About animals



Strophanthus Combe - Strophanthus Kombe

Strophanthus seeds - Semina Strophanthi

Stylized images of lily of the valley are placed on the fields of emblems of cities

Lily of the Valley is the name of the song of the British rock band Queen from the album Sheer Heart Attack.

Weiler (Germany), Lunner (Norway) and Melleruda (Sweden)

The appearance of the plant.Woody liana with opposite elliptical leaves and yellow flowers, collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences. The fruit is a complex leaflet with numerous oblong seeds equipped with a tuft.

Spread.Southeast Africa.

Habitat .Inhabits the tropical forests.

Harvesting.As raw materials, the seeds of the strophanthus Combe and some other types of strophanthus are used. The collected raw materials are processed on-site, a substance containing the sum of cardiac glyphosides of the strophanthus is supplied to the countries of Europe and Russia, from which the main glycoside K-stro-phantoside is obtained in pharmaceutical factories.

Chemical composition.It contains the sum of cardiac glycosides belonging to the group of cardenolides, consisting mainly of K-strophanthin-r and K-strophanthus. K-strophanthin-p consists of agrofon strofantidina, to which sugars cymarose and p-glucose are successively attached. K-strophanthus has an additional sugar - a-glucose.

Application.The drug "Strofantin K" is characterized by high efficiency, speed and short duration of action, practically does not have a cumulative effect. The drug is used in acute cardiovascular failure, including on the basis of acute myocardial infarction, in severe forms of chronic circulatory failure, especially when the digitalis treatment is ineffective. The drug is administered intravenously in the form of a 0.025% solution or intramuscularly.

ContraindicationsSignificant organic changes in the heart muscle, acute infectious myocarditis, endocarditis, cardiosclerosis.


An extensive family containing about 2000 species, distributed mainly in the tropics. Species of various life forms belong to the catholic species: trees, creepers, shrubs, grasses having opposite, always whole-edge leaves and regular, bisexual flowers. Perianth double, five-membered. Calyx deeply incised, remaining with the fruits, corolla spine-like, funnel-shaped or bell-shaped, with five small outgrowths at the base, alternating with stamens. Five stamens hidden in the corolla tube, stamen strings attached to the corolla tube. Fleshy nectaries surround the base of the ovary, less often they are absent. The ovary is upper or lower, often reconnected into two parts. The fruit consists of two elongated leaflets, less often the fruit is a box or berry. Seeds are winged, often equipped with a bunch of hairs. Some, mainly tropical members of the family, are of practical importance as medicinal plants, technical, decorative.

There are 4 genera in the USSR, of which only one genus is in the forests - periwinkle (Vinca).

Forest herbaceous plants. Biology and Conservation: A Handbook. - M .: Agropromizdat. Alekseev Yu.E., Vakhrameeva M.G., Denisova L.V., Nikitina S.V. . 1988.

General information about the Kutrovy family

The specified group includes herbaceous perennials. Their distribution range covers several natural zones at once: tropical, subtropical, territories in the temperate climate zone. Some Kutrovy species can be found in arid areas. Thus, the vast majority of representatives of this group grows in regions with a warm climate.

Kutrov’s life forms are different: these are shrubs, and tree crops, and herbaceous plants, and vines. Of course, they have differences. For example, the corolla is presented in the form of a tube, funnel or saucer, the fruit is a berry, drupe or box. However, there are common signs. Among these, the following can be distinguished:

  • simple leaves
  • the presence of tubules in the vegetative organs filled with milky juice mixed with latex,
  • bisexual flowers.

Representatives of the Kutrovy plant group

The Kutrov family has about 200 types of crops. To realize how great the diversity of these plants is, you need to get acquainted with some of their most striking species.

Periwinkle is a genus of herbaceous perennials. The leaves are leathery, oppositely located, with a shiny surface. It gives single reproductive organs of large sizes, the color of which can be blue, pink, etc.

Landolfia is a genus of large vines, herbs and shrubs. Features of its representatives: fragrant five-membered flowers, oppositely located leaves.

Rauwolfia is a genus of shrubbery and tree crops. These plants are equipped with whole leaves with a leathery texture. Flowers are collected in whorled inflorescences.

Quebracho is a genus uniting subtropical species of trees. They grow on the territory of the South American continent.

Very unusual are plants from the genus Strophanthus, which also belongs to the Kutrov family. These are mainly woody vines, sometimes - shrubs. Representatives of this genus are characterized by whole opposite leaves, flowers with a tubular rim, collected in inflorescences of the "semi-umbrella" type.

Oleander is very popular among flower growers. It is an evergreen plant. The life form is shrubbery. It has whorled or opposite lanceolate leaves, but the main value of the culture is the presence of large flowers in bright colors.

Features of care for plants of the Kutrovy family

Representatives of the Kutrovy family have certain requirements for the conditions of detention. They must be strictly observed if you want your green pets to decorate your apartment, house or flower garden for a long time.

  • Lighting. Kutrovs need a lot of light for full development and growth. In the morning and evening, it is permissible and even recommended that direct sunlight be applied to the plants. But at the height of a sultry summer day, cultures need shading, otherwise burns will form on the leaves. Kutrov’s growth is possible in the shade, but in this case it is inhibited, and the color of the vegetative organs loses intensity.
  • Thermal mode. The optimum air temperature for plant maintenance varies from +15 to + 17ºС. Cultures do not need strong heat at all, since it may not have the best effect on the well-being of representatives of the flora. Certain species tolerate frost, but exotics growing in open ground should be covered for the winter.
  • Air humidity. She in the room with Kutrovy should be average and range from 55 to 65%. These cultures are hygrophilous; therefore, raising the voiced environmental indicator is only good for them. But dry air is not permissible - in this case, spraying of plants with soft, not cold water from a spray bottle is required.
  • Watering. He must be plentiful. Humidification of the soil near Kutrovyh is carried out with a frequency of 3-4 times a week. In summer, this procedure should be carried out daily. Drying of the soil can lead to the death of plants. In autumn and winter, watering should be reduced.

In the phase of active growth, Kutrovy is recommended to be fed with liquid mineral concentrates. Fertilizers for plants are applied 1 time per week. You can use concentrates for decorative flowering and decorative deciduous crops, depending on the type you have, organics.

If necessary, transplant. Adults Kutrov change the soil once every several years, young - annually. The soil mixture is composed of components such as humus (2 hours), leafy soil (2 hours), turf land (3 hours), sand (1 hour). Drainage holes and a layer of drainage material should be present at the bottom of the tank.

Pruning. Not everyone needs it, but only a small number of species. In any case, if necessary, this procedure, the latter is carried out in the fall.

BreedingKutrovy can be propagated in two ways: by cuttings and by seed method. The first involves cutting the shoots from the mother plant in late May - early June. They are rooted in a mixture of fertile land and sand, which is filled with small pots. It is not necessary to cover with a film on top, the main thing is to regularly spray with lukewarm, soft water and ensure that enough diffused sunlight enters the cuttings. In such conditions, the plants take root quickly enough: after 2 weeks. After this happened, the representative of the Kutrov family should be transplanted to a permanent place. The soil is selected loose, nutritious, well-retaining moisture.

If you decide to get offspring from Kutrovy by sowing seeds in the soil, know: this is a long and laborious process.

Difficulties in the cultivation of plants of the Kutrov family

Kutrovye practically are not attacked by insect pests. True, some members of the family are vulnerable in the face of danger in the form of scabies and spider mites. The same goes for diseases. However, the latter still make themselves felt more often than the former. You can understand that your plant has visited an ailment by the appearance of ugly spots on the surface of the leaves, lethargy by the leaves, and the loss of their intense green color. As a result of the development of a species, the leaves, stems and even the roots of the culture begin to rot, respectively. This trouble can occur due to excessive watering or moistening of the soil under the flower with cold water. Eliminate flaws in the process of caring for the crop, and everything will work out. The treatment of the affected specimen with a fungicide solution will also help cope with diseases.

It should be noted that almost all Kutrovye are very poisonous. This is due to the presence in the milky juice of these cultures of alkaloids, glycosides. Thus, any manipulations with plants from this family are recommended to be carried out with gloves. By the way, most Kutrovy are raw materials for the production of drugs against cardiovascular diseases.

Introduction The dissertation on biology, on the topic "Formation of Gynoecium among representatives of the Apocynaceae L. de Jussieu family"

Relevance of the topic. Starting with the first classification of pestles (Grisebach, 1854), the literature discusses the principles of distinguishing the types of gynoecium of angiosperms. There is a wide range of opinions, both on the structural typification of gynoecium variants and the possible directions of their evolutionary transformations (Troll, 1928, 1939, Goebel, 1933, Eckard, 1937, 1938, Leinfellner, 1950, 1951, 1969a, b, Winkler, 1941, Takhtadzhyan, 1948, 1964, 1980, Baum, 1952a, 1953, Ehrendorfer, 1978, Barabe et al., 1987, Timonin, 2005, Shamrov, 2009, 2010a, 6, Takhtajan, 2009). An analysis of the available data indicates that the determination of the type of gynoecium, mainly according to the peculiarities of its structure in the middle part of the ovary (theory of conduplicate carpel), is not always valid, since it is also necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the structure of the ovary in the base and upper part (theory of peltate carpel ) In the final determination of the type, adherents of the peltate theory of carpels are recognized only as true types of gynoecium that arise during congenital fusion, while the phenomenon of postgenital association of carpels is not taken into account. In identifying the types of gynoecium, great importance is attached to the nature of placentation of the ovules in the ovary. However, the specific structure of the placenta and their confinement to certain types of gynoecium is still debated in the literature (Troll, 1928, Zazhurilo, Kuznetsova, 1939, Lindsey, 1940, Takhtadzhyan, 1942, 1964, Puri, 1952, 1961, Ims, 1964, Takhtajan, 2009). The relevance of such developments is determined not only by theoretical expediency in solving the problems of morphology and anatomy of the ovary and gynoecium as a whole, but also by the significance of these structures when discussing controversial issues of systematics and phylogeny.

In the Arosupaseae family, the problems of typing gynoecium, which consists of two carpels, are in the focus of attention of many researchers. It describes various variants of gynoecium (apocarpous, secondly apocarpous, paracarpous, pseudo-syncarpous, syncarpous, eusyncarpous and secondary syncarpous) and the position of the ovary (upper, lower, lower), which, apparently, reflects the specificity within the family relationships of taxa of various ranks (Bâillon, 1891, Woodson, 1930, Carr, Carr, 1961, Takhtadzhyan, 1966, Fallen, 1985, 1986, Endress, Bruyns, 2000, Wyatt, Lipow, 2007). Namely, the features of the organization of gynoecium and ovary were taken into account when distinguishing subfamilies and tribes in this. Arosupaseae in the K.Schumann system (1895). However, due to insufficient knowledge of morphogenesis, the feasibility of isolating a number of types of gynoecium is unjustified. Perhaps one of the reasons is the lack of unified approaches to the analysis of the structure of gynoecium, since its study in this.

Arosupaseae most often was carried out only at one of the stages of flower formation. These terms and, accordingly, characteristics of gynoecium types were included in systematic reviews and articles on individual taxa of the family, which does not allow for a qualitative comparison and solution of systematics and phylogeny.

To compare the formation of gynoecium, representatives of the closely related families Azs1srgas1acaeae and Oepnapaseae were taken from the order of Oecocapidae. As evidenced by literary data, in this. Arosupaseae along with the apocarpous gynoecium (as in the family A $ c1ep1ac1aseee) was found to have a paracarpous type (as in the family OepIapaseae).

The purpose and objectives of the study. The aim of this work is to identify the morphological nature of gynoecium in a number of representatives of the Arosupaseae family and some species of closely related families Azs1er1ac1aseae and SepNapaseae in connection with the problems of its typification. Based on this, the following research objectives are identified:

1. To study the morphogenesis of gynoecium in the process of flower development in representatives of the families Arosupaseae, Azsperiusaeae and SepNapaseae.

2. To identify structural features of gynoecium in its various areas.

3. To identify the morphological features of gynoecium, which determine its various types.

4. Identify the similarities and differences in the formation of the same type of gynoecium, including placentation features, among the representatives of the families Arosupaseae, Azsperius, acaea, and Svpnapasea.

Scientific novelty. For the first time, the genesis of gynoecium was traced at different stages of development and detailed descriptions of flower morphogenesis were compiled in 9 representatives of the Arosupaseae family (5 species), Azsper> ac1aseae (1 species) and SepNapaseae (3 species). 4 species taken for research <аиатапйа салагнса,="" таьетаетошапа="" снуапсша,="" тгаскоткит="" ьагтаиете,="" у'тсеюхкит="" ыгипйтапа),="" данные="" по="" структуре="" гинецея="" получены="" впервые.="" проведен="" сравнительный="" анализ="" строения="" гинецея="" на="" разных="" этапах="" развития="" у="" представителей="" этих="">

The type of placentation in the Sepnapaseae family has been clarified. For the first time, an intermediate variant of placentation was found in WigseShypsytum Hypsypapa (family Avsperius aeaseae). It was revealed that in this case, ovules form not only along the ventral edges, but also on the lateral surfaces of the carpel.

Theoretical and practical significance of the work. The obtained results make a theoretical contribution to solving the problems of typing gynoecium, including ovary, angiosperms. Data on the structure of gynoecium are included in the characteristics of the Arosupaseae family for the 7th volume “Comparative Seed Anatomy” (2010).The information obtained may be useful in discussing controversial issues of systematics and phylogeny, as well as in identifying trends in the evolution of gynoecium. They can be used when giving lectures and conducting practical classes at universities on morphology, anatomy and systematics of plants. The developed approaches, including a comprehensive analysis of the material according to a series of longitudinal and transverse sections, taking into account the stage of development and structural features in various areas of gynoecium, have methodological significance and can be used in the study of other plant groups.

