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Distribution and environmental features of carabushungaricus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the Krasnodar Territory Text of a scientific article in the specialty - Biological Sciences

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Hungarian ground beetle (Carabus hungaricus F.)

There is a charm in the wide expanses of the steppes, especially in spring and early summer, when they are covered with a multi-colored carpet of flowering herbs. Here are crimson poppies, undersized irises with violet and yellow flowers, bright yellow and red tulips, white and purple anemones, numerous buttercups and many other flowers pleasing to the eye. Animals are not inferior to plants in variety, especially insects.

Many decades ago, the unplowed, virgin steppes in our country stretched from the south of the European territory of Russia in the west to Transbaikalia in the east. What is their area at present? It is rather difficult to answer this question, since the virgin steppes almost did not survive. They are plowed by man! This leads to the disappearance of a number of plant and animal species specific to the virgin steppes. On the verge of extinction, there is, for example, such a wonderful and interesting inhabitant of the steppes of the North Caucasus, as a giant grasshopper - a thick-mouthed thicket. Became quite rare and ground beetle hungarian, this large, black in color, stocky beetle 22-30 mm long, with slightly shiny elytra, which usually has three rows of small pits. Hungarian ground beetle - an inhabitant of mostly virgin steppes, but occurs, although much less frequently, in plowed areas sown, for example, with agricultural crops, in particular alfalfa. The range of this species within the USSR, if we rely on data collected before 1940, covered a significant area of ​​the European part of the USSR from the Voronezh region in the north to the Caucasus in the south and from western borders to Kazakhstan in the east. At present, the range of Hungarian ground beetles is noticeably narrower and the number is much smaller. The current boundaries of the range need to be clarified. Outside the USSR, it is known in Czechoslovakia, Romania, as well as in Austria and Hungary, and was first described using the materials collected there, for which it received the name "hungaricus" - which means Hungarian. These beetles, found from May to September, are polyphagous predators that feed on various, mainly soil, invertebrate animals.

The text of the scientific work on the theme "Distribution and ecological features of carabushungaricus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the Krasnodar Territory"

UDC 595.762.12: 591.5 (470.620) BBK 28.691.892.41 (2Ros-4Kra) B 81

Candidate of Biological Sciences, Forest Pathologist, Branch of the Russian Federal Center for Forest Protection, Center for Forest Protection of the Krasnodar Territory, Krasnodar, e-mail: [email protected] Shchurov V.I.

Candidate of Biological Sciences, Director of the Center for Forest Protection of the Krasnodar Territory Branch of the Federal State Institution Russian Forest Protection Center, Krasnodar, e-mail: [email protected] Zamotaylov A.S.

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Head. Laboratory of Bioecological Monitoring of Invertebrates of Adygea Research Institute for Complex Problems of Adygea State University, Maykop, tel. (8772) 593938, e-mail: [email protected]

Distribution and ecological features of Carabus hungaricus (Coleóptera, Carabidae) in the Krasnodar Territory

Annotation. An analysis of the literature data and the results of field studies of Carabus hungaricus in the Krasnodar Territory are presented, as well as the environmental features of the regional populations of this species are highlighted.

Key words: Carabus hungaricus, Krasnodar Territory, life cycle.

Candidate of Biology, engineer, forest pathologist of the Branch of the Russian Center for Forest Protection "Center for Forest Protection of the Krasnodar Region", Krasnodar, e-mail: [email protected] Shchurov V.I.

Candidate of Biology, Director of Branch of Russian Center for Forest Protection “Center for Forest Protection of the Krasnodar Region”, Krasnodar, e-mail: [email protected] Zamotaylov A.S.

Doctor of Biology, Professor of Physiology Department of Natural Science Faculty, Head of Laboratory of Bioecological Monitoring of Invertebrate Animals in Adyghea Republic at Research Institute of Complex Problems, Adyghe State University, Maikop, ph. (8772) 593938, e-mail: [email protected]

Distribution and environmental features of Carabus hungaricus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the Krasnodar Region

Abstract The paper presents the analysis of literary data and results offield researches on Carabus hungaricus in the Krasnodar Region. Also the work describes the environmental features of the regional populations of this species.

