid this, when choosing an echinodorus for your aquarium, it is best to give preference to plants that have been precisely grown under complete immersion.

Difficult

Complex echinodorus are much more demanding of the conditions of detention.Among this group, one can find both small species with stable underwater forms, and large plants that prefer to exist in the air. Medium-sized species require adequate lighting, almost the same as popular ground cover plants. If there will be little light, such echinodorus become smaller and may die. For complex echinodorus, the mandatory supply of carbon dioxide to the aquarium and a full range of micro and macro elements are mandatory. Under suitable conditions, undersized echinodorus can quickly form a dense carpet. The most popular species from this group is the delicate or herbaceous echinodorus (Echinodorus tenellus).

Large representatives of complex echinodorus reach a length of several tens of centimeters and, when grown in an aquarium, constantly strive to rise above the surface of the water, therefore, an urgent task of the aquarist is to create conditions under which the plant will be in underwater form for as long as possible. At the same time, it is impossible to allow the plant to stop growing and look sick. Among the factors accelerating the transition to the ground form, the following can be distinguished: a high content of nutrients in water and soil, as well as a long daylight hours. This group can include, for example, echinodorus argentinian, echinodorus cardiac and others.

Some echinodorus can grow up to 30 cm or more

Echinodorus amazonian

Amazonian echinodorus grows only under water. The leaf blade reaches a length of 30 centimeters, its width is about 4 centimeters. It will be a good choice for beginner aquarists, as it is rather undemanding to the conditions. The soil layer should be of sufficient thickness - about 5-7 cm. The size of the plant depends on the volume of the aquarium. The optimal parameters for the content are a temperature of 24 ° C, water of medium hardness and approximately neutral pH.

Echinodorus horizontal (Echinodorus horizontally)

Horizontal echinodorus is a grassy bush without a stem with leaves of a heart-shaped shape, collected in a rosette. Young leaves have a bright red color. The optimum temperature is 22-24 ° C, there are two pronounced periods of rest for 1-1.5 months, when a temperature drop of up to 20 ° C is required. Water hardness from 2 to 16 °, pH 7-8. In acidic water, the plant dies after a period of rapid growth. Requires fairly strong lighting.

Speckled Echinodorus (Echinodoras aspersus)

This echinodorus has green leaves in a small brown speck. The plant reaches 10 cm in height, 20-25 cm in diameter. Optimum water parameters: temperature 24-28 ° C, when it drops to 22 ° C, growth slows down significantly. Hardness 6-8 °, pH 7-8. In soft, slightly acidic water, the plant may die. With a lack of lighting, echinodorus is elongated and loses mottled color.

Echinodorus small-flowered (Echinodorus parviflorus)

In echinodorus finely flowered, the leaves resemble those of the Amazonian echinodorus, lanceolate, but wider, assembled into a rosette. Optimum parameters of water: temperature 20-28 ° C, can tolerate a decrease in temperature to 16-18 ° C. Hardness and acidity are undemanding - they can grow in water with a hardness of 2-20 ° and higher, the pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, although echinodorus can also grow in slightly acidic water.

Echinodorus tender (herbaceous) (Echinodorus tenellus)

This species is widespread in North, Central and South America. Small marsh plant, maximum size - up to 6 cm. Rhizome is absent. The leaf blade is narrowly linear up to 10 cm long and 1-3 mm wide. Color varies from light to dark green. There are no translucent patterns on the sheet. This is one of the smallest species of echinodorus and is often used to decorate the foreground of an aquarium. In ideal conditions, quickly creates a dense and low lawn. It is demanding on light, especially attention should be paid to this when the height of the aquarium is 50 cm or more. The roots are tender, so as a soil it is better to choose fine pebbles or sand. In soft (4-10 dGH) and slightly acidic (pH = 6.5 - 6.8) water it develops better than in hard water. The optimum temperature regime is 18-20 ° C.

Echinodorus Osiris

The birthplace of this plant is Brazil. It is a natural hybrid of Echinodorus Uruguayan, as indicated, first of all, by the sterility of the flower and the presence on the sheet of not only longitudinal lines, but also transparent points. Echinodorus Osiris is a very beautiful plant. Developing in suitable conditions, it perfectly fulfills the role of a tapeworm. The underwater leaves are long, narrowly elliptical or narrow-lanceolate, up to 30 cm long and 3-9 cm wide. The color of the leaf blade is olive-green, with good lighting - red-brown. It survives well in both soft and hard water. A nutrient substrate in the ground is recommended to form a powerful habitus for the plant. The optimum temperature is 18-26 ° C. The seeds of the hybrid are not formed, therefore, the reproduction is only vegetative (subordinate plants and parts of the rhizome).

Echinodorus cordifolius

In nature, the species is found in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia. Very large marsh plant. Leaf petiole trihedral, can reach a length of more than a meter. The leaf blade is broadly egg-shaped, up to 40 cm. The apex can be either pointed or round, the base is heart-shaped. The color of the leaf is green, sometimes with reddish spots. Perfect for growing in large aquariums. It is prone to throwing leaves above the surface of the water, so you should limit the daylight hours to 11 hours a day, do not use nutrient substrates in the ground. It is also possible periodically to radically remove large leaves. Almost neutral water of medium hardness will be optimal, the temperature should be kept at 20-28 ° C. There is a variety called "Tropica Marble Queen" (Tropica Marble Queen), different color pattern from the alternation of dark and light tones in the sheet due to the uneven distribution of chlorophyll. When underwater, the spotty color weakens slightly.

Echinodorus hearty

Echinodorus angustifolia (Echinodorus angustifolius)

Another view from Brazil. A gentle marsh plant, underwater leaves have short petioles, a ribbon-like leaf, up to 60 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, color - light green. Due to the similarity of the leaves, the plant can be confused with narrow-leaved vallisneria. The top of the leaf is pointed. Hardy species that feels great both in soft and hard (ideally slightly acidic) water. Temperature for growing: 20-28 ° C. It is very easy to propagate in a vegetative way, because it gives a large number of offspring. A group of plants is best placed in a free area or along the walls. Prefer bright lighting.

Echinodorus argentinian (Echinodorus argentinensis)

A large freshwater plant that is widely distributed in South America. Under natural conditions, it can grow up to 80-120 cm in length. Dense dark green leaves of echinodorus are collected in a rosette, the shape of the foliage is ovate or oval. Veins are clearly visible on the surface of the sheet. In natural habitats, the shape of the plant depends on the season of the year. In summer, echinodorus prefers to grow above water, and in winter in a completely submerged state. Optimum water parameters: t = 16-25 ° C, pH = 6.8-7.5. Both soft and hard water are suitable. Reproduction in the aquarium is difficult, since echinodorus practically does not form children on the rhizome and does not throw peduncles. In a humid greenhouse, you can get seeds that are sown in wet sand.

Echinodorus argentinian

Echinodorus “Little Bear” (Echinodorus “Kleiner Baer”)

In the aquarium, this species reaches a size of 15-25 cm. It was created by German breeders. Leaves of elliptical shape with pronounced wavy edges. The leaf blade at a young age has a ruby ​​red hue, but as it grows, the color fades a little. Prefers bright lighting and soil rich in nutrients. But even under ideal conditions, echinodorus growth is extremely slow. Vegetative propagation, children are formed on flower arrows.

Echinodorus ozelot (Echinodorus ozelot)

The variety was bred in the mid-nineties. Echinodorus got its name for its characteristic dark red spots, very reminiscent of the color of the skin of an ocelot - one of the representatives of the cat family. The variety is characterized by a high growth rate, new leaves appear very quickly. The bush can reach up to 20 cm tall. The color of the leaf blade changes from a reddish tint to a dark olive. Reproduction in the aquarium is difficult.

