About animals

Sandpiper (bird): description and lifestyle


Order Kuliki (Charadriiformes) Family Avdotki (Burchinidae). Avdotka - Burchinus oedicnemus Linn. - found on overflights in the lowland regions of Dagestan, adheres to open spaces. It feeds on insects, less commonly reptiles and small rodents. The Charadriidae family.

Disputes of bird watchers

Scientists call the waders the resounding Latin term Charadrii. Some use the synonym Limicolae. Until recently, the following families were in the suborder of aquatic and near-water waders (charadriiformes):

  • species of charadriiformes,
  • 4 subfamilies of waders-forty,
  • waders from the Tirkushkov family,
  • sickleak birds
  • Shiloklyuvkov family,
  • snipe
  • colored snipe
  • yakanovye.

Now more and more often, sound arguments are voiced that two groups of birds are falsely assigned to waders:

    the first include plover, shiloklyuvok and waders-forty,

to the second - snipe birds, colored snipe and the family of jacanas.

Active debates are underway that representatives of the second group formed an independent branch of evolution. However, until a final decision has been made, both groups continue to be seen as waders.

Description of the varieties. Sparrow Sandpiper

Sandpiper, the description of which we will start with the smallest representative, can have various sizes and diverse appearance. The hero of this section is a sandpiper. The mass of this bird rarely reaches 30 g. The baby has ten-centimeter narrow wings, a short and straight beak, legs average in length with small fingers. Keel, sides, goiter, neck, neck and cheeks are reddish-buffy with brown variegated. The sparrow of the sandpiper is white, and the feathers of the wings on the wings are black-brown. In winter, the color brightens a little.

This sandpiper is a bird of the cold tundra. It settles in the Norwegian forests and in Siberia. It occurs to the lower Lena. A sparrow wintered in Africa or South Asia.

Mating games of the sandpiper. Breeding

Sandpipers start mating, returning from wintering places to their native lands. To attract the female’s attention, the male takes off and raises its wings in flight. Instead of smooth wing movements, he performs jerking, issuing invocation trills that resemble the grasshopper's “song”.

A steam nest is building under the bushes. Lines it with foliage and lays 4 eggs. The color of the eggshell is olive-brown. Between each other eggs differ in shades. Masonry occurs in late June, and in late July, chicks appear. Within a month, the initial fluff is replaced by full plumage, but the kids are not yet ready to fly. In August and September, young animals are combined in flocks, learning to fly and preparing for flight.

Black sand

This species of waders consists of the snipe family, which means that it can soon be brought into a separate evolutionary branch. The black sandpiper is much larger than the sandpiper. The weight of many individuals reaches 80 g. The body of a black can have a length of up to 25 cm, and the wingspan of a bird is slightly less than 50 cm. The body shape of birds is awkward, the beak is black shortened, the plumage of the upper body is brownish with a pattern of bright points. The abdomen of black is white, the tail from below is also white, and its tip is black.

Snipe black nests in the coniferous forests of the Scandinavian countries and Siberia. It selects marshy places, in the steam nest there is about two months, after the appearance of the nestlings, the black-waisted bird leaves the nest. For the winter flies to the temperate latitudes of Central Africa and South Asia.

Magpie Waders

These are beautiful birds with strong legs and a straight elongated beak. The colors of the plumage are contrasting, black and white. Brown and brown shades are sometimes found. Wader magpies are 4 subfamilies united by one name. The most common is sandpiper, magpie. The size of this bird is like that of an average pigeon. A long strong beak is sometimes raised up, but not often. In all common waders, forty beaks are slightly flattened laterally.

Adult birds have a black head, neck and upper back. Part of the wings and tip of the tail are also black, but the belly, the lower part of the wings and tail are white. The northern subfamilies of waders-forty have more white pigment in plumage. And one of the subfamilies is completely black. The weight of the magpie sandpiper is slightly less than 500 g, the wingspan is about 50 cm.

This sandpiper is a bird whose photo is easiest to take along the banks of river basins in Eastern Europe. However, they live only near those rivers whose currents are directed south. In addition, magpie sandpiper can be found on the coast of the White and Barents Sea. These birds are familiar to the population of Kamchatka, the Northern and Western parts of Europe, as well as America, Africa and even Australia. Feathered winter in Asia and Africa.

Nesting "forty" begins at different times. It depends on the geographical location. In the Moscow region this is April, in Kandalaksha Bay - May, on the coast of the Barents Sea - June. Nests are arranged on wide shallows or on rocky shores. In the inland territories these are river and lake shores. The structure of the nest is the most primitive (pit with lining). In clutch 5-6 large eggs. Hatching lasts up to 28 days. Wader Magpies are caring parents. They feed their offspring for a long time, because they cannot get their own food.

Swamp Sandpiper

On the territory of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus you can often find a waders of the swamp. This bird is a welcome hunting trophy because it has tender, tasty meat. In various sources the names "godwit", "nettigel" and "snail" are found. All are one and the same bird. From the name of the family it is clear that this sandpiper is a marsh bird.

The size of this species of waders is comparable to a pigeon. However, his beak is thin and long; his legs are also much longer than pigeons. The plumage has a yellowish-reddish color with speckles. The female is somewhat brighter, and the male is more red. Return to their native swamps from wintering occurs around April.

Pairs of swamp waders so furiously care for offspring that they often give out a nesting place. They are trying to scare predators and hunters, drawing attention to the chicks. Hunters massively exterminate birds, knocking out entire generations.

What do waders eat?

It is necessary to consider another important aspect, without which the sandpiper does not survive - nutrition. All families have a similar diet. It includes small invertebrates, a variety of insects, larvae, crustaceans, worms, mollusks, spiders. Often there is plant food, mainly berries. Larger species may prey on small fish and lizards.

In the framework of this article, we examined only a few families from a large suborder of waders. Some of them are modest and inconspicuous, some are bright and contrasting. Sandpiper is an interesting bird, so different representatives are gathered in the suborder that you might want to meet other families.


They feed mainly or exclusively on small invertebrate animals - insects and their larvae, crustaceans, worms, mollusks and spiders. Many eat plant foods, in particular berries, and a number of large waders use amphibians, small fish and lizards as food

The sizes vary: the body weight of some sandboxes does not exceed 30 grams, the mass of large curlews exceeds 1 kilogram. Many species are long-billed and long-legged but no less than the number of short-legged and short-billed. Coloring is also changeable. Most sandpipers are modestly painted even in mating attire, but however, many, for example turukhtan, most lapwings, magpies, magpie, shiloklyuv, godwit, some plovers have a bright and contrasting color

The vast majority of waders nests on the ground, only a few can nest on trees. In clutch, usually no more than 4 eggs. The eggs have a protective color, the shell is painted in contrast, with spots of different colors, shapes and sizes. The mass of eggs relative to the mass of the birds themselves is very large. The participation of males and females in hatching and caring for offspring is presented in all possible ways. There is monogamy in which both parents are equally involved in hatching eggs and caring for offspring, as well as other types of mating relationships, for example: promiscuity, when the male and female meet only for mating, and all cares for hatching eggs and offspring fall on the proportion of the female, polyandry, when the female mates with several males and lays several clutches that the males incubate, polygyny, when the male mates with several females, but does not participate in hatching, double nesting, when and the female lays 2 clutches, one of which the male incubates, and the second she herself. Chicks are brood type.

Description and Features

Sandpipers are classified as charadriiformes, uniting 6 families. According to the habitat, birds are divided into groups of forest, marsh, mountain, sand. Despite the variety, waders are united by distinctive features marked by ornithologists.

Most birds are interconnected with water; they live along the banks of rivers, lakes, and swamps, although there are representatives of the desert among waders - avdotki, forest thickets - woodcocks.

In the photo a forest sandpiper

The general view of the sandpiper resembles the outline of a dove on long legs for walking in shallow water, viscous soil. But there are also short-legged representatives (lapwing, snipe).

Three toes on the feet, development of the fourth is weak. If the bird is waterfowl, then the grounds are connected by membranes. The body is dense. The tail is short, never looking up. Some birds sway them while walking.

Sandpiper in the photo may be in different outfits. The color of the majority is modest, discreet. White, red, black, gray colors prevail. There are exceptions - bright in contrasting plumage and legs of yellow, red color, for example, magpies, magpies, turukhtans. The outfits of males and females practically do not differ. Sandpiper changes plumage twice a year.

Sandpiper - marsh bird. A long beak and excellent sense of touch help to extract food from the furnace mass. Good vision, hearing contribute to the activity of birds at night.