Keywords: Carabus hungaricus, Krasnodar Region, life cycle.

Ground beetle Hungarian Carabus hungaricus Fabricius, 1792, is listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation in the category "2 - Reducing in number". In the Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory, it is assigned to category 1B “Endangered”, 1B, U And. In recent decades, there has been a clear tendency for species to decline. Obviously, in modern socio-economic conditions it is extremely difficult to counteract this process. Therefore, the most important for the conservation of ground beetles in the region becomes necessary

* Studies were carried out during the work “Maintaining the Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory: Monitoring the Red Book Species of Plants and Animals” of the departmental target program “Environmental Protection and Ecological Safety of the Krasnodar Territory for 2012-2014” (state contract dated 04.06.2012 No. 19).

developing adequate measures to protect existing populations of this species. Clarification of data on the distribution of the species in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory and its biological features in the future will allow a more detailed assessment of the protection prospects of S. kishchapsiz with the development of targeted protective measures.

Materials and methods

In order to identify new localities, as well as monitor already known populations of S. kishchapsiz, in 2012-2014. Studies were carried out on the surviving steppe plots, preserved mainly by beams and the so-called "bad lands" in Kushchevsky, Krylovsky, Ust-Labinsky, Tbilisi, Temryuk districts of the region. Particular attention was paid to the northern regions, where similar remnants are still quite numerous.

Barber soil traps were used as a search technique for S. kishchapsiz populations. At each metering site, 50 traps were installed in a line at a distance of 5 m from each other. The physiological state of adults was determined by the method of Wallin with additions of Makarov and Matalin 4, 5.

According to literary data, in the territory of the Russian Federation S. kishchapssh is distributed in the Voronezh, Lipetsk, Saratov, Volgograd, Rostov, Astrakhan regions, the Republics of Kalmykia and Crimea, as well as in the Stavropol and Krasnodar territories 6-8. On the territory of the Krasnodar Territory, the species range is strongly disjunctive. There is information about the finds of S. kishchapsiz from the vicinity of Armavir, St. Voronezh, Sochi, Guam 9-11. The largest population is known from the Taman Peninsula (Karabetova city).

According to the survey of surviving steppe sites potentially suitable for habitat of the species, in Kushchevsky (Zavodskaya, Kartushina, Bugely beams), Krylovsky (Izluchina and Krasnogorovka beams), Tbilissky (okl. Tbilisskaya st.), Uspensky (ok. ) areas of the region of new habitats of S. kishchapsiz not identified. The search for the species in the most possible place of its discovery - in the Ust-Labinsky district (the find of a beetle impaled by a shrike in the vicinity of the Voronezh station) is also known to have yielded a negative result.

Much attention was paid to the search and monitoring of populations of S. kischapsiz and on the Taman Peninsula. According to studies covering the Yakhno tract, Lysuy town in the Kiziltash estuary, an unnamed beam in the vicinity of Cape Pekla, in the vicinity of the village. Sennoy and Primorsky, this species of ground beetles is not found there. Monitoring of the previously known population of S. kishchapssh on the Karabetovaya ridge confirmed its existence.

Later, in 2014, the search zone for local populations of Hungarian ground beetle on the Taman Peninsula was expanded to cover 6 previously unexplored localities: the northern and southern expositions of Chirkov, the Public beam on the town of Bojur-Gora, Kruglya, Tsymbaly, Kostenko beam in the vicinity of Pedenkov. As a result of these searches, in all the listed localities, it was possible to find local populations of S. kishchapssh, which allows us to significantly expand the area of ​​its distribution on the Taman Peninsula.

Thus, the range of S. kishchapsiz on the Taman Peninsula is disjunctive and, according to currently available data, consists of three parts. The largest one covers the central part of the peninsula (the city of Karabetova, the city of Chirkov, the city of Boyur-Gora). The northeastern and northern parts of the range cover the city of Tsymbaly and the city of Pedenkova, the southern - the city of Round. To the east of Tsymbaly on the Taman Peninsula, populations of S. kishchapsiz have not yet been discovered.

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& /> & G "/ g • ■ J 1 Stavropol 0

c¿T • r ^^ Krasnod ^ Г ^^ .Armavir

V. Urvaroskhimsk XV "H ^ of the Republic D I

Carabus hungaricus • not found 5 D Republic ÜSS1Í 'f Karachay-Cherkessia

• Revealed j the Republic of Lbhazi I

Fig. 1. Search points and identified habitats of S. ki ^ apsia in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory

Note: the red dots indicate the localities in which C. hungaricus was searched, but the species was not found, the green localities with real populations of the species are marked in green

Fig. 2. Search points and identified habitats of C. hungaricus on the Taman Peninsula Note: see Figure 1

The highest population density of the species was recorded in the city of Karabetov, where depending on the exposure during the breeding period ranged from 0.045 to 0.15 ind. / 10 trap days. Most preferred are festoon dominance Festuca sp. In areas where feather grass grows, Stipa sp. and different types of wormwood Artemisia sp. the species was also noted, but its population density here was much lower. Hungarian ground beetle was also found in previously plowed biotopes.

Fig. 3. Habitats of S. kishchapsia on the Taman Peninsula: imago in the city of Pedenkova, May (a), habitat in the Public beam in the city of Boyur-Gora, April (b), a female in the city of Tsymbaly, November (c) , habitat in the steep gully on the Round, November (d), 2014

The regional metapopulation of S. Nischapsia is affected by many negative factors, each of which individually can lead to its extinction in a single habitat. Insularization due to anthropogenic stress prevails. The most important factors, apparently, are burning out the remaining steppe plots, grazing, trampling, jipping. The steppe sites examined in 2013, in which the existence of S. kishchapsiz populations are potentially possible, but the species was not found, undergo periodic burning, some of which are intensively grazed. The potential danger is the unintentional introduction of pesticides when processing the nearest agrocenoses.

According to the literature, the life cycle of S. kishchapsiz is poorly studied. Separate information is given that the species gives one generation a year; adults are wintering, less often larvae.

Much more information about the biology of the species is found in publications of European authors. The biology of S. ki ^ apssh is most fully reflected in the work of R. Roklis1a. According to him, the species is active throughout the growing season, the peak of imago activity occurs in late summer - early fall. During this period, mating and laying of eggs occurs. Pupation is observed in May. A somewhat smaller peak of adult activity is also observed in May-June, when young beetles hatch. Adults and larvae hibernate. At the same time, adults often live for more than two years, multiplying repeatedly.

Studies of the populations of S. ki ^ apse from the Taman Peninsula made it possible to partially reconstruct its life cycle, which significantly differs from the life cycle of populations of the species from Hungary.

VII 1 VI VII 'VI

Fig. 4. Scheme of the life cycle of S. ki ^ apssh populations from the Taman Peninsula

According to our data, the development of the species takes place over 2 years. Larvae hatch in early May. In the arid summer period, estivation appears to occur. In autumn, the activity of the larvae resumes; for the wintering, larvae of the third age go. In the spring of the next growing season (approximately mid-late April), the larvae emerge from wintering. It was not possible to establish the pupation period reliably. In late August - early September, the first adults of a juvenile physiological state are noted. From the second decade of September to November, a second peak of activity is observed, while all adult individuals are represented exclusively by the immature age group, which go to winter during the onset of cold weather. In the spring of next year (mid-late April), mating and laying of eggs takes place, lasting until P-Sh ten days of May. Repeated breeding individuals (generative adults of the second year of life) were not found in any of the populations. Thus, in contrast to European populations having a polycyclic development, populations from the Taman Peninsula develop monocyclicly.

According to studies, no new populations of S. Nischapsia were found outside the Taman Peninsula. The distribution of the species on the Taman Peninsula turned out to be much wider than according to the literature. Hungarian ground beetle populations cover the localities of the city of Karabetov, the city of Chirkov, the city of Boyur-Gora, the city of Kruglya, the city of Tsymbaly, and the city of Pedenkova. The identification of new species populations requires additional research.

The highest population density of S. kishchapsiz is observed in upland communities dominated by fescue. The life cycle of the species differs significantly from European populations and is characterized as a biennial spring monocycle.

1. Zamotailov A.S. Hungarian Carabus - Carabus hungaricus Fabricius, 1792 II Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory (animals) / scientific. ed. A.S. Zamotaylov. 2nd ed. Part 1. Invertebrate animals. Krasnodar: PTR Development Center Krasnodar, Krai, 2007.P. 119-120.

2. Barber H.S. Traps for cave-inhabiting insect // J. El-ish. Mitchell Sci. Soc. 1931. Vol. 46, No. 3. P. 259266.

3. Wallin H. Distribution, movement and reproduction of Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inhabiting cereal fields // Plant protection reports and dissertation of the Swedish Univ. for agric. Sci. Uppsala. 1987. Vol. 15. P. 3-19.

4. Makarov K.B., Matalin A.B. The local fauna of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as an object of study (on the example of the carabid fauna of the Elton region) // Species and communities in extreme conditions: collection, ded. 75th anniversary of Acad. Yu.I. Chernova, M. Sofia: The number of scientific publications of KMK - Pensoft Publ., 2009.P. 353-374.

5. Matalin A.V. Typology of the life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Western Palearctic // Zool. Journal. 2007.V. 86, no. 10, p. 11961220.

6. Pirogovsky M.I. Ground beetle Hungarian - Carabus hungaricus (Fabricius, 1792) II Red Book of the Astrakhan region. Astrakhan: Publ. House "Astrakhan University", 2014. S. 175-176.

7. Sigida S.I. Ground beetle Hungarian - Carabus hungaricus // Red Book of the Stavropol Territory. Rare and endangered species of plants and animals / N.S. Panasen-ko (ed.). Stavropol: Polygraphservice, 2001.S. 42.

8. A Checklist of the Ground-Beetles of Russia and Adjacent Lands (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) / O.L. Kryzhanovsky, I.A. Belousov, I.I. Kabak et al .. Sofia-Moscow: Pensoft, 1995.271 pp.

9. Zamotailov A.S. Ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Northwest Caucasus. Krasnodar: KubSAU, 1992. 76 p.

10. Zamotailov A.S. To the fauna of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Taman Peninsula // Ecological problems of the Taman Peninsula. Krasnodar: KubSU, 2004.S. 45-52.

11. Zamotailov A.S., Macaev A.K. To the distribution of ground beetles of the genus Carabus L. (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the Northwest Caucasus // Actual issues of entomology in the Kuban: tr. Kuban State Agrarian University. 2007.428 (456). S. 4-14.

12. Pokluda P. Sezonalita a biotopove preference strev-lfka Carabus hungaricus v NPR Pouzdranska step -Kolby. Seasonality and habitat preferences of the ground beetle Carabus hungaricus in the Pouzdranska step - Kolby Natural Reserve. Be. Thesis, in Czech. / Faculty of Science, The University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice. Czech Republic, 2008. 40 pp.

1. Zamotaylov A.S. Carabus hungaricus - Carabus hungaricus Fabricius, 1792 // The Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory (animals) / scient. ed. by A.S. Zamotaylov. The 2nd ed. Pt. 1. The invertebrates. Krasnodar: The Center of Development of PTR of Krasnodar territory, 2007. P. 119-120.

2. Barber H.S. Traps for cave-inhabiting insect // J. El-ish. Mitchell Sci. Soc. 1931. Vol. 46, No. 3. P. 259266.

3. Wallin H. Distribution, movement and reproduction of Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inhabiting cereal fields // Plant protection reports and dissertation of the Swedish Univ. for agric. Sci. Uppsala. 1987. Vol. 15. P. 3-19.

4. Makarov K.V., Matalin A.V. Local fauna of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as the object of study (based on ground beetles of Prieltonye) // Species and communities in extreme conditions: coll., Dedicated to the 75th anniversary of Academician Yu.I. Chernov, M. Sofia: KMK Association of Scientific Publications - Pensoft Publ., 2009. P. 353-374.

5. Matalin A.V. The typology of the life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Western Palearctic // Zool. Journal. 2007. Vol. 86, Iss. 10. P. 1196-1220.

6. Pirogovskiy M.I. The Hungarian ground beetle - Carabus hungaricus (Fabricius, 1792) // The Red Book of the Astrakhan region. Astrakhan: Astrakhan University Publishing House, 2014. P. 175-176.

7. Sigida S.I. The Hungarian ground beetle - Carabus hungaricus // The Red Book of the Stavropol territory. Rare and endangered plants and animals / N.S. Panasenko (ed.-in-chief). Stavropol: Poligrafservis, 2001, P. 42.

8. A Checklist of the Ground-Beetles of Russia and Adjacent Lands (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) / O.L. Kryzhanovsky, I.A. Belousov, I.I. Kabak et al .. Sofia-Moscow: Pensoft, 1995.271 pp.

9. Zamotaylov A.S. Fauna of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Northwest Caucasus. Krasnodar: KubSAU, 1992. 76 pp.

10. Zamotaylov A.S. On the fauna of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Taman peninsula // Ecological Problems of the Taman Peninsula. Krasnodar: KubSU, 2004. P. 45-52.

11. Zamotaylov A.S., Makarov A.K. On the the distribution of ground beetles of Carabus L. (Coleoptera, Carabidae) species in the Northwest Caucasus // Actual problems of entomology in the Kuban area: proceedings of the KubSAU. 2007.428 (456). P. 414.

12. Pokluda P. Sezonalita a biotopové preference strev-lika Carabus hungaricus v NPR Pouzdranská step Kolby. Seasonality and habitat preferences of the ground beetle Carabus hungaricus in the Pouzdranská step - Kolby Natural Reserve. Be. Thesis, in Czech. / Faculty of Science, The University of South Bohemia, Ceské Budéjovice. Czech Republic, 2008. 40 pp.

Spread.

In the Orenburg region, adults are found from May to August; in the middle of summer, the minimum abundance is observed. The representative of the fauna of the virgin steppes has never been noted by us on deposits and plowed lands. However, according to other authors, in the east of the Orenburg region, the species was found on a wheat field, which may be due to migration from closely located virgin lands.

Description.

The body is black, strongly convex, length 24-34 mm. Pronotum without marginal bristle-bearing pores; posterior angles extend beyond base in the form of wide triangular lobes. Mandibles are short, wide, straight along the inner edge and sharply bent inward just before the apex.In the subspecies C. hungaricus cribellatus (Adams, 1812), which is widespread in the Orenburg region, the elytra on the primary and often secondary intervals bear large, deep, rounded, or quadrangular fossae.

Number and Limiting Factors.

A rather high relative abundance was noted in the 1970s. in the Kvarkensky area. The largest number of finds over the past 25 years is in the Aituarskaya Steppe section of the Orenburgsky State Nature Reserve. However, after 2003, C. hungaricus was never recorded here with annual counts of insects by soil traps. Most likely, this is due to regular steppe fires leading to xerophytization of biotopes. In the Urals, the populations of the species are apparently significantly localized, there are almost no modern data, although it is widespread here: it is known from the southern part and is indicated for the “forest-steppe of the Bashkir Urals”

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