Echinodorus Hildebrandt (Echinodorus "Regine Hildebrandt")

A hybrid of echinodorus ocelot and echindorus of Uruguay, received by German breeders and named after the mayor of Brandenburg, Regina Hildebrandt. A compact plant that is well suited for the average plan in the aquarium. The maximum size of the bush is up to 15-20 cm. The color of the leaf foliage depends on the age of the plant and the conditions of detention. Young leaves are usually red with a purple tint, later - green. Often on one bush you can simultaneously find leaves of different colors, which looks very attractive.

Echinodorus “Rose”

Hybrid 10-25 cm high, 20-40 cm wide. The leaf blade is narrowly elliptic, ranging in color from light green to olive green. Young leaves are pinkish in color. In this hybrid, two color variations are grown in the aquarium - one with dark red spots on the leaves, or with no such spots. Medium to intense lighting, nutritious soil needed, optimum temperature 22-30 ° C.

Echinodorus Rubin

Tall hybrid in the aquarium reaches a height of 60 cm. The leaf blade is narrowly elliptical. Young leaves are reddish brown, subsequently becoming olive green. The edges of the leaves are slightly wavy. In appearance it is similar to echinodorus Osiris, but red shades prevail in color, to dark red under certain lighting. It is undemanding to light; it grows both in soft and hard, slightly acidic or slightly alkaline water. The temperature limits are also wide - from 22 to 30 ° C. Young plants can be planted in the foreground, but subsequently, as they grow, it is better to transfer them closer to the rear wall of the aquarium.

Echinodorus uruguay (Echinodorus uruguayensis)

Echinodorus is medium in size, which is perfect for decorating aquariums from 300 liters. The maximum size of the plant is up to 40 cm. Rosettes are very dense, each can have up to 100 leaves. The leaf blade is narrowly elliptic, often wavy at the edges. The color of the sheet can vary from light green to red-black. Unlike many other echinodorus, it does not throw floating and surface leaves. Water of medium hardness, slightly acidic and not very warm (18-24 ° C) is suitable for maintenance. Well propagated by division of rhizomes, daughter plants and seeds.

Echinodorus Quadricostatus (Echinodorus Quadricostatus)

This species belongs to the undersized variety and will be a wonderful decoration of the foreground. Echinodorus is quite unpretentious. Lighting can be moderate, sometimes it can feel good in dark areas. The size in the aquarium rarely exceeds 10-20 cm, depending on the conditions of detention. The weaker the lighting, the more the leaves of the echinodorus are elongated. It responds well to fertilizing with fertilizers containing iron. With a lack of nutrients, the leaves turn pale. It multiplies rapidly by shoots, is able to form a thick carpet.

Echinodorus latifolius (Echinodorus latifolius)

Pretty rare, but beautiful plant. In appearance it is very similar to tender echinodorus, but grows much denser. The appearance of the sheet depends on the conditions of detention. The underwater leaves are thin and long, but the surface ones are larger and elliptical in shape. In an aquarium, the size of the plant usually does not exceed 10-15 cm. Bright lighting, CO2 supply and a nutrient substrate under the main soil are necessary. It is very useful to fertilize with iron.

Echinodorus rubra (Echinodorus tenellus rubra)

A kind of tender echinodorus. The leaves are long, narrow, with a purple tint. In the middle of the leaf blade is a prominent pinkish-red stripe. The length of the sheet is up to 10 cm. The tip of the sheet is pointed. In poor conditions, rhizomes quickly decompose, and the leaves stop growing. The optimum temperature is 24-26 ° C, the water should be neutral or slightly alkaline.

Echinodorus Dark Beauty

It was first obtained in 2008 and belongs to the generation of Hans Barth hybrids. Leaf blade oval. A distinctive feature of this plant is the bright burgundy color of young leaves, which darkens with age. The height of the bush is up to 20 cm. This beautiful echinodorus is quite hardy, can grow in both soft and hard water, so it is suitable for beginner aquarists to grow it. Optimum water parameters: temperature 22-27 ° C, dH up to 10 °, pH 6.5-7.5. In order for the leaves to show the greatest decorativeness and have a bright burgundy color, lighting should be intense.

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