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Chimera fish

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Chimeric or chimera (lat. Chimaeriformes) - a detachment of cartilaginous fish. They belong to the superorder (by another classification, subclass) of Whole-headed. The group has about 50 modern species. Most representatives live at a depth of more than 500 meters.
Appearance
The body of the chimera narrows to the posterior end and ends with a long (up to half the length of the body) scourge. The length of adults from the front end to the tip of the tail varies from 0.6 to 1.5 meters. Large pterygo-pectoral fins give a characteristic appearance to chimeras. An open groove of the lateral line is located on the side of the head and body.
Reproduction and development
Chimeras are dioecious. Like other cartilaginous fish, they are characterized by internal fertilization. All kinds of oviparous. Since most species live at great depths, data on the reproductive biology of this group are very limited.
Nutrition
It is traditionally believed that chimeras feed on very solid foods (such as shellfish). First of all, these ideas are related to the structure of the jaw apparatus of chimeras, which is capable of compressing objects with a force exceeding 100 Newtons. However, a few direct nutritional studies suggest that the diet of chimeras is not limited to organisms with hard integuments (mollusks and echinoderms), but also includes polychaetes, crustaceans, and even small bottom fish. In addition, cases of cannibalism have been described: some chimeras are able to eat both adults of their own species and eggs.
Parasitofauna
In addition to the parasitic flatworms common in fish from the class of monogenes, chimeras are the only known hosts of representatives of another class of flatworms - gyrocotylids, whose adult forms parasitize in the spiral intestinal valve.

Distribution and behavior

This species is found in cool waters in the north-east of the Atlantic Ocean, in the south of the Adriatic and in the western part of the Mediterranean Sea. In the north, the boundaries of the range are off the southern coast of Iceland and Norway, and in the south off the western coast of North Africa.

The European chimera also lives on the Azores and Great Britain. It is most often observed at depths from 100 to 500 m. Some individuals manage to sink to depths of up to 1,500 m in search of food.

Fishes prefer to be at the very bottom in small flocks.

Being very voracious predators, they tirelessly swim in their home area in search of food. Large paddle-like pectoral fins help them move quickly in the water column.

The diet consists of marine mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans. The mouth opening located on the lower part of the snout enables the chimeras to deftly select food directly from the bottom surface. To search for prey, electroreceptors are used, which in structure resemble similar receptors in sharks.

Morphological features

Gill covers cover 4 gill slits. On the crown are two small sprays. The stomach is absent. The digestive tract of the European chimera consists of a tubular rectum.

The jaws are armed with hard tooth plates. In the upper jaw there are 2 pairs of such plates, and in the lower one. They are highly durable and can easily crush the shells of marine inhabitants.

To protect against predators, chimeras use a poisonous thorn located on the back.

In summer, they like to be in shallow water, and closer to winter they go to deeper waters.

Breeding

The reproduction of European chimeras has been studied relatively little because of their secretive benthic lifestyle. Each female ovary has up to a hundred eggs, but only the two largest eggs mature and lay.

Each such egg is placed in a huge, bottle-like yellow-brown horn capsule approximately 16-17 long and 2-3 cm wide.

First, it rests on the body of the female, and then with the help of a bunch of long and tenacious threads attached to stones, algae or to the hulls of sunken ships in close proximity to the bottom.

The female lays 2 eggs each as they mature. The development of embryos depending on environmental conditions can last from 12 to 18 months. The born fry about 11 cm long are a miniature copy of their parents. Immediately after birth, they begin to hunt on their own.

Description

The body length reaches 100-120 cm, and the weight is -2.5 kg. The elongated body is slightly compressed laterally. The upper and side of the body are brown, and the abdominal is silver with a gray tint. Light spots in the form of a marble pattern are visible on the sides.

Along the middle of the body stretches a side line branching on the head. The tail is very thin and long. The skin is devoid of scales and is covered with a layer of mucus. Large pectoral fins are used as the main mover.

A large head ends with a blunt snout. In males, a club-shaped frontal appendage grows between the eyes between the males. The first dorsal fin is short and high, and the second is long and low. A poisonous spike grows in front of the first dorsal fin.

Eyes with turquoise rainbows are at the top of the head. On the lower part of the snout is a small mouth opening.

The life span of a European chimera is about 30 years.

  • Subclass: Holocephali = Whole-headed Fish, Ingot
  • Order: Chimaeriformes = Chimeric
  • Family: Callorhinch> WHOLE FISH FISH (Ingot fish, Holocephali) - a subclass of cartilaginous fish, includes a single detachment of chimera-like fish, divided into three families. The body length of whole-headed fish is from 60 cm to two meters. They are distinguished by the presence of four pairs of gill slits and the absence of spatter. The skeleton is partially calcified. A characteristic feature of wholeheads is the absence of vertebral bodies and the fusion of the upper jaw with the skull (hence the name). The body is naked, “skin teeth” formed by placoid scales are located only on the jaws, there is no swimming bladder, and there is an arterial cone in the heart. Unlike plate-branchial fish, whole-headed fish lack cloaca.

Whole-headed - exclusively marine, usually deep-sea animals. These are predators, the main food of which is bottom invertebrates (crabs, sea urchins, gastropods and bivalves), as well as some fish. Fertilization is internal. The copulative organ of males, or pterygopodia, is a modified abdominal fins. Whole-headed ones breed by laying eggs, enclosed in a special capsule with outgrowths. It is believed that whole-headed descended from extinct shark-like ancestors and represent a lateral phylogenetic branch that is not associated with bone fish. They are known from the Upper Devonian, their heyday lasted until the Cretaceous.

CHIMEROUS FISH

CHIMEROFISH FISH (Chimaeriformes) - a detachment of cartilaginous fish of the subclass of whole-headed fish, includes three families, about 30 species. The length of these fish is from 60 cm to 2 m, females are larger than males. The body is smooth, slightly compressed laterally, gradually thinning towards the tail, which in some species ends with a long thread. In front of the first dorsal fin is a poisonous spike that can be retracted into a special notch on the back. The second dorsal fin is very long, reaching the beginning of the caudal fin. The pectoral fins are large, fan-shaped, and the ventral fins are smaller. The mouth is small, lower, there is no spray, the rostrum protruding forward forms the so-called snout. In species of the family of chimeric fish, it is short and blunt, in representatives of the family of nosed chimeras, it is elongated like a long peak, and in the family of calorhinhs, it resembles a hoe in shape. They breathe chimera-like with a closed mouth, as they pump water, communicating with the oral cavity. The naked body is covered with copious mucus.