Approbation. The materials contained in the thesis were presented at the scientific conference of graduate students and students of the State Pedagogical University "Youth - Science" (Pskov, Pskov State Pedagogical University named after S. Kirov, April 1-3, 2008, April 1-3, 2009 .), at the inter-university conference of young scientists "Herzen Readings" (St. Petersburg, Russian State Pedagogical University named after AI Herzen, April 13-16, 2008, March 30 - April 2, 2009, March 30 - April 2, 2010), at the VIII International Conference on Plant Morphology, dedicated to the memory of Yves Ana Grigoryevich and Tatyana Ivanovna Serebryakova (Moscow, Moscow State Pedagogical University, November 12-16, 2009), at the XVII International Scientific Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists “Lomonosov - 2010” (Moscow, Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov, April 12-15, 2010), at meetings of the Department of Botany of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen in 2007-2010 and at a meeting of a scientific seminar of the Laboratory of Anatomy and Morphology.

Publications Based on the materials of the dissertation, 10 works were published, of which 2 articles in peer-reviewed journals, 1 in a collective monograph, 6 in collections of proceedings of scientific events, 1 abstract.

The structure and scope of the dissertation. The dissertation consists of an introduction, 4 chapters, conclusion, conclusions, bibliography (196 items, including 118 in foreign languages) and an appendix. The work is set out on 130 pages, includes 49 figures.

Conclusion Thesis on the topic "Botany", Gevorgyan, Margarita Martinovna

1. In representatives of the Arosupaseae family, even before the laying of ovules, the gynoecium is apocarpous for a large extent. In the course of further development, its structure changes, remaining apocarpous in the middle and upper parts of the ovary in most species or becoming paracarpous in Allamanda cathartica.

2. In Vincetoxicum hirundinaria (Asclepiadaceae), gynoecium morphogenesis occurs as in most of the studied species of the Arosupaseae family. However, it has a complex of more primitive features, including the upper ovary, free stylodes to the border with gynostegia, and additional ovules on the carpel plate.

3. In the studied species of the family Gentianaceae and Allamanda cathartica (Arosupaseae), the formation of paracarp gynoecium occurs in various ways. In the early stages of A. cathartica, the ovary is predominantly apocarpous, while in the Gentianaceae family the apocarpous state is not found at any stage of morphogenesis.

4. In the studied species from the families Arosupaseae, Asclepiadaceae and Gentianaceae, starting from the early stages of development, zonality is revealed (different structure of the parts of Gynoecium). The differences relate to time, methods of combining the two carpels and the features of the formation of the syncarp zone in the proximal part of the gynoecium, the structure of the ovary in the apocarp or paracarp zone, the stalk and stigma.

5. The studied representatives differ in the type of placentation. In the apocarpous gynoecium, ovules form on the ventral margins (most species of the Arosupaseae family) or near the margins and on the lateral surfaces of the carpel (Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Asclepiadaceae). Two types of placentation of ovules were found in paracarpous gynoecium: sutural (Allamanda cathartica, Arosupaseae) and laminar (species Gentiana and Swertia, Gentianaceae).

First of all, we will discuss some primitive and advanced features in the organization of the gynoecium of the species studied and their association with the various subfamilies within this family. Arosupasee.

As already noted, there is still no generally accepted classification that takes into account the existing variety of gynoecium of angiosperms. And if the general direction of its evolution from apocarpous to syncarpous and paracarpous types has been accepted by many researchers, then the question of the initial structure of the carpel in the polymer-apocarpous gynoecium is still not resolved. It is believed that the presence of a pedicle in the carpel, the appearance of a special meristem (transverse zone) at the base of the plate, and, as a consequence, the formation of peltate carpels (Troll, 1932, 1933, Just, 1939 - the development process is accompanied by the formation of an ascidiate form, are considered to be primitive (initial) characters) , this point of view is confirmed in a number of modern studies - see Timonin, 2005, Remizova, 2007). The carpels, characterized by advanced (specialized) features, do not have a transverse zone (epeltate carpels, according to Troll, 1932) and look like a horseshoe in a transverse section. According to other authors (Bailey, Smith, 1942, Bailey, Nast, 1943, Takhtadzhyan, 1948, 1964, 1980, Swamy, 1949, Ims, 1964), horseshoe-shaped carpels are primitive, in which the edges at the base do not merge with each other, but can combine postgenitally. In addition to the legs, they have a thin, conduplicate folded plate and resemble the conduplicate primordium of the leaf.

There is an opinion that the structure of carpel in different plants does not fundamentally differ. It mainly distinguishes 2 zones: ascidiate and plicate. The ascidiate zone, due to the growth of the transverse zone, becomes tube-like, while the overlying plicate zone is responsible for the conduplicate part of the plate surrounding the ventral fissure (Leinfellner, 1950). An attempt was made to find out if there are differences in the structure of primordia of the Peltate and Eeltat carpels (Baum, 1952a, b, s, 1953). In both cases, primordia differ only in the time of laying and functioning of the transverse zone. In this regard, the importance of conducting research on gynoecium during the entire genesis, and not only in the formed state, should be emphasized.

Based on the general directions of the morphological evolution of plants, we believe that • as primitive (plesiomorphic) characters when discussing our results, we should consider the following: the presence of a pedicle in the carpel, openness of its ventral edges, free arrangement of gynoecium elements and, of course, its apocarpous state. Advanced (apomorphic) characters may include: the absence of a pedicle in a single carpel, or the fusion of the legs of individual carpels into one common structure, the union of the ventral margins of carpels (the method and nature of fusion vary from imperfect ”postgenital to perfect postgenital, and finally to congenital) even if they are freely located in the gynoecium, the paracarp and syncarp state of the gynoecium. It should be added that a number of the principles of relativity of the evolutionary level of some traits of the gynoecium are consistent with the ideas of other authors who used sem. Arosupaseae more than 50 morphological characters (Endress et al., 1996, Alvarado-Cardenas, Ochoterena, 2007). According to the concept of compiling economical (phylogenetic) trees (most parsimonious trees - MPTs) and the ideas of these authors, the apocarpous gynoecium is ancestral, which is peculiar and transforms into the second syncarpous in Allamanda, as well as independently and repeatedly into partially syncarpous in other taxa of the family.

A study of morphogenesis in dynamics showed that the topography of the zones, the mechanisms, and the degree of adherence of carpels differ in different species and change during the formation of gynoecium in one species. In the representatives of the Arosupaseae family (Arosupit androsaemifolium, Tabernaemontana divaricata, Trachomitum sarmatiense, Vinca minor) studied by us (Shamrov, Gevorkyan, 2010a, b, Gevorkyan, 2009a, b, 2010), the structural zonality can be clearly seen in the Gynoecium and apocarpous, nor as cenocarpous. From the standpoint of the concept of the peltate carpel in the Gynoecium, it is possible to distinguish short sinascidiata (2-nest structures) and synclimate (single-nested structures) zones, a very long plikat (common cavity in connection with the ovules on the placenta) in each carpel, a common synplicate short (compositum) (stigma lobes, in V. minor often the upper part of the column) zones.

The studied species differ in time and features of the formation of the syncarp zone of the gynoecium, the structure of the ovary in the apocarp zone and the compitum. Arosupite androsaemifolium and Trachomitum sarmatiense - representatives of the advanced subfamily. Apocynoideae (according to Takhtadzhyan, 1987), inherent to a greater extent specialized features in the organization of gynoecium. This is manifested, first of all, in the fact that the differentiation of the meristem of the transverse zone and the formation of the central placenta occurs earlier than other species (at the stage of laying ovules). However, in A. androsaemifolium, the syncarp zone of Gynoecium is not morphologically expressed, although the contours of two fused carpels and their future nests are already visible. In T. sarmatiense, a 2-nest fertile syncarp and one-nest paracarp zones are already forming above this zone. In A. androsaemifolium, the primary paracarpous zone is detected only at the middle stages of flower development (ovules before meiosis). In both species, the length of the fertile syncarp zone increases by the time of pollination due to the post-genital transformation of the site of the primary paracarp zone to the secondary syncarp. In the apocarpous zone, carpels first fit tightly together, and then grow together postgenitally according to the imperfect (A. androsaemifolium) or perfect (T. sarmatiense) types. The advanced features of these plants also include the formation of a low-low ovary, the absence of legs in carpels, the horseshoe-shaped1 form of carpels and their postgenital fusion in the apocarpous zone, a closed column in the center of which the conductor tissue is differentiated. As a primitive sign, it should be noted the formation in the wall of the ovary of a very large number of conductive bundles that end in the receptacle.

In Vinca minor (subfamily Plumerioideae), the organization of gynoecium is dominated by signs of an intermediate nature: later (the onset of megasporogenesis), the formation of the syncarp zone of the gynoecium, which occurs both congenitally due to the meristem of the transverse zone, and postgenitally as a result of the transformation of the paracarp region, the formation of compitum, lower and the middle part of which is characterized by signs of a half-closed column (there is a perfect post-genital fusion of the edges of the carpels), while the upper part of the compitum often resembles t is an open column with a channel. Advanced features: a low-low ovary and perfect postgenital fusion of the ventral margins of each carpel in the apocarpous zone of the gynoecium, primitive features: the formation of a large number of conducting bundles in the ovary wall along with the dorsal and ventral ones.

Gynoecium Tabernaemontana divaricata (subfamily Tabernaemontanoideae) is characterized by predominantly primitive features in the organization of gynoecium: ovary with signs of upper and lower lower, open ventral edges of each carpel in the apocarpous zone, very late (ovule after completion of meiosis) the formation of syncarpous gynosa occurs transverse zone, but mainly as a result of the transformation of the semi-carparp region, an open column, with the exception of the gynostegia entering it. Of the advanced features, only the congenital fusion of the legs of the carpels into one common petiolar structure was revealed.

Of the species we studied, Vincetoxicum hiriindinaria, belonging to this family, has the largest number of primitive characters in the formation and structure of gynoecium. Asclepiadaceae (Takhtadzhyan, 1987). Ovary almost upper. Gynoecium at the base is syncarp-apocarpous (does the paracarpal zone not form during development), while its proximal region is transformed? into a short sterile syncarp zone. The apocarpous structure is inherent in most of the gynoecium, while from the ovary to the gynostegium carpels are similar to stylodes. Higher gynostegia reveals the features of a half-closed column (the presence of conductor tissue and a channel to the border with the stigma blades). A large number of conducting bundles are differentiated in the ovary wall, near which ovules appear on the carpel plate, as in laminar placentation. The largest set of primitive features, among which additional conducting bundles in the wall of the ovary and lateral ovules on the carpel plate, as in laminar placentation, is characterized by V. hiriindinaria. This allows us to agree with the existing point of view on the inclusion of fowl in the rank of subfamilies. Asclepioideae in Fam. Arosupaseae (according to Takhtajan, 1997,2009).

A small number of representatives of this. Arosupaseae forms a paracarp ovary (Allamanda - Bâillon, 1891, Woodson, 1930, Ambelania, Landolphia - Fallen, 1986, Carissa, probably Acokanthera - Endress, Bruyns, 2000). In Allamanda schottii, it was revealed that the apocarpous structure is replaced during development by a post-genital association of carpels and the formation of a single-nested ovary, i.e., according to the author, a transition to secondary syncarpia is observed (Fallen, 1985). The study conducted by us at Allamanda cathartica showed that in the early stages of development at the base the dissertation on biology, candidate of biological sciences, Gevorgyan, Margarita Martinovna, St. Petersburg

1. Alexandrov V.G. Plant anatomy. M .: "Soviet science", 1954. - 500 p.

2. Atlas of medicinal plants of the USSR / ed. N.V. Qiqing. M .: "Medgiz", 1962. - 702 p.

3. Barykina RP, Veselova TD, Devyatov A.G., Dzhalilova Kh.Kh., Ilyina G.M., Chubatova N.V. Reference book on botanical microtechnology. Basics and methods. M .: Publishing house of Moscow State University, 2004.-312 p.

4. Bobrov A.V., Melikyan A.P., Romanov M.S. Morphogenesis of Magnoliophyta fruits. M .: Book house "LIBROCOM", 2009. - 400 p.

5. Wetsteinstein R. Guide to the taxonomy of plants. - M .: 1912. - T.II. 4.II. - 501 s.

6. Vishnyakova M.A. Pestle conduction tract // Embryology of flowering plants. Terminology and concepts. St. Petersburg: Peace and Family, 1997. V.2. - S. 107-113.

7. Volgsh S., Stepanova A. Morpholope i. Vascular anatomy of the cvphi Myrtus communis L. and Myrtus macrophylla Ehrh. (Myrtaceae) // BicH. LNU. Ser. bull. 2001. - VIP. 27. - S. 61-69.

8. Volgsh S., Stepanova A. Morpholope I, vascular anatomy of the IUCG, Feijoa sellowiana Berg and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae Juss. Myrtoideae) // BicH. Leo un-that. Ser. bull. - 2002a. - VIP. 31. - S. 66-76.

9. Volgsh S., Stepanova A. Morpholope i vascular anatomy of the 1st cvcci Melaleuca fulgens R. Br. Ta Melaleuca nesophila F. Muel. (Myrtaceae) II BicH. Leo un-tu, ser. bull. 2002b. -Wip. 28.- S. 70-79.

10. Volgsh S., Stepanova A. Morpholope I vascular anatomy of the 1st genus of the genus Psidium L. (Myrtaceae Juss.) II BicH. Leo un-that. Ser. bull. 2004a. -Wip. 37.- S. 9099.

11. Volgsh S., Stepanova A. The vascular anatomy of the cvcci of Pimenta officinalis Lindl and the remaining head of the ulcer in Mydtoideae (DC.) Endl. Rodini Myrtaceae Juss. Il Bîch. Leo 5c. un-that. Ser. bull. 2004b. - VIP. 38. - S. 74-82.

12. Volgin S.A., Tikhomirov V.N. On the structural types of monocyclic syncarpous gynoecium of angiosperms // Bull. MOIP. Sep. biol. 1980 .-- T.85. - Issue 6. -C.63-74.

13. Voronin N.S., Elenevsky A.G., Serebryakova T.I., Batygina T.B. Botany with the basics of phytocenology: Anatomy and morphology of plants. M .: Akademkniga, 2007 .-- 543 p.

14. Wulf E.V., Maleeva O.F. World resources of useful plants. JL: Science, 1969. - 566 p.

15. Gevorgyan M.M. Diversity of Types of Gynoecium in the Apocynaceae Family And Herzen Readings: Proceedings of the International Conference of Young Scientists. -SPb .: TESSA Publishing House. 2008a. - Issue 8. - S. 14-16.

16. Gevorgyan M.M. Features of the structure of gynoecium in the family Apocynaceae II Youth - Science. Materials of the scientific conference of graduate students and students of PSPU. - Pskov. -20086.-T.8.-S.13-14.

17. Gevorgyan M.M. Features of the formation of gynoecia in Arosupit androsaemifolium L. // Herzen Readings: Materials of the Inter-University Conference of Young Scientists, St. Petersburg: TESSA Publishing House, 20096. Issue 9. - P.13-14.

19. Gevorgyan M.M. Features of the formation of gynoecium in Trachomitum sarmatiense And Lomonosov 2010: XVII international scientific conference of students, graduate students and young scientists, section "Biology". - M .: MAX Press. 2010.- S. 72.

20. Gevorgyan M.M. Zhegulova O.I. Features of the formation of gynoecium in Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. (Asclepiadaceae) // Herzen Readings: Materials of the inter-university conference of young scientists. SPb .: Publishing house "TESSA", 2010. - Issue 10. -S.7-8.

21. Gerasimov S. Weapons of the proletariat // In the world of plants. 2004.- No. 4. - S. 10-12.

22. Elenevsky A.G., Solovieva M.P., Tikhomirov V.N. Botany. Systematics of higher, or terrestrial, plants. M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2006. - 464 p.

23. Zhinkina N. A., Voronova O. N. On the method of staining embryological preparations // Bot. journal 2000. - No. 6. - T. 85. - S. 168-171.

24. Zakhurilo K.K., Kuznetsova E.A. The nature of diffuse placentation according to the analysis of Nymphaeaceae and Butomaceae and Tr. Voronezh, un-that. - 1939.V. 10. - Vol. 5. - S. 79-98.

25. Zitte P., Weiler E.V., Kaderait J.V., Berezinsky A., Kerner K., based on the textbook by Strasburger E. et al. Botany: Evolution and Systematics / ed. Timonina A.K., Sidorova I.I. M .: "Academy", 2007. - T.Z. - 576 p.

26. Eames A. Morphology of flowering plants. M .: 1964. - 497 p.

27. Eames A.J., Mack Daniels L.G. Introduction to the anatomy of M., L .: State Publishing House of the state and collective farm literature, 1935. - 332 p.

28. Introduction of medicinal, aromatic and industrial plants. Results of the works of the introduction nursery of the BIN of the USSR Academy of Sciences for 250 years. Moscow Leningrad. Science, 1965.-425 p.

29.Catalog of greenhouse plants of the Botanical Garden of the Botanical Institute.

30. B.L. Komarova. SPb .: Publishing house LLC Rostok, 2003. - 159 p.

31. Kiseleva N.S. Anatomy and morphology of plants. Minsk. Publishing House "Highest School", 1971. - 318 p.

32. Kozo-Polyansky B. M. Origin of the stigma // Usp. modern biol. 1946.- T.21. -FROM. 123-132.

33. Korchagina I.A. Placenta // Embryology of flowering plants. Terminology and Concepts / Ed. T.B. Batygin. St. Petersburg: Peace and Family, 1994. -T.1. - S. 38.

34. Lavrentiev M. Gentian cruciform (Gentiana crnciata L.) // http: //www.plantarium.rn/page/image/id/48260.html

35. Levine P.E. Morphology and ecology of fruits. L .: Nauka, 1987 .-- 160 p.

36. Lotova L. I. Botany: Morphology and anatomy of higher plants. M .: KomKniga, 2007.-512 p.

37. Melikyan A.P., Devyatov A.G. Basic carpological terms. M .: 2001. - 47 p.

38. Melikyan A.P., Tikhomirov V.N. Flower // Embryology 'of flowering plants. Terminology and Concepts / Ed. T.B. Batygin. St. Petersburg: Peace and Family, 1994. - T.1.1. C.29-34.

39. Muravyova D. A., Gammerman A. F. Tropical and subtropical medicinal plants. M .: 1974. - 232 p.

40. Pausheva Z.P. Workshop on plant cytology. - M .: 1974. 288 p.

41. Pisyaukova VV Types of Sweden of the USSR and their significance in the history of its mountain flora // Uch. app. Leningra state ped inst. 1966. - T.310. - S. 5-166.

42. Pisyaukova VV Gentian family (Gentanaceae) // Plant Life. M .: 1981. - T.5. - 4.2. - S.365-370.

43. Pobedimova E.G. Sem. Kutrovye Arosupasee // Flora of the USSR. - M., JL: 1952. - T. 18. -C.645-662.

44. Plant materials of the USSR. Digest of articles. T. 1. Technical plants / ed. M.M. Ilyin. M.-JL: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1950 .-- 662 p.

45. Remizova- M.V. The structure, development and evolution of a flower in some primitive monocotyledons / Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of biological sciences. - M.: 2007.16 s.

46. ​​Ivanov A. Georgian Svertsia (Swertia ibérica Fish, et Mey) // http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/23949.html

47. Stepanova A. V. Structural transformations of syncarpous gynoecium dicotyledons in the direction of oligomerization and reduction // Mater, Int. scientific and practical. conf. "Young Researchers in Botanical Science 2006". - Gomel, 2006 .-- S.113-117.

48. Takhtadzhyan A.JI. Structural types of gynoecium and placentation of ovules // Izv. Arm Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 1942.- T. 3-4 (17-18). - S. 91-112.

49. Takhtadzhyan A.J1. Morphological evolution of angiosperms. M .: 1948. - 301 s.

50. Takhtadzhyan A.JI. Issues of evolutionary plant morphology. L .: 1954. - 216 p.

51. Takhtadzhyan A.L. Fundamentals of evolutionary angiosperm morphology. M., L .: 1964. -236 p.

52. Takhtadzhyan A.L. System and phylogeny of flowering plants. L .: 1966. - 611 p.

53. Takhtadzhyan A.L. Carpelli, or Carpelli // Plant Life. M .: 1980.- T.5. -P.1.-P.31-33.

54. Takhtadzhyan A.L. Magnoliophyte system. L .: 1987.- 439 p.

55. Terekhin E.S., Nikiticheva Z.I. Orobanchaceae family. Ontogenesis and phylogenesis. -L .: Nauka, 1981. 228 p.

56. Timonin A.K. Big workshop on botany: a flower. M .: 2005. - 34 p.

57. Timonin A.K., Sokolov D.D., Shipunov A.B. Systematics of higher plants. M .: 2009. - 351 p.

58. Tkachenko K.G., Pautova I.A. Collection of the introduction nursery of food, feed and medicinal plants // Plants of open ground of the Botanical Garden of the Botanical Institute. V.L. Komarova. - SPb .: Publishing house LLC "Rostock", 2002.-256 p.

59. Turova A.D. Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use. M .: "Medicine", 1974.- 424 p.

60. Tutagok V.Kh. Anatomy and morphology of plants. M .: Higher School, 1972. - 336 p.

61. Tsvelev N.N. The family of apocynaceae (.Apocynaceae) // Plant Life. - M .: 1981a. -T.5. - 4.2. - S. 359-361.

62. Tsvelev N.N. The family gony (Asclepiadaceae) // Plant Life. - M .: 19816.-T.5. - 4.2. - S.362-365.

63. Shamrov I.I. Ovule Gentiana cruciata (Gentianaceae): structural and functional aspects of development // Bot. journal 1990. - T.75. - No. 10. - S. 1363-1379.

64. Shamrov I.I. Ovule and seed morphogenesis in Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae) and Bot. journal 2002.- T. 87. - No. 2, - S. 1-18.

65. Shamrov I.I. Ovary of flowering plants: structure, function, origin. -M.: Partnership of scientific publications of KMK, 2008.350 p.

66. Shamrov I.I. Morphological nature of gynoecium and fetus in Ceratophyïïum (| Ceraîophyllaceae) // Bot. journal 2009. - T. 94. - No. 7. - P. 93 8-961.

67. Shamrov I.I. Modern problems of botany: Textbook. SPb .: Publishing House of the Russian State Pedagogical University. A.I. Herzen, 2010a. - 123 p.

68. Shamrov I.I. Features of the formation of syncarpous gynoecium in some monocotyledonous plants // Bot. journal 20106. - T. 95. - No. 8. - S. 1041-1070.

69. Shamrov I.I. On the structure and types of gynoecium of angiosperms // A collection dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of A.JI. Takhtadzhyana (in press).

70. Shamrov I.I., Anisimova G.M., Gevorkyan M.M. Apocynaceae II family Comparative seed anatomy. St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2010 .-- T.7. - S.85-96.

71. Shamrov I.I., Babro A.A. The development and structure of gynoecium and ovum in Rhododendron schlippenbachii and R. luteum (Ericaceae) // Bot. journal 2009.- T. 94. - No. 1, - S. 58-74.

72. Shamrov I.I., Gevorkyan M.M. The structural organization of gynoecium in the Apocynaceae family // Bot. journal 2010a, - T. 95. - No. 2.- S.145-168.

73. Shamrov I.I., Gevorkyan M.M. Comparative characteristics of gynoecium in the families Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Gentianaceae II Bot. journal 20106. - T. 95. - No. 12. -FROM. 1673-1699.

74. Shamrov I.I., Yandovka L.F. The development and structure of gynoecium and ovule in Cerasus vulgaris (Rosaceaé) II Bot. journal 2008. - T. 93. - No. 6. - S.902-914.

75. Esau K. Plant anatomy. M .: Mir, 1969. - 564 p.

76. Abrams L. Apocynaceae H Illustrated flora of the Pacific States Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford, California. - 1951. - Vol.III. -P. 367-371.

77. Alvarado-Cárdenas L.O., Ochoterena H. A. phylogenetic analysis of the Cascabela-Thevetia species complex (Plumerieae, Arosupaseae) based on morphology // Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2007. - Vol. 94. -N 2.- P.298-323.

78. Bailey I.W., Nast C.G. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. II. Carpels // J. Arnold Arboretum. 1943. - Vol. 24. - N 4. - P.472-481.

79. Bailey I.W., Smith A.C. Degeneriaceae, a new family of flowering plants from Fiji // J. Arnold Arboretum. 1942. - Vol. 23. - P.356-365.

80. Bailey I.W., Swamy B.G.L. The conduplicate carpel of dicotyledons and its initial trends of specialization // Amer. J. Bot. 1951. - Vol. 38. - N 5. - P.373-379.

81. Baillon H. Histoire des plantes. Paris, 1891.- T. 10. - 476 p.

82. Barabe D., Chretien L., Forget S. On the pseudomonomerous gynoecia of the Arecaceae II Phytomorphology. 1987, Vol.37. - N2-3.- P.139-143.

83. Baum H. Die Stellung der Samenanlagen am karpell bei Asclepias syriaca, Cynanchum vincetoxicum und Erythraea centaurium P Österr. Bot. Zeétschr. - 1948. Bd. 95. - H. 3. -S. 251-256.

84. Baum H. Über die postgenitale Verwächsimg in Karpellen // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. -1949a. -Bd 95. H. 1.- S. 86-94.

85. Baum H. Die Verbreitung der postgenitale Verwächsung im Gynözeum und ihre Bedeutung fur die typologische Betrachtung das coenocarpen Gynözeums // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. -1949b.- Bd 95. H. 1.- S.124-128.

86. Baum H. Der einheitliche Bauplan der Angiospermengynözeen und die Homologie ihrer fertile Abschnitte // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1949c. - Bd 96. - H.1. - S. 64-82.

87. Baum H. Septalspalten in Gynözeum von Koelreuteria paniculata II Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. -1950. Bd 97. - H.2. - S. 207-215.

88. Baum H. Der Bau des Karpellstiels von Grevillea thelemanniana und seine Bedeutung für die Beurteilung der epeltaten Karpelle // Phytomorphology. 1952a. - Vol. 2. - P. 191-197.

89. Baum H. Die Querzonenverhältnisse der Karpelle von Helleborus foetidus und ihre Bedeutung für die Beurteilung der epeltaten Karpelle II Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1952b. - Bd 99. - H.2 / 3. - S. 402-404.

90. Baum H. Über die "primitivste" Karpellform // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1952c. - Bd 99. -H.5. - S.632-634.

91. Baum H. Die Karpelle von Eranthis hiemalis und Cimicifuga americana als weitere Verbindungsglieder zwischen peltaten und epeltaten Karpellen II Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. -1953. Bd 100. - H.3. - S. 353-357.

92. Baum H., Leinfellner W. Bemerkungen zur Morphologie des GynÖzeums der Amentiferen in Hinblick auf Phyllo- und Stachyosporie // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1953. - Bd 100. - H. 3. -S. 276-291.

93. Baum-Leinfellner H. Die Peltationsnomenklatur der Karpelle // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. -1953.- Bd 100. H. 3. - S. 424-426.

94. Boke N.H. Development of the stamens and carpels in Vinca rosea L. // Amer. J. Bot. -1949.- Vol. 36. N 7. - P.535-547.

95. Brouwer W., Stählin A. Handbuch der Samenkunde für Landschaft, Gartenbau und Forstwirtschaft mit einem Schlüssel zur Bestimmung der wichtigsten landwirtschaftlichen Samen. Franfurt am Main, 1955. - 656 S.

96. Carr G.M., Carr D.J. The functional significance of syncarpy // Phytomorphology. 1961.-Vol. 11.-N3.-P.249-256.

97. Chun-Ying Xue, Ting-Nong Ho, De-Zhu Li Embryology of Swertia (Gentianaceae) relative to taxonomy // Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 2007. - Vol. 155. - No. 3. - P.383-400.

98. Corner E.J.H. The seeds of dicotyledons. Cambridge etc., 1976. - Vol. 1.-311 p., -Vol.2.-552 p.

99. Cronquist A. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York, 1981. -1262 p.

100. Cronquist A. The evolution and classification of flowering plants. New York 1988. -555 p.

101. Demeter K. Vergleichende Asclepiadeenstudien // Flora. 1922. - Bd 115. - S.130-176.

102. Eames A. Morphology of angiosperms. New York-Toronto-London, 1961. - 518 p.

103. Eames A.J., MacDaniels Z.H. An introduction to plant anatomy. New York-London. McGraw-Hill Book Company inc. - 1947. - 427 p.

104. Eckardt T. Untersuchungen über Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und systematische Bedeutung der pseudomonomeren Gynoeceums // Nova Acta Leopoldina. N.F. 1937.-Bd 5. - S.1-112.

105. Eckardt T. Das pseudomonomere Gynoeceum // Chronica Bot. 1938. - Bd 4. - H. 3. -S.206-208.

106. Elirendorfer F. Spermatophyta, Samenpflanzen // Denffer von D., Ehrendorfer F., Mägdefrau K., Ziegler H. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Jena, 1978.- S. 698-855.

107. Endress M.E., Bruyns P.V. A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s.l. // Bot. Rev. - 2000. Vol. 66. - N 1. - P. 1 -56.

108. Endress M.E., Liede-Schumann S. & Meve U. Advances in Apocynaceae: The enlightenment, an introduction // Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2007b. - Vol. "94. - No. 2. - P. 259-267.

109. Endress P.K. Syncarpy and alternative modes of escaping disadvantages of apocarpy in primitive angiosperms // Taxon. 1982. - Vol. 31. - N1.- P. 48-52.

110. Endress P.K. Floral structure and evolution of primitive angiosperms: recent advances // PI. Syst. Evol. 1994. - Vol. 192. - No. 1-2. - P. 79-97.

111. Endress P.K. The flowers in extant basal angiosperms and inferences on ancestral flowers // Int. J. Plant Sei. 2001.- Vol. 162. - No. 5. - P. 1111-1140.

112. Endress P.K., Igersheim A. Pattern of angiospermy in basal angiosperms // Amer. J. Bot. -1997. Vol. 84. - Suppl. - P. 190.

113. Endress P.K., Igersheim A. Gynoecium diversity and evolution in basal angiosperms // Int. J. Plant'Sci. 2000.- Vol. 161. - N 6 (Suppl.). - P. 211-223.

114. Endress P.K., Jenny M., Fallen M.E. Convergent elaboration of apocarpous gynoecia in higher advanced dicotyledons (Sapindales, Malvales, Gentianales) II Nord. J. Bot. 1983 .-- Vol. 3. - N3.- P. 293-300.

115. Engler A. Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Gebrüder boratraeger. Berlin-Nikolasse, 1964 .-- 666 S.

116. Fallen M.E. The gynoecial development and systematic position of Allamanda CApocynaceae) II Amer. J. Bot. 1985. - Vol. 72. - N 4. - P.572-579.

117. Fallen M.E. Floral structure in the Apocynaceae: morphological, functional, and evolutionary aspects // Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1986. - Bd 106. - H. 2. - S.245-286.

118. Figdor W. Über Cotylanthera Bl. // Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg. 1897. - Bd 14. - S.213-240.

119. Fjell I. Anatomy of the xeromorphic leaves of Allamanda neriifolia, Thevetia peruviana and Vinca minor

120. Frank D.H. The morphological interpretation of epiascidiate leaves an historical perspective // ​​Bot. Rev. - 1976. - Vol. 42.-N 3. - P. 345-388.

121. Gaertner J. De fructibus et seminibus plantarum. Tubingae, 1791. - Vol. 2. - 520 p.

122. Goebel K. Organographie der Pflanzen insbesondere der Archegoniaten und Samenpflanzen. Jena: Verlag von G. Fischer, 1933. - Teil 3. - S.l 821-2078.

123. Gori P. Membrane structures in the integumentary cell walls of the ovule of Nerium oleander II Planta. 1973. - Vol. 113.- No. 2. - P. 129-142.

124. Grisebach A. Grundriss der systematischen Botanik. Göttingen: Verlag der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung, 1854.180 S.

125. Hanf M. Vergleichende und 'entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen über Morphologie und Anatomie der Griffel und Griffeläste II Beih. Bot. Cenrtallbl. 1936.-H.1 / 2.-S. 99-141.

126. Hue C.-Y., Ho N.-N., Li D.-Z. Embryology of Swertia (Gentianaceae) relative to taxonomy // Bot. J. Linn. Soc.-2007.- Vol. 155.-N 3.-P.383-400.

127. Johnson S.A., Brucderle L.P., Tomback D.F. A mating system conundrum: hybridization in Apocynum (Arosupaseae) // Amer. J. Bot. 1998. - Vol. 85. - No. 9. - P. 1316-1323.

128. Just T. The morphology of the flower // Bot. Rev. 1939.-Vol. 2. - P. 115-131.

129. Knox R.B. The pollen-pistil interactions // Enc. Plant Physiol. New ser. 1984. - Vol.17. -P.508-608.

130. Lawrence G.H.M. An introduction to plant taxonomy. New York, 1955. - 179 p.

131. Leinfellner W. Über den unterständigen Fruchtknoten lind einige Bemerkungen über den Bauplan des, verwachsenblättrigen Gynoeceums an sich // Bot. Archiv. 1941. - Bd 42. - H. 1 '.- S.l-43.

132. Leinfellner W. Der Bauplan des synkarpen Gynözeums // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1950. -Bd 97.-H.3-5.-S. 403-436.

133. Leinfellner W. Die U-formige Plazenta als der Plazentationstypus der Angiospermen // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1951. - Bd 98. - H.3. - S.338-358.

134. Leinfellner W. Über die Karpelle verschidener Magnoliales. Viii. Überblick über alle Familien der Ordnung // Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1969. - Bd 117. - H.l. - S.107-127.

135. Lindsey A.A. Floral anatomy in the Gentianaceae and Amcr. J. Bot. 1940. - Vol. 27. -№ 8.-P. 640-652.

136. Li Ping-tao, Leeuwenberg A. J. M., Middleton D.J. Arosupasee // Flora of China. -1995. -Vol. 16.-P. 143-188.

137. Livshultz T. The phylogenetic position of milkweeds (Apocynaceae subfamilies Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae): Evidence from the nucleus and chloroplast // Taxon. -2010.-Vol. 59.-No4.-P. 1016-1030.

138. Livshultz T., Middleton D.J., Endress M.E. & Williams J.K. Phylogeny of Apocynoideae and the APSA clade (Apocynaceae s.l.) // Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2007. - Vol. 94. - No. 2. -P. 324-359.

139. Maheswari Devi H. Embryological studies in Gentianaceae // Proc. Ind. Acad. Sei. -1962. -Vol. 56.-No. 4.-P. 195-216.

140. Maheswari Devi H. Embryological studies in Asclepiadaceae II Proc. Ind. Acad. Sei. -1964.-Vol. 60.-№ 1. - P.52-65.

141. Maheswari Devi H. Embryology of Apocynaceae - 1. Plumiereae // J. Indian bot. Soc. -1971. Vol. 50.-№ 1. - P. 74-85.

142. Matthews M.L., Endress P.K. Comparative floral structure and systematics in Celastrales (Celastraceae, Parnassiaceae, Lepidobotryaceae) // Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 2005 .-- Vol. 149. -N2.-P.129-194.

143. McCoy R.W. Floral organogenesis in Frasera carolinensis II Amer. J. Bot. 1940. - Vol. 27.-No. 8.-P. 600-609.

144. Melchior H. A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung 'der Nutzpflanzen nebst einer Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde. -Berlin-Nikolassee, 1964. Bd II. - 666 S.

145. Nair N. C, Kanate S. Floral morphology and embryology of Parkinsonia aculeate II Phyton. 1961. - Vol. 17. - P. 77-90.

146. Nicholas A., Baijnath H. A consensus classification for the order Gentianales with additional details on the suborder Apocynineae II Bot. Rev. 1994. - Vol. 60. - N4.-P.440-482.

147. Perrot M.E. Anatomie compare des Gentianacées. Paris Masson et C, e, Éditeurs, 1899. - 294 p.

148. Pichon M. Classification des Apocynacées: XXV, Echitoidées // Mem. Mus. Nation. Hist. Sér. Biol. 1951.- T.l. - P. 1-174.

149. PuriV. Placentation in Angiosperms // Bot. Rev. 1952a. - Vol. 18.-№ 9. - P. 603-651.

150. Puri V. Floral anatomy and inferior ovary // Phytomorphology. 1952b. - Vol. 2. - No. 2/3. P. 122-129.

151. Puri V. The classical concept of Angiosperm carpel // J. Indian bot. Soc. 1961. - Vol. 40. -№ 4. -P. 511-524.

152. Remizova M., Sokoloff D. Inflorescence and floral morphology in Tofieldia (Tofieldiaceae) compared with Araceae, Acoraceae and Alismatales s.str. // Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 2003.- Bd 124.- N.Z. - S.255-271.

153. Remizowa M.Y., Sokoloff D.D., Rudall P.J. Patterns of floral structure and orientation in Japonolirion, Narthecium, and Tofieldia II Aliso. 2006a. - Vol. 22. - P. 159-171.

154. Remizowa M.V., Sokoloff D.D., Rudall P.J. Evolution of the monocot gynoecium: evidence from comparative morphology and development in Tofieldia, Japonolirion, Petrosavia and Narthecium, and Plant Syst. Evol. 2006b. - Vol. 258. - P. 183-209.

155. Remizowa M., Sokoloff D., Kondo K. Floral evolution in the monocot family Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales): evidence from anatomy and development in Metanartheciwn luteo-viride Maxim. // Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 2008. - Vol. 158.- P. 1-18.

156. Sattler R. A new approach to gynoecial morphology // Phytomorphology. 1974.-Vol. 24. - N 1-2. - P.22-34.

157. Saunders E.R. Illustrations of carpel polymorphism // New Phyt. 1931.- Vol.30. - No. 2.- P. 80-118.

158. Saunders E.R. Floral morphology. A new outlook with special reference to the interpretation of the gynaeceum. - Cambridge, 1937. - 132 p.

159. Schaeppi H. Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen am Gynaeceum der Resedaceen // Planta. 1937. - Bd 26. - S. 470-490.

160. Schaeppi H. Über die Verwachsung der Fruchtblätter // Zeitschr. Naturforrsch. Ges. -1944. Bd 89. - S. 470.

161. Schick B. Untersuchungen über die Biotechnik der Apocynaceenblüte. I. Morphologie und Funftion des Narbenkorpes // Flora. 1980 .-- Bd 170. - H.5 / 6. - S. 394-432.

162. Schumann K. Arosupasee & Engler A., ​​Prantl K. (eds). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig, 1895.- Bd4. T.2. - S.109-189.

163. Sennblad B., Endress M.E., Bremer B. Morphology and molecular data in phylogenetic fraternity: the tribe Wrightieae (.Arosupaseae) revisited // Amer. J. Bot. 1998. - Vol. 85. -№9.-P. 1143-1158.

164. Shamrov I.I. The ovule of Swertia iberica (Gentianaceae): structural and functional aspects // Phytomorphology. 1991. - Vol. 41.-№ 3-4. - P. 213-229.

165. Simöes A.O., Livshultz T., Conti E. & Endress M.E. Phylogeny and systematics of the Rauvolfioideae (Arosupaseae) based on molecular and morphological evidence // Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2007. - Vol. 94. - No. 2. - P. 268-297.

166. Sipes S.D., Wolf P.G. Clonal structure and patterns of allozyme diversity in the rare endemic Cycladenia humilis vax.jonesii (.Arosupaseae) // Amer. J. Bot. 1997. - Vol. 84.- No. 3. - P. 401-409.

167. Stebbins G.L. Flowering plants evolution above the species level. Cambridge, 1974.

168. Stolt H. Zur embryologie der Gentianaceen und Menyanthaceen // K. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1921. Bd. 61. - No. 14. - S. 3-56.

169. Swamy B.G.L. Further contributions to the morphology of the Degeneriaceae II J. Arnold Arboretum. 1949. - Vol. 30. - N 1. - P.9-38.

170. Swamy B.G.L., Periasamy K. The concept of the conduplicate carpel // Phytomorphology. 1964.- Vol.14. - N 2. - P.319-327.

171. Takhtajan A. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York, 1997 .-- 643 p.

172. Takhtajan A. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. 2nd edn. Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.-871 p.

173. Taylor D. W. Angiosperm ovules and carpels: their characters and polarities, distribution in basal clades, and structural evolution // Postilla. 1991. - Vol. 208. - P. 1-40.

174. Troll W. Zur Auffassung des parakarpen Gynaeceums und des coenokarpen Gynaeceums überhaupt // Planta. 1928.- Bd 6.- H.2. - S.255-276.

175. Troll W. Beiträge zur Morphologie des Gynaeceums // Planta. 1931. - Bd. 14. - H.l. -S.l-18.

176. Troll W. Morphologie der schildförmigen Blätter // Planta. 1932. - Bd 17. - H.l / 2. -S. 153-314.

177. Troll W. Beiträge zur Morphologie des Gynaeceums. III Über das Gynaeceum von Nigella und Einiger anderer Helleboreen and Planta. 1933. - Bd. 21. - H.2. - S.266-291.

178. Troll W. Beiträge zur Morphologie des Gynaeceums. IV. Über das Gynaeceum der Nymphaeaceen // Planta. 1934.- Bd21.- H.3. - S. 447-485.

179. Troll W. Die morphologische Natur der Karpelle // Chronica Bot. 1939.- Bd5. - H.1.-S. 38-41.

180. Troll W. Praktische Einführung in die Pflanzenmorphologie. Jena, 1957. - 420 S.

181. Tucker S.C., Kantz K. Open carpels with ovules in Fabaceae II Int. J. Plant Sei. 2001. -Vol. 162. - N 5. - P. 1065-1073.

182. Volgin S.A., Stepanova A. Morphology and vascular anatomy of the flower of Angophora intermedia DC. (Myrtaceae) with special emphasis on the innervation of the floral axis // Wulfenia. 2006. - Vol.13. - P. 1-9.

183. Walker D.B. Postgenital carpel fusion in Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae). I. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of gynoecial ontogeny I I Amer. J. Bot. 1975 .-- Vol.62. -N 5. -P.457-467.

184. Walker D.B. Postgenital carpel fusion in Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae). IV. Significance of the fusion // Amer. J. Bot. 1978. - Vol. 65. - N 1. - P.l 19-121.

185. Wiger J. Embryological studies on the families Buxaceae, Meliaceae, Simarubaceae and Burseraceae. Thesis. Lund, 1935.129 p.

186. Winkler H. Verstehen wir das Gynozeum der Angiospermen schon? // Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. -1941. Bd 27.- H.2. - S. 242-267.