The method of extracting food is associated with the shape of the bend of the beak - down, up or sideways. Many receptors help get food. The main tool the bird is able to move the stone to find a mollusk, the weight of which is not inferior to its own. The wings are usually long and sharp.

The appearance, sizes of waders vary significantly. The length of the birds varies in the range of 15-62 cm, the weight can be from 200 g to 1.3 kg. All waders are great runners, most birds can swim well. Adaptation of birds to different climatic conditions contributed to widespread resettlement in various land areas, except for Antarctica.

The main enemies of waders in nature are birds of prey. The approach of the falcon creates a panic that manifests itself in loud screams and diving. In the shallow waters there is no escape for the waders. Chicks often become prey for ravens, buzzards, martens, and Arctic foxes. Skuas are stealing eggs from nests.

In some species of sandpiper, females have plumage different from males

Ornithologists distinguish 214 waders from 13 families. Despite the variety, many varieties are listed in the Red Book, thin-billed Curlew, and puffer fish are in the category of endangered species.

The main reason is human life: drainage of shallows, development of coastal areas. Breeding captive birds is problematic. Only certain species are known for expanding their area of ​​distribution (stilt and some others).

Among the variety of waders, the following species are most known:

Godwits. Big careful birds of graceful appearance. Long legs, beak help you feel confident on the muddy coasts, steppe swamps, in wet meadows. Peacefully coexist with other birds. Perfectly fly, run, swim. The colorful outfit includes black and white plumage with red splashes.

Curlews. Large-sized birds with a remarkable sickle-shaped beak. Sandpiper description necessarily contains this detail by which the bird is immediately recognized. The length of the beak reaches 140 mm. The color is earthy gray, a white strip adorns the tail.

Curlews are a hunting species, but in some parts of the range they cannot be shot. It lives in swamps, floodplains. Swims well. The flight of the bird is strong, fast, with sharp turns. During migration, birds fly in a wedge, which is not typical for waders.

Sandboxes. Fine waders of graceful forms live in the tundra zone. The birds have a small beak, relatively short black legs. The size is larger than the starling, the constitution is dense. Small eyes give a dull look.

Keep tight flocks. Similarity to the sparrow is observed in some varieties: white-tailed sandpiper, sandpiper. At night, sandboxes are active.

Snipe. Small birds have a very long beak. It is difficult to mix up with other relatives of a snipe. He loves areas with high humidity: coasts, swamps, swamps. Great swimmers, divers.

They spend a lot of time on the ground, but they fly well. In case of danger, the chicks in the paws are even transferred to a new place.

Zuyki. Medium-sized birds with a small head and short beak. They run on low legs with a mincing step. The birds have a long tail, wingspan of 45 cm. Feathers of black, white, red-brown shades create a motley color, which varies in different species: marine, rock-necked, lapwing.

Ulite. The inhabitants of the middle latitudes are painted in gray tones, sometimes with streaks of black and white. This is special waderswhich bows all over. A long beak, high legs and a medium-sized body are inherent in all streets. Large individuals are found, weighing up to 400 g.

Plovers. Less than other waders are attached to water. The inhabitants of the tundra the size of a dove. High legs, small beak, black and grayish-white color. It prefers large spaces over which it moves with short flights and dashes.

Turukhtan. Sandkin related bird It stands out with bright colors, which is not inherent in this genus as a whole. Males in mating season sparkle with green, blue, yellow, reddish shades.

Another important difference is the fighting qualities of birds. Fights, like roosters, are common among these original waders. Fluffy collars, rapier beaks, throws at the enemy and wing attacks express the fighting characters of birds.

Contractions do not impede subsequent peaceful rest in the neighborhood of a recent adversary.

Lifestyle & Habitat

On the territory of all continents except Antarctica, the ubiquitous waders live. These are flocks of birds gathering up to several thousand individuals. Most waders are nomadic, although representatives are also sedentary.

About, which birds are migratory or not, says their habitat and wintering. Lowering the temperature, lack of habitual food makes waders leave their usual places. Almost all of them migrate long distances from their native places.

Without stops, waders can cover distances of up to 11,000 km, flying over mountain ranges, deserts, and water bodies. Siberians fly to winter in Australia, fly from Alaska to southern Argentina.

During migrations, flocks of waders form mass clusters in separate sections of the coasts. There, birds find food to gain strength for long-distance wanderings.

In Russia, different types of waders are found everywhere. Small zuiks, woodcocks, and lapwings live in the Far East. In Primorye - the nesting site of godwits, the coast of mountain rivers - the birthplace of the Ussuri zuiks.

Waders not only fly well, but also run on the ground, swim, dive. Many types of waders can be tamed. Active and sociable, in captivity, take root pretty well, get used to homemade feed.

They adapt to the new environment, are not afraid of a person, they feel and respond to care. Attempts to preserve the rare waders listed in the Red Book are complicated by the difficulty of breeding them.

Contents of the dissertation candidate of biological sciences Sviridova, Tatyana Vladimirovna


1.1. Problems of study and conservation of birds in agricultural landscapes (situation review).

1.2. Nesting habitats of the studied waders.

1.3. Features of feed ecology and feed objects of the studied waders.

1 1.4. The nature of the use of the territory and the nesting conservatism of the studied waders.

1.5. The success of breeding and the use of the territory by waders in an agricultural landscape.


2.1. Areas and timelines for field research. Data sources.

2.2. Methods of data collection and analysis.

2.2.1. Collection of data on the history of environmental management.

2.2.2. The investigated species.

2.2.3. Collection of data on the number of waders.

2.2.4. Distribution by breeding habitat.

2.2.5. Assessment of nesting success.

2.2.6. Spatial placement of curlew.

2.2.7. Humidification conditions and the timing of the arrival of spring.

2.2.8. Processing and statistical analysis of data.



3.1. The history of nature management on model sites of the southern suburbs.

3.1.1. Natural conditions and the history of economic development.

3.1.2. Agricultural land and changes in agricultural practices in the Dedinovo-Belomutskaya and Faustovsky floodplains.

3.2. The history of nature management on model sites of the northern Moscow region.

3.2.1. Natural conditions, development and anthropogenic transformation of agricultural land in the research area.

3.2.2. The main features of the agricultural use of model sites in 1980-2005.


4.1. The number and distribution of waders of the Dedinovo-Belomutsky floodplain. Changes for the period from 1991 to 2004

4.1.1. General characteristic of the spatial distribution of waders in the floodplain.

4.1.2. Characteristic of the distribution of waders in the floodplain habitats.

4.2. The number and distribution of waders of the Faustian floodplain. Changes from 1980s to 2000s j 4.2.1 General characteristic of the spatial distribution of waders in the floodplain.

4.2.2. Population dynamics and use by waders of floodplain habitats.


5.1. General characteristics of the spatial distribution, dynamics of abundance and breeding habitats of waders on model sites of the northern Moscow region.

5.2. Population dynamics, distribution by habitat, and success of waders nesting in Apsarevsky tract. Dependence on agricultural practices and weather.

5.2.1. The influence of weather conditions of the nesting season on the number and density of waders.

5.2.2. Influence of anthropogenic factors on the choice of waders' waders.

5.2.3. Nesting success.

5.2.4. The influence of anthropogenic factors on the spatial distribution of curlew.

Chapter 6. DISCUSSION.

6.1. Dependence of the number of waders on the level of agricultural load and weather.

6.2. The impact of agricultural practices on breeding waders (pasture load).

6.3. Selection of breeding habitats and waders density.

6.4. Spatial distribution of Curlew.

6.5. Sandpiper nesting success.

Introduction of a dissertation (part of an abstract) on the topic “Dynamics of the number and distribution of waders (Charadrii suborder) in the agricultural landscapes of the Moscow Region”

In connection with the growth of anthropogenic influence on natural landscapes that has been progressing in recent decades, the flow of scientific papers on the impact of man on natural communities is constantly growing. A variety of studies on birds - inhabitants of the agricultural landscape (Vladyshevsky, 1975, Kuzmenko, Dudnik, 1975, Golovanova, 1975, Ilus, 1980, Redfern, 1982, Vinogradov, 1985, Manush, 1990, Ochagov, 1990, Shrubb, are widely represented). 1990, Beintema, 1991, Guldemond et al., 1993, Fuller et al., 1995, Norris et al., 1997, Pain, Pienkowski, 1997, Lebedeva, 1998, Valkama, Currie, 1998, Mishchenko, 2000, Shitikov, 2000, Chamberlain et al., 2000, Galushin et al., 2001, Donald et al., 2001, Benton et al., 2002, Aunins, Priednieks, 2003, Korovin, 2004, Kleijn, Van Zuijlen, 2004, Bâldi et al ., 2005, Mishchenko, Sukhanova, 2006 and many others).

The influence of the economic activity of mankind on natural complexes has been quite significant throughout its history, however, the main types, degree, and rates of anthropogenic impact have not manifested themselves identically at different times, continuing to change at the present time (Formozov, 1981a). The development of one of the most powerful anthropogenic factors, the rural economy, affected birds and their habitats in different ways. In Eurasia, the most noticeable and profound, mostly negative, transformations of natural ecosystems in connection with human agricultural activities took place in the steppe zone (Formozov, 19816, Tucker, Evans, 1997). In the forest zone of this region, the very emergence of vast open meadow-field spaces is due to the development and expansion of agricultural activity of people in the historically visible time (Tishler, 1971, Tucker, Evans, 1997, Dirkx, 2002).

Man actually created an agricultural landscape in which over millennia certain communities of meadow-field bird species were formed, adapted to exist exclusively or mainly in this peculiar semi-natural complex. However, the technical and technological progress of the last 100-150 years in all spheres of human activity has led to intensification of agricultural production. The latter no longer contributed to maintaining favorable semi-natural conditions for birds inhabiting the agricultural landscape, but actually began to destroy them, extremely negatively affecting the state of habitats, species diversity and number of birds. As a result, the group of birds in Europe that decreased most significantly over the past century was the species inhabiting agricultural land (Donald et al., 2001, Birds in Europe., 2004). Against the background of a drop in the number of birds due to the intensification of agriculture in recent decades, it has become more and more significant, but so far difficult to “grasp” for quantification, the opposite process began to contribute to the reduction in the number of birds - the complete abandonment of previously cultivated agricultural land (Galushin et ., 2001, Donald et al., 2002).

Birds are a convenient object for observation, and therefore, they often act as an indicator group for monitoring changes in agricultural habitats. On the negative impact of agricultural intensification on meadow birds in the 1960s – 2000s. many articles have been written, which has led to the appearance in the last decade of numerous generalized reviews on this topic (Pain, Pienkowski, 1997, Pitkänen, Tiainen, 2001, Evans, 2004, Robinson, Sutherland, 2002, Thorup, 2004, Whittingham, Evans, 2004, Wilson et al., 2005 and many others). The opposite tendency - reduction or complete cessation of economic activity in meadow fields - has been studied extremely poorly (Galushin et al., 2001, Mishchenko, Sukhanova, 2006). Most of the studies in the conditions of a decline in agriculture have so far observed certain trends in the number of birds without special attempts to analyze the mechanisms of the possible adaptation of specific species to the changes that are taking place. Meanwhile, comprehensive studies of the influence of this process on specific species and groups of birds are extremely important, since its scale is significant (Mishchenko, Sukhanova, 1998, Galushin et al., 2001).

As for waders, the importance of close attention to the processes occurring with this group of birds in anthropogenic landscapes was specially emphasized at the second (1980) meeting on waders' fauna and ecology (Flint, 1980). Currently, among those who have reduced and continue to reduce their species abundance in Europe are almost all waders, one way or another connected with agricultural land (Birds in Europe., 2004). If the reasons for the decrease in the number of waders depending on the intensification of production and their reaction under these conditions, as well as the positive aspects of the influence of agricultural practice on> breeding waders, have been studied in sufficient detail (Rubinstein, 1968, Kumari, 1973, Polyakova, Radetsky, 1974, Golovanova, 1975, Korovin, 1982, Ochagov, 1981, 1990, Butyev, Yezhova, 1988, Pain, Pienkowski, 1997, Benstead et al., 1999, Robinson, Sutherland, 2002 and many others), then the reaction of birds of this group to occurring changes - in conditions of decline in agricultural production remains almost unexplored d. The study of changes in the abundance and other manifestations of waders' reaction to the degree of agricultural load, including its current decline, is very complicated by the lack of places where long-term monitoring observations of waders would be carried out. A recent analysis of the status of the study of rare sandpipers of the non-chernozem center of Russia (Sviridov, in print) showed that in this region there are very few specific points for which there is at least data on the dynamics of the number of waders for a long period of time. There are even fewer hospitals, on the basis of which it is possible to analyze the use of breeding waders of habitats for a given number of years.

Almost half of the sandpiper species, rare in the Non-Black Earth Center of Russia, nest on agricultural land (Sviridova, in print), in which large-scale changes in bird living conditions are now taking place as a result of the withdrawal of vast areas from the constant economic cycle. In this regard, it is important to carry out monitoring work on the study of waders and their reaction to changes in habitats at those points where studies were already carried out before the crisis in agriculture. It should be noted that the living conditions of waders in agricultural landscapes are extremely diverse and can vary not only in different countries, but also at the> level of individual regions and farms (see Chapter 1), which complicates and limits the possibility of extrapolating the results obtained at individual research points . This is one of the specific features and, at the same time, difficulties in studying birds in agricultural landscapes. That is why, a number of review articles on the problem of the existence of birds in agricultural landscapes emphasize the need for new research and analysis of regional features of the use of meadow field habitats by birds at different intensities of the agricultural process (Robinson et al., 2001, Robinson, Sutherland, 2002).

The environmental requirements of most waders are closely related to the wetting factor (Kozlova, 1961, 1962, Hale, 1980, Cramp, Simmons, 1983). In particular, it can significantly affect the number and distribution of species of this group at nesting sites. Therefore, we also conducted an analysis of the impact of weather and climate factors on waders of agricultural landscapes to the extent that the data we collected allowed. However, this was not the main, but an additional task, clarifying the results of our study.

The purpose of this work is to assess the influence of anthropogenic factors, as well as a number of weather and climate conditions on population dynamics, spatial distribution, habitat selection, and success of waders nesting in the agricultural landscape of the Moscow Region.

To achieve this goal, the following tasks were set:

1. To restore the history of nature management and to trace changes in agricultural practice over the past decades in model areas of the Moscow Region.

2. To study the dynamics of the abundance and spatial distribution of waders inhabiting model sites, under the influence of anthropogenic and a number of weather factors (humidification conditions, timing of the arrival of spring).

3. To analyze the use of waders of nesting habitats depending on the degree and type of agricultural load on the latter, as well as on the conditions of their wetting. Assess the dynamics of the choice of habitats in model areas over long periods of time.

4. To evaluate the success of waders nesting in the conditions of recession of the economic load on their breeding habitats.


Sandpiper - bird reservoirs. The diet of birds consists of aquatic, terrestrial invertebrate organisms - these are worms, crustaceans, mollusks, various insects. Predatory birds eat mice and frogs, lizards; in the summer, locusts become a feast of feathered birds, which are absorbed in large quantities.

Waterfowl waders even dive for their prey. Some waders are vegetarians, based on their grains, seeds, and berries. A special treat is blueberries.

Reproduction and longevity

The waders mating season opens in April. Mating occurs both singly and in large groups. The ritual of attracting a partner varies among different groups of waders.

For example, sea zuiks rush in the air with trills, and on the ground they spread their tail with a fan and chase the females. In lapwings, attention-grabbing is expressed in a sharp change in the flight path. Curlews fly high in a circle and sing melodically.

Sandpiper mating relationships are diverse, manifesting in the following forms:

  • monogamy - pairing for the season, hatching together and taking care of the offspring. The most common type of marriage
  • polygyny - mating a male with different females per season, eliminating participation in hatching and taking care of the brood,
  • polyandries - mating females with different males, laying eggs in several nests. Male incubation and care are carried out by males,
  • double nesting - laying eggs in two nests. In the first, the female herself hatches the chicks, in the second - the male takes care. Assistance to newborn waders is also provided separately.

Sandpipers are nesting on the ground, eggs lie in pits without litter. Some species of birds capture alien nests on trees.

Chicks are born sighted, a body with thick down. Although babies are able to feed themselves from birth, parents worry about offspring: they warm, protect, and lead to fodder areas. In case of danger, waders desperately protect the nest and attack the enemy.

By two years, juveniles are ready for mating. Average life expectancy reaches 20 years.

Draining of territories and mass development deprives feathered habitual places, threatens to reduce populations. Neighborhood with humans is disastrous for birds, but only humans can create the conditions for the salvation of rare species of waders.