These are deep-sea marine fish leading a bottom lifestyle. They are found at a depth of up to 2500 m in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, are absent in the Arctic Ocean and in the waters of the Antarctic. At least the smaller species are schooling. Chimera-like ones swim fast enough, bending their tail in a wave-like fashion and raking in the water with pectoral fins, using horizontally spaced abdominal fins as stabilizers. They are active at night, feed on bottom invertebrates (mollusks, crabs, ophiuras, sea urchins), less often - small fish.

Internal fertilization is carried out using special copulative organs of the male - pterygopodia. Chimera-like ones breed by laying eggs, each of which is enclosed in a horn capsule 12–42 cm long. After 9–12 months, fully formed fish appear from the eggs. Chimera-like are of commercial importance on the Pacific coast of the United States, in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Japan and China. Fat from the liver is used as a medicine and lubricant, and meat is used as food. Extinct members of the order are found from the Lower Jurassic, and modern genera from the Upper Cretaceous.

KALLORINHI

CALLORINCHES (proboscis chimaeras) (Callorhinchidae), family of cartilaginous fish, whole-headed subclass, 1st genus, 3-4 species. Body length about 1 m, weight - up to 10 kg. Body color is greenish-yellow; three black stripes stretch along the sides. The mucus covering the body has special light-refracting properties, which is why freshly caught fish have a bright silver-iridescent tint. The front part of the snout is elongated in a kind of proboscis laterally compressed from the sides, the end of which with the transverse leaf-shaped blade, is sharply bent back. It probably serves both as a locator and as a shovel. With its help, a fish hovering above the bottom can detect and dig invertebrates buried in the ground. Tail without threadlike appendage. Anal fin short, separated from caudal by deep notch.

Distributed only in temperate and moderately cold waters of the southern hemisphere - off the coast of South America (from southern Brazil and Peru to Tierra del Fuego), South Africa, South Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. They are usually caught at depths of 5 to 50 m. In the cold season, they go down to 200 m and deeper. Females lay egg capsules with a length of 17 to 42 cm. In New Zealand, calorinchus Mili (Callorhinchus milii) is an object of fishing and is used for food.

NOSE CHIMERS (rhinochimeric) (Rhinochimaeridae), a family of cartilaginous fish of the subclass of whole-headed fish, 3 genera, 6 species.

They differ in a very elongated, pointed snout. They are the deepest representatives of the detachment, as a result of which they are known from a very small number of finds. Almost nothing is known about their lifestyle and biology. Found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Apparently they live in the Indian Ocean, where their egg capsules were found.

Hakeli's chocolate brown harriota (Harriotta haeckeli) reaches a length of 1.03 m. It is known from the North Atlantic from depths of 1800-2600 m.

In the genus of nosed chimeras, which gave the name to the whole family, two species are known. The Atlantic chimera (Rhinochimaera allantica) is found in the North Atlantic, and the Pacific nosed chimera (Rhinochimaera pacifica) is found off the coast of Japan.

What different and unusual fish exist in nature, and what kind of names are not invented for them! For example, a chimera fish: one name of this animal does not cause the most pleasant associations. And if you look at this inhabitant of the deep sea, then opinions can be divided. Some see a very cute and pretty fish that looks like a soaring bird, while others see a monster. So who is she really, this mysterious marine resident, who is also called by another strange name - the fish of the sea hare.

Very close relatives of the chimera are: they are all cartilaginous fish and have a spine of cartilaginous tissue. Look at the photo of chimera fish and try to find common features with sharks!

All the most interesting about chimeras

When the name chimera is mentioned, this does not mean that there is only one single species. The genus Chimera (lat. Chimaera) unites 6 species, of which the most famous is the European chimera (lat. Chimaera monstrosa) from the eastern Atlantic. There is a Cuban chimera (Chimaera cubana), which was first mistaken for the European one, and later was isolated in an independent form. It lives off the coast of Cuba at a depth of 400-500 meters. Other species of the genus Chimera are known from the waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean (Philippine Islands, the Yellow Sea, and the Japanese Islands).

The place of chimeras in the fish system

The genus Chimera, of which the European chimera is a representative, is part of the Chimeeridae family, in which there is another genus with species that differ from the genus Chimera in the shape of the caudal fin.

All fish in the Chimera family have a blunt snout. This is an important difference from other families of the order Chimeriformes (Chimaeriformes), among which there are fam. Nosed chimeras with a very elongated snout, and pointed at the end. And the third family is proboscis chimeras (callorinchidae). They differ in the elongated and bent down and back front end of the snout.

Below, in the photo, the chimera fish are shown in the figures, and we can consider the differences in the structure of the snout among the representatives of each family, which were mentioned above.

Representatives of the chimera-like detachment: 1 - this. Chimeric, 2 - this. Proboscis (callorinchidae) and this. Nosed chimeras.

As already mentioned at the beginning of the article, the chimera fish is cartilaginous, and accordingly, it belongs to the “Cartilaginous fish” class, which has two subclasses. Having much in common in the internal and external structure with the plate-gill (sharks and stingrays), chimeras differ from them in that their upper jaw is completely fused with the skull. Therefore, they are allocated to the subclass Whole-headed or Mouth-cranial.

The appearance of chimeric

All chimera-shaped have a characteristic body shape: valky, slightly compressed laterally and greatly thinning towards the tail. In the photo of the fish of the sea hare (European chimera), this is clearly visible.

Other features of the appearance of representatives of the chimera-like:

  • Two fins on the back, the first is tall and short, with a powerful spike in front, which, together with it, if necessary, fit into a special groove in the back. The second is long and can stretch to the very base of the caudal fin and does not add up.
  • The caudal fin often has the shape of a long cord.
  • The pectoral fins are very well developed and each of them resembles a fan in shape.
  • The ventral fins are smaller than the pectoral fins and are located next to the anus, being pushed back.
  • At the base, all paired fins are equipped with fleshy lobes, thin and flexible.
  • Located below the mouth (lower) of the chimeras and has a characteristic three-lobed upper lip.
  • The gill openings located on the sides of the head are covered by a fold of skin supported by finger-shaped cartilage.
  • The naked body, devoid of placoid scales, is covered with a lot of mucus.

Thorn in the first dorsal fin of the European chimera.

European chimeras - beauties or monsters?

The European chimera is the Latin name Chimaera monstrosa, which causes associations with some kind of monster. This fish has many names, one of the names that the chimera fish wears is the hare. Perhaps this is due to the large slightly elongated pectoral fins and huge eyes. She is also called a sea rabbit fish, apparently for the same reasons.

And among the Norwegians, the chimera is a royal fish. So it is called because of the thin bone growth bent backwards, which is located between the males between the eyes.

The body length of a European chimera can be up to one or one and a half meters, and its tail is very long and thin, so another name is attached to it - the sea rat.

What color is the chimera?

On the bare skin of a European chimera, rudimentary spines are sometimes found. However, the skin looks smooth and soft and has a characteristic color:

  • the back in dark brown and golden shades in combination with brown and whitish, a dark brown strip stretches along the upper back,
  • the ventral side of the body is light,
  • on the back of the long dorsal fin, as well as on the caudal and anal, a blackish-brown edging is noticeable.

The color image of the chimera is completed by the green color of the pupil against the background of the white iris of her huge eyes.

European chimera, photo by Roman Fedortsov, Murmansk, @rfedortsov_official_account

Propagation, lifestyle and movement

European chimera fish is not found in tropical waters. Its area is the eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean:

  • In northern waters - from the Strait of Gibraltar (coastal waters of Morocco) to the island of Iceland and the Scandinavian Peninsula with sunset in the Barents Sea.
  • Southern waters - near the coast of southern Africa (this information needs confirmation).

The sea hare fish spends most of its life near the bottom; therefore, ichthyologists attribute it to bathydimers (near-bottom deep-sea) fish. After all, the depth at which you can meet it is from 40 to 1400 meters. But most often this species lives at relatively shallow depths: two hundred to five hundred meters (in the northernmost part of the range) and three hundred and fifty to seven hundred meters (in the waters off the coast of Morocco). By winter it comes to coastal waters, where off the coast of Norway (where the depth is from 90 to 180 meters) a certain number of individuals can be caught by trawls.

These fish are quite tender, do not resist at all when captured. Extracted from the water, they die very quickly. Placed in an aquarium, they survive poorly.

Way to travel

Chimera or fish, sea rabbit is not a fast and speedy swimmer, and she does not need it. See how gracefully she moves thanks to the acne-curving curvature of the back of her body and tail and the wave-like swings of the large pectoral fins, reminiscent of wings. The ventral fins are also involved in ensuring the swimming of fish, located horizontally, they serve as stabilizers of movement.

Located at the bottom, chimeras can “stand” on the ground, relying on almost all of their fins: while the pectoral and ventral fins perform the function of four limbs, and the tail serves as an additional support.

Nutrition issue

This part of the article is devoted to two questions:

  • what does a sea rabbit eat
  • Is it possible to eat chimera fish, that is, a sea rabbit?

The diet of chimeras is mainly represented by bottom invertebrates. Among them are mollusks, crustaceans (mainly crabs), echinoderms (sea urchins, ophiurs). Small fish only occasionally came across in their stomachs. When examining the contents of the digestive tract of the chimeras, it was found that they do not swallow the whole food, but bite small pieces from the prey or crush it with strong dental plates.

Do people eat chimeras?

So is it possible to eat fish chimera. There is no definitive answer to this question. Chimeraids are fished off the Pacific coast of the United States; they are caught in Chile and Argentina, as well as in the waters of New Zealand and China. The volumes of prey are especially high in New Zealand, where they are caught by representatives of the Kallorinhov family (proboscis chimeras).

Only fresh calorinha meat, which has excellent palatability, is suitable for food. However, if it lies even a little, it starts to exude an unpleasant odor of ammonia. For housewives, the cartilaginous chimera fish, which does not have scales and hard bones, is of course very convenient to prepare.

Fat is extracted from the liver of chimeras, which has long been known as an excellent wound healing agent.

The current tendency to increase production of the European chimera by deep-sea trawling with the aim of producing drugs from the fat of the liver of this fish has led to this species being listed in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red Book. Chimera hare fish has a conservation status as a species close to a vulnerable position.

The most mysterious inhabitants of the oceanic depths are chimera-like fish, or chimeras. Very little is known about their lifestyle, especially about reproductive biology.

Oceanologists literally crumbs gathered information about these creatures, so that today you can get acquainted with some of them.

Very little is known about chimeras

Deep-sea chimeras of the seas and oceans

The modern group, belonging to the order of cartilaginous, has about 50 species of chimera-shaped fish. Most of them live at a depth of 500 meters and more, where studying their behavior is extremely difficult, and sometimes simply impossible. Today it is known that:

  • the length of these creatures can reach 1.5 meters,
  • they feed on invertebrates and smaller fish,
  • fish are dioecious,
  • fish lay eggs.
  • Chimera fish live exclusively in sea water.

Appearance and structure

The streamlined body of the chimeras gradually narrows and ends with a long, curving, cord-like tail half a body long. It is called scavenger. Adults grow from 0.6 to 1.5 meters. It is possible that there are fish and larger.

Adult chimera fish reach 1.5 meters

The pectoral fins are large, pterygoid. They give the characteristic appearance of chimeras and create the illusion of flight. The abdominal ones are much smaller in size and are located at the anus.

Fish swim slowly, the movements of the pectoral fins are undulating.

The lateral line is open and is a groove located on the sides of the head and body. With its help, chimeras perceive water vibrations and vibrations created by the movement of other inhabitants of the depths. The line is used for orientation in the external environment and during hunting. In some species, it consists of a part of special receptors that capture electrical vibrations.

Chimeras swim slowly

The body is "naked", covered with mucus. The skeleton consists of cartilage. The skull is connected to the jaws with one joint and is called hyostylic. Two gill openings are located on the sides, covered with skin folds. Fish breathe with their mouths closed, drawing water through their nostrils. It enters the gills, which communicate with the oral cavity.

There are also two dorsal fins. The one that is placed vertically closer to the head has a short base and a large spike - in some it is poisonous. If necessary, it fits into a special "groove" on the back. The other is shorter with a long base and does not add up.

The mouth has a lower location and is full of eerie chewing plates. Males have pterigopodia - copulative organs. With their help, the seminal fluid is introduced into the female cesspool.

Once on land, chimera-like fish die very quickly. In an aquarium, they take root extremely poorly.

Fertilization and reproduction

In dioecious chimeras insemination occurs during mating . For all species of the order, chimera-like is characterized by egg production - egg laying. The embryo develops and is released from the shells outside the mother's body.

In the ovaries, females can simultaneously contain up to 100 eggs, but they ripen and lay two at a time.

Each chimera egg, like some other fish species, is enclosed in a capsule - the cartilaginous membrane. It is equipped with a threadlike appendage. After leaving the body of the female, the egg falls to the bottom or hooks on the plants.

The development of the embryo lasts about 9-12 months. Interestingly, during development, special threads appear on the head - external gills. It is likely that with their help the embryo absorbs the egg yolk and receives oxygen. After birth, the threads disappear. Hatched fry are in all respects similar to their parents.

Chimeras breed eggs.

Cartilaginous membranes are very light and consist of collagen threads. Empty capsules quite often fall into the nets of fishermen; they are carried ashore during storms and tides. People call such finds mermaids or devilish purses.

Very little is known about mating games and the mating process, since it is very difficult to study this side of the life of chimeras at great depths.

Estimated Diet

It was traditionally believed that chimeras feed only on solid food - mollusks and crustaceans. This opinion was formed due to the structure of the jaw apparatus, which is able to crush the object of hunting with a force of 100 Newton.

Direct studies, although few in number, allow us to conclude that the diet of chimeras includes:

  • polychaetes - polychaete worms,
  • crabs
  • crayfish
  • lobsters
  • shrimp
  • small bottom fish.

Chimeras have cases of cannibalism

Cases of cannibalism are known when chimeras ate not only eggs, but also adults of their small species.

Many representatives of chimera-like have special devices for attracting prey - photophores. They are located at the mouth and glow in the dark. The food itself swims directly into the mouth of the predator.

There are practically no natural enemies because of the deep-sea lifestyle. Close relatives are sharks and stingrays.

European (Chimaera monstrosa) and Cuban (Ch. Cubana)

Range - East Atlantic. Reaches a length of 1.5 meters. The back is red-brown, the sides are silver with yellow-brown spots. Green eyes. The fins have a black-brown rim around the edges.

Habitat Chimera East Atlantic

It occurs at a depth of 200-500 meters, off the coast of Morocco up to 700 meters. Single individuals come online , but in the spring off the coast of Norway there are richer catches - up to several dozen pieces. Other names are chimera hare, sea rabbit or rat.

Eggs are laid all year, with the exception of the autumn months.

European chimera is not consumed. Fat is used to lubricate wounds.

The habitat of the Cuban chimera is the coast of Cuba, the waters of Japan, the Yellow Sea and the Philippine Islands. Outwardly similar to the European, therefore, was previously taken for it. Depth of residence is 400-500 meters.

Chimeras are found at a depth of 200 m

Genus Hydrolagus (Hydrolagus)

It has 15-16 species. Range - North Atlantic, Japan, waters of Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Philippines, Hawaii and North America.

The American hydrolag is better studied than others. is he often found along the american coast and lives at a depth of only 40-60 meters.

It is smaller than the European chimera and sometimes fills the nets of fishermen completely. Propagated year-round, most intensively - in August-September.

Observations in the aquarium showed that the female tossed the capsules for about 30 hours. They do not separate immediately and hang on elastic threads for several days, dragging behind. Then fall off and sink to the bottom.

They don’t eat fish, and fat is used for the technical lubrication of mechanical parts.

The Kallorinch family

The family of proboscis is represented by only one genus - Kollarinha. The front of the muzzle is extended into the trunk, flattened on the sides. At the end - a leaf-shaped lobe, bent back. Presumably, this organ serves as a kind of locator. It lives in the waters of the southern hemisphere.

The color is greenish-yellow, on the sides there are three black stripes. Tail without a thin ending.

Off the coast of New Zealand it is mined on an industrial scale, used for food. The taste is excellent, but it costs the meat to lie down for a while without processing, as the smell of ammonia appears.

Chimeras are still poorly understood, so the main discoveries are yet to come.

Mysterious creatures inhabit the deep waters of mysterious oceans. 400 million years ago evolution an unusual underwater inhabitant appeared - a chimera fish.

This creature is sometimes called ghost sharks. And this fish got the name chimera for its appearance. The fact is that in Greek mythology there was a legend about a monstrous woman, whose whole body was formed from parts of different animals. Seeing a fish with a strange appearance, the ancient Greeks decided that its body does not at all look like an ordinary representative of fish - as if it was also made up of parts of animals. Therefore, the chimera fish got its name.

This fish belongs to the cartilaginous, is a chimeric-like detachment, a family of chimeric.

Among the class of cartilaginous fish, chimeras appeared on our planet the very first. They are considered to be distant relatives. Today, scientists have counted on our planet about 50 species of these unusual fish.

The appearance of chimera fish

The body length of an adult reaches 1.5 meters. The skin of these fish is smooth, with colorful shades. In males, between the eyes on the head there is a bone growth (spike), which has a curved shape.

The tail of these fish is very long, it reaches sizes equal to half the length of the whole body. The appearance of these representatives of the chimeric family can be called large wing-shaped lateral fins. Spreading them, the chimera becomes something like a bird.

The colors of these fish are very diverse, but the predominant colors are light gray and black with frequent and large white patches throughout the surface. In the front of the body, near the dorsal fin, the chimeras have poisonous outgrowths, they are very durable and sharp. Their animal uses for its own protection.

Nature behavior

These fish are inhabitants of deep waters. They can be found at a depth of over 2.5 kilometers. They lead a rather secretive lifestyle. That is why scientists still can not investigate these creatures in detail.

It is only known that these fish hunt in the dark, to the touch. To attract prey, special devices of the oral apparatus are used - photophores. These "devices" emit a glow, and the victim herself floats into the light, right in the mouth of the chimera.

What is the basis of the diet of deep-sea chimera fish?

These cartilaginous fish feed mainly on mollusks, echinoderms, and crustaceans. They can eat other fish that live at the same depths as the chimeras themselves as food. To eat armored and echinoderm animals with sharp spikes on the body, the chimera has sharp teeth that have decent strength and a strong grip.

How do chimeras breed their offspring?

These fish are dioecious creatures. After mating females with males, females lay eggs, which are placed in a special hard capsule.

The breeding process, just like the lifestyle of these fish, is currently poorly studied by scientists.

Nutrition

The body of the chimera narrows to the posterior end and ends with a long (up to half the length of the body) bichiform tail. The length of adults from the front end to the tip of the tail varies from 0.6 to 2 meters. Large pterygo-pectoral fins give a characteristic appearance to chimeras. An open groove of the lateral line is located on the side of the head and body. The skin is bare.

Cartilage skeleton. The skull is autostylic. There is one gill opening on each side of the body. 2 dorsal fins. The first has a vertical position, the base is short with a large spike. The second dorsal fin is low with a long base. The mouth is lower. Teeth in the form of chewing plates. Males have pterigopodia.

Reproduction and development |List of sources

  • Ebert D. A. (2003). The sharks, rays and chimaeras of California. University of California Press, 284 pp.
  • Huber D. R., Dean M. N., Summers A. P. (2008). Hard prey, soft jaws and the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei. Interface, vol. 5, num. 25, p. 941-952
  • Wilga C. D., Motta P. J., Sanford C. P. (2007). Evolution and ecology of feeding in elasmobranchs. Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 47, p. 55-69

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See what "Chimera (fish)" is in other dictionaries:

- (Greek). 1) in Greek mythology: a fierce, spewing fire monster, who had a lion’s head and chest, a goat’s body, and a dragon’s backside. 2) the genus of fish is northern. seas, in the form of a component, as it were, a transition to reptiles. 3) in the hostel: a pipe dream, ... ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language

chimera - s, w. chimère f. & LT ,, gr. chimaira monster with the head of a lion, goat torso and tail of a dragon. 1. The sculptural image of a fantastic monster personifying vices (in the decoration of medieval Gothic temples, etc.). ALS 1. I proceeded ... ... Historical Dictionary of Russian Gallicisms

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Female, Greek fictional monster: in front of the lion’s, middle of the goat’s, and the back of the snake. | Strange fish of the northern seas, the transition to reptiles. | Fantasy, dream, absurdity, empty fiction. Chimeric, richest, absurd, absurd, absurd, invented without meaning ... Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary

Chimera - Chem era, s (mythol.) And chem era, s (sculptural image of a monster, an impossible dream, fantasy, fish, biol.) ... Russian spelling dictionary

Chimera - 1) in ancient Greek mythology, a monster with a fire-breathing lion's mouth, a dragon’s tail and a goat’s torso, 2) an impossible dream, a bizarre fantasy, 3) sea fish, 4) a plant organism consisting of two genetically heterogeneous ... ... Theoretical aspects and fundamentals of the ecological problem: interpreter words and idiomatic expressions

European Chimera ... Wikipedia

I Aquatic vertebrate fish with an unstable body temperature, breathe with gills, limbs of a non-five-pointed type, usually in the form of fins (See Fins). 2 classes: Cyclostom and actually R. Actually R. (Pisces) includes 7 subclasses: ... ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia

This fish does not belong to the most popular marine inhabitants. It is quite rare and many, having heard the name, do not even understand what is at stake. We will try to eliminate this ignorance a little. Chimera fish belongs to the near-bottom and deep-sea inhabitants of the sea depths. This applies to all its known varieties. It is distributed in all oceans and seas of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. It feeds on small fish, crustaceans, mollusks and starfish. It has a length of up to one and a half meters.

General information

Chimera fish, despite being clumsy and slow, are great for finding prey at the bottom of the sea, such as mollusks. Some species of this underwater inhabitant are armed with a poisonous spine in the back, which is an unexpected and real surprise for sharks and other predators who dared to attack him.

Let's find out what a chimera is.
The fish, the photo of which is in front of you, looks very funny, but this is until you learn about its poisonous weapons. How does she look for herself a tasty treat in the dark, silt and algae? The chimera perfectly helps with this nose, digging the bottom of the sea and having special receptors for the search. She lives and preys mostly in shallow seas, but there are representatives who prefer to seek prey in deep waters.

Chimera Features


“Silver pipe” - the so-called chimera in New Zealand, is served on the table fried and with chips. And “White Filet” is an Australian delicacy. Let's say you come across a chimera fish. Can I eat her? The answer is simple - of course you can.

Types of chimeras and their habitats

There are three main types of our fish:

  1. The chimera with a plow-shaped head belongs to the Callorhynchidae family, lives in shallow coastal water and, thanks to its sensitive, unusual shape, snout, successfully finds mollusks in the sandy bottom.
  2. With a blunt nose, belongs to the family Chimaeridae, lives in deeper and darker waters, up to 500 meters deep. Thanks to its hypersensitive eyes, the ghost of a shark quickly and easily notices starfish and other local inhabitants of seawater suitable for eating.
  3. The long-nosed chimera fish from the Rhinochimaeridae family lives even deeper and has a sensitive elongated snout that is designed to look for mollusks where there is no light at all.

The very chimera fish, the photo confirms this, is very beautiful, with silver spotted sides.

Chimera fish: how to cook in the oven

People from the camp, who decided that it is completely edible, claim that the dishes from the sea rabbit are very tasty. In addition, this delicacy can often be seen on store shelves now. There is one plus here - the chimera is being sold already cleaned in a creepy appearance. Here we are, at the end of our introductory article, we will tell you the recipe for preparing our fish with vegetables in the oven.

For this we need the following ingredients: one carcass of a sea rabbit, one carrot, one onion, fish seasonings, salt, half a lemon and a few tablespoons of vegetable oil.

Oven cooking process

We start cooking with vegetables, as they must first be stewed. We clean the carrots and rub on a coarse grater. We put the pan on the fire, pour a little vegetable oil and spread the vegetable. Then we clean it much more delicately than usual to taste, cut into half rings and also put in a pan. We mix the vegetables, salt, add a little water (a few tablespoons) and close the lid. Stir occasionally, simmer until cooked. It's time to take up the fish. We cut off the short fin available on the carcass with scissors. After that, cut it into small pieces. Pour seasonings and salt in a small saucer, mix them and rub each piece of fish with this mixture.

She will marinate while our vegetables are stewed. As soon as the onions and carrots are ready, we take the baking dish and transfer the vegetables to it. Pre-lubricate the pan with oil is not necessary. Next, put slices of chimera fish on vegetables on top and squeeze the juice of half a lemon onto it. Preheat the oven to 200 degrees, send the mold into it, and after 20 minutes the delicious dish is ready. It must be served hot with a side dish of rice or mashed potatoes. Bon Appetit!

Mysterious creatures inhabit the deep waters of mysterious oceans. 400 million years ago evolution an unusual underwater inhabitant appeared - a chimera fish.

This creature is sometimes called ghost sharks. And this fish got the name chimera for its appearance. The fact is that in Greek mythology there was a legend about a monstrous woman, whose whole body was formed from parts of different animals. Seeing a fish with a strange appearance, the ancient Greeks decided that its body does not at all look like an ordinary representative of fish - as if it was also made up of parts of animals. Therefore, the chimera fish got its name.


Chimera deep sea fish

This fish belongs to the cartilaginous, is a chimeric-like detachment, a family of chimeric.

Among the class of cartilaginous fish, chimeras appeared on our planet the very first. They are considered to be distant relatives of sharks. Today, scientists have counted on our planet about 50 species of these unusual fish.

The appearance of chimera fish

The body length of an adult reaches 1.5 meters. The skin of these fish is smooth, with colorful shades. In males, between the eyes on the head there is a bone growth (spike), which has a curved shape.

The tail of these fish is very long, it reaches sizes equal to half the length of the whole body. The appearance of these representatives of the chimeric family can be called large wing-shaped lateral fins. Spreading them, the chimera becomes something like a bird.

Chimera-like order (Chimaeriformes) (V.M. Makushok)

Modern representatives of the detachment are characterized by a valky body, somewhat compressed laterally and thinning towards the tail. Of the two dorsal fins, the first is located above the pectoral fins, short, high, armed in front with a strong spike, both the spike and the fin itself can be folded and retracted into the corresponding recess on the back. The second dorsal fin is very long, extends back almost to the beginning of the caudal fin, not folding. The narrow caudal fin is often continued in the form of a long thread. The anal fin is small, separated from the caudal fin by a deep notch or completely merges with it. Fan-shaped paired fins are well developed, ventral fins are smaller than pectoral fins and are far pushed back, attaching at the level of the anus. Fins with fleshy bases, their lobes are thin and flexible. The mouth is small, lower, with a three-lobed upper lip. 5 pairs of gill arches and 4 pairs of gill openings are covered by a skin fold, which is supported by finger-shaped cartilage. The spatter disappears in the early stages of development. Pterygopodia of males, to one degree or another equipped with plakoid denticles, in the form of integral formations, bifid or even tripartite. In addition to pterygopodia, males develop special organs supported by the cartilaginous skeleton and armed with strong spines. These are the so-called "holders" (tenacula), which serve to hold the female in copulation. They are represented by an unpaired frontal appendage and paired abdominal. The naked body is covered with copious mucus. Placoid scales ("skin teeth") covering the body in some extinct whole-headed and characteristic for plate-gill, in the living chimera, survived, as a rule, only in connection with the functional specialization in pterygopodia and holders of males and were transformed into a spine of the anterior dorsal fin and small rings in which the bed of channels of the "side line" system is enclosed. In some species, these formations in the form of denticles also persist on the back.

Chimera-like - mainly deep-sea marine bottom fish inhabiting the shelf and slope of the main shallow at depths from several meters to 2500 m in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. None in the Arctic Ocean and in the waters of the Antarctic. In our waters are not marked. Reach in length from 60 cm up to 2 m . Females are larger than males.

Not belonging to fast swimmers, chimera-like ones move due to acne-like bending of the tail of the body and the wavy movement of the pectoral fins. At the same time, the ventral fins, which play the role of stabilizers, are placed in the horizontal plane. More active at night, and even shallow forms, judging by aquarium observations, do not like bright light. Resting on the bottom, they rely on the tips of paired fins and on the tail. The fish are very tender, almost do not show any resistance when captured and quickly die out of the water. In the aquarium, they take root poorly.

They breathe with their mouth closed, as they pump water to the gills through the nostrils communicating with the oral cavity.

They feed mainly on bottom invertebrates (mollusks, crabs, ophiuras, and sea urchins), and small fish are occasionally found in their stomachs. Food is not swallowed whole, but is bitten off in small pieces or crushed by powerful tooth plates.

Fertilization is internal, carried out using pterygopodia. Each female ovary contains up to 100 eggs, but only 2 large eggs mature and lay at the same time, each of which is enclosed in a huge horn capsule 12-42 long cm . Capsules are deposited directly on the ground or attached to stones and algae. 9-12 months the incubation of the embryo, which on each side develops a bundle of long external gill filaments. Apparently, through these gills, the yolk is absorbed, most of which is outside the yolk sac. By the time the embryo leaves the capsule, the external gills disappear, and the babies are similar in appearance to their parents.

Chimera-like - schooling fish, at least shallow-water species. They are hunted in the USA (Pacific coast), Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and China. In the last two countries, chimera-shaped meat is eaten. In some places, the fat extracted from the liver of these fish, which is used as a medicine and as an excellent lubricant, is highly valued.

Extinct members of the order, comprising 13 families, are known from the Lower Jurassic, and the modern genera Chimaera and Callorhinchus from the Upper Cretaceous. About 30 living species belong to three closely related families.

Chimeric Family (Chimaeridae)

This family is characterized by a blunt snout, bifid or tripartite pterygopodia in males, and other characters. Some species have a poisonous gland at the base of the spinal cord. The family includes 21–22 species belonging to two genera: in the genus Chimaera, the anal fin is isolated from the caudal fin, and in the genus Hydrolagus, these fins are completely merged.

Kind Chimeras (Chimaera) includes 6 species. Of which the most famous european chimera (Chimaera monstrosa), which lives in the East Atlantic from Iceland and Norway to the Mediterranean Sea and off the coast of South Africa (absent in tropical waters). In the Barents Sea, it is usual up to Finmarken and only occasionally enters the Varanger Fjord. Reaches a length of 1.5 m .

The back is painted in reddish-brown tones, silver sides are dotted with yellowish-brown spots, and a blackish-brown border runs along the edge of the caudal and dorsal fins.

In the north, the most common at depths of 200-500 m , and in the south (off the coast of Morocco) - at depths of 350-700 m . In winter, it approaches the coast, in the Norwegian fiords it is caught at this time at a depth of 90-180 m . Usually, single individuals fall into the trawl, but in the spring near Northwest Norway, several dozen specimens are often caught for one trawl. Eggs are laid all year round, excluding the autumn months. Spindle-shaped egg capsule 15-18 long cm , with a characteristic strongly elongated and thin front end. Chimeras are not consumed. Fat from the liver has long been famous for its healing properties, especially when lubricating wounds and abrasions.

Cuban Chimera (Ch. Cubana), which was previously mistaken for the European chimera, is known from the coast of Cuba from a depth of 400-500 m. The remaining species of the genus are found in the waters of Japan, the Yellow Sea and the Philippine Islands.

Kind Hydrolags (Hydrolagus) contains 15-16 species: 3 species are known from the North Atlantic, 4-5 species are from the waters of Japan, 3 species are from the waters of Australia and one species is from South Africa, New Zealand, the Philippines, Hawaii and the north West Coast of North America.

Best studied american hydrolag (N. colliei), living at depths of 40-60 m along the American coast from Baja California to Western Alaska. He is slightly smaller than the European chimera. It is found in places in such abundance that it fills the trawls to the limit. Breeds all year round, but the most intensive breeding occurs in August - September. Aquarium observations showed that the removal of horny egg capsules lasts up to 30 hours, after which the female drags the capsules suspended on elastic (attachment) threads for several days, until the threads break and the capsules are on the ground. Mature oocytes reach 2 cm in diameter. It is not eaten. Liver fat in parts of Canada is used to clean guns, and has recently been increasingly used as an excellent tool for lubricating parts in precision instruments.

Family Rhinocimera, or Nose chimeras (Rhinochimaeridae)

Fish of this family are distinguished by a strongly elongated pointed snout and solid pterygopodia in males. Nose chimeras, numbering 3 genera, are the deepest representatives of the order, inhabiting the lower part of the shelf and dumps of the continental step. As a result, they are known for a small number of finds, and the biology of representatives of this family has not been studied at all.

Kind Harriota (Harriotta) is represented by one species (N. raleighana), known from the depths of 700-2500 m from the North Atlantic and from the waters of Japan and California. Apparently, the garriota also lives in the Indian Ocean, from where the germinal capsule, presumably belonging to this species, is known. It is painted in an even chocolate brown color.

By the time they exit the capsule, the embryos reach a length of 15 cm , and the largest of the captured females was 99 in length cm .

Neogarriota (Neoharriotta pinnata) observed in West Africa at a depth of 220-470 m , and from the Caribbean Sea from a depth of 360-550 m known for Neoharriotta carri. Kind Nosed chimera (Rhinochimaera), which gave the name to the family, is known for two species: R. atlantica (North Atlantic) and R.pacifica (Japan).

Family Callorhinchidae, or Proboscis Chimeras (Callorhinchidae)

The family of proboscis chimaeras is represented by only one genus Kallorinha (Callorhinchus), which is remarkable for the fact that the front part of the snout is elongated in a kind of trunk that is strongly compressed from the sides, the end of which is sharply bent back and carries a transverse leaf-shaped lobe. It is believed that this organ, which is in the form of a plow or, rather, a hoe, serves both as a locator and a shovel, and that a fish hovering above the bottom with its help, as a mine detector, can detect invertebrate animals buried in the ground, and with it help dig them out. The tail is without a threadlike extension, its axis is slightly bent upward, and the lower lobe of the caudal fin in front is much higher than its upper lobe (i.e., the tail is heterocercal). The short anal fin is separated from the caudal fin by a deep notch, dorsal fins widely spaced. The spinal column is devoid of calcified rings surrounding the chord. Pterygopodia of males in the form of whole rods, without club-shaped swellings at the ends. The abdominal "holders" are spoon-shaped, with multi-vertex teeth along the inner edge, the openings of their pockets are directed along the body. The same pockets, but of a smaller size, are available in females.

Representatives of the genus Callorinch live only in temperate and moderately cold waters of the southern hemisphere - off the coast of South America (from South Brazil and Peru to Tierra del Fuego), South Africa, South Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. The issue of the number of species in this genus has not yet been resolved. Some researchers tend to distinguish 3-4 species, while others consider them to be geographical populations of the same species Callorhinchus callorhinchus. Kallorhinhs often reach more than a meter in length and weight up to 10 kg . Painted in greenish-yellow color, along the sides of the body there are three black stripes. Apparently, due to the special light-refracting properties of the mucus covering their body, the newly caught callorins shimmer in such a rich range of silver-iridescent shades that no color photograph is able to convey it. Usually caught at depths of 5-50 m . In Tasmania, large schools of these fish often go into shallow bays and even into rivers. With the onset of cold weather they go down to depths of 200 m and more. Females lay huge germ capsules from 17 to 42 in length cm .

In New Zealand, it is harvested in fairly large quantities and is eaten. Fresh meat of calorinha is distinguished by excellent taste, but as soon as it lies down a little, it starts to give off an ammonia smell (a feature, incidentally, is also characteristic of shark meat).

How does it look and where is it found?

The true name of this fish sounds ominously - the European chimera (Chimaera monstrosa). It belongs to the chimera-like cartilaginous fish and is found in the waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is also found in the Barents Sea.

Did you know?The sea hare does not have a swimming bladder, just like a shark, therefore it is forced to constantly be in motion to stay afloat.

Externally, this marine inhabitant does not look very attractive, its characteristic features are a large triangular-shaped head, a massive jaw and a long filiform tail. This fish is called a hare because of some external similarity of its muzzle to a hare.

Some seafood sellers call it a sea rabbit, but this is erroneous, because a sea rabbit is a separate representative of the underwater kingdom, which is a mollusk.

Calorie content and chemical composition

The meat of a marine chimera is a low-calorie, diet food:

  • the calorie content of 100 grams of sea hare fillet is only 116 kcal,
  • meat contains essential omega-3 fatty acids,
  • Chimera fillet is rich in vitamins A, E and D.

Beneficial features

Like any seafood, the European chimera has a lot of useful properties:

  • the first and most important thing - the fillet of a sea hare is an ideal source of easily digestible protein, which is especially valuable for athletes and people involved in physical labor,
  • the presence of fatty acids in meat has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin, hair, nails, internal organs, in particular the liver, and regulates blood cholesterol,

Important!Few people know that the European chimera has a poisonous upper fin, so when cutting a carcass you need to be extremely careful not to hurt it and not get hurt.

  • Vitamins A, E, D, found in the fillet of this fish, are useful for malnutrition and hypervitaminosis.

  • Contraindications and harm

    Of course, like any other product, the meat of a sea hare is not useful to everyone and not always:

    • first of all, you need to consider that this fish most often feeds in the bottom of the reservoir - accordingly, it is possible that it consumed carrion and toxic products,
    • like most seafood, the chimera is a highly allergenic food, so it is better to avoid allergies, children under 3 years old and pregnant women.

    How to cook in the oven

    The sea hare is an infrequent guest on the shelves of shops and markets, more often it can be found in restaurants as an exquisite delicacy. Indeed, the preparation of a chimera without certain experience and secrets may end in failure.

    Her meat is quite stiff, but juicy, with proper preparation, has a mild fish taste and a dense texture. If the fish was not the first freshness or when the carcass was cut, the fins were damaged, the finished fillet will give bitterness.
    To avoid this, you need to buy seafood only in proven places equipped with refrigerators. A fresh chimera should have clear eyes and red gills. There are quite a lot of recipes for making a sea hare, but keep in mind that simply frying it in oil is impractical due to the specifics of meat.

    You can best appreciate the taste of fish by baking it in the oven under various marinades and sauces that add juiciness and piquancy. The fillet of a sea hare turns out to be very tasty if you bake it under a double fur coat.

    To do this, you will need:

    • fish (1-2 medium carcasses),
    • ground black pepper
    • spice mix for fish,
    • greens ,
    • pickles (3-4 medium-sized pieces),
    • (3-4 cloves),
    • (1 PC.),
    • (approximately 300 g)
    • (1 glass)
    • (2 tablespoons)
    • fresh champignons (approximately 200 g),

    What different and unusual fish exist in nature, and what kind of names are not invented for them! For example, a chimera fish: one name of this animal does not cause the most pleasant associations. And if you look at this inhabitant of the deep sea, then opinions can be divided. Some see a very cute and pretty fish that looks like a soaring bird, while others see a monster. So who is she really, this mysterious marine resident, who is also called by another strange name - the fish of the sea hare.

    Very close relatives of the chimera are: they are all cartilaginous fish and have a spine of cartilaginous tissue. Look at the photo of chimera fish and try to find common features with sharks!

    Economic value of chimeras


    The meat of these fish is considered inedible, but people attribute the miraculous healing properties of many diseases to the fat extracted from the liver of these underwater inhabitants.

    Attention, only TODAY!

    Today, the abundance of marine products is so great that it is quite difficult to surprise their connoisseurs.

    However, only recently a mysterious fish, popularly called the sea hare, appeared on sale. Fans of culinary experiments will probably be interested in what kind of an amazing creature it is and how it should be eaten.

    Natural enemies of chimeras

    In view of the deep-sea lifestyle, chimera fish have virtually no enemies. But there is one caveat: young relatives of these fish are often eaten by their relatives, only older in age. So they are, these underwater predators!

    Economic value of chimeras


    The meat of these fish is considered inedible, but people attribute the miraculous healing properties of many diseases to the fat extracted from the liver of these underwater inhabitants.

    Attention, only TODAY!

    Today, the abundance of marine products is so great that it is quite difficult to surprise their connoisseurs.

    However, only recently a mysterious fish, popularly called the sea hare, appeared on sale. Fans of culinary experiments will probably be interested in what kind of an amazing creature it is and how it should be eaten.

    How does it look and where is it found?

    The true name of this fish sounds ominously - the European chimera (Chimaera monstrosa). It belongs to the chimera-like cartilaginous fish and is found in the waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is also found in the Barents Sea.

    Did you know?The sea hare does not have a swimming bladder, just like a shark, therefore it is forced to constantly be in motion to stay afloat.

    Externally, this marine inhabitant does not look very attractive, its characteristic features are a large triangular-shaped head, a massive jaw and a long filiform tail. This fish is called a hare because of some external similarity of its muzzle to a hare.

    Some seafood sellers call it a sea rabbit, but this is erroneous, because a sea rabbit is a separate representative of the underwater kingdom, which is a mollusk.

    Calorie content and chemical composition

    The meat of a marine chimera is a low-calorie, diet food:

    • the calorie content of 100 grams of sea hare fillet is only 116 kcal,
    • meat contains essential omega-3 fatty acids,
    • Chimera fillet is rich in vitamins A, E and D.

    Beneficial features

    Like any seafood, the European chimera has a lot of useful properties:

    • the first and most important thing - the fillet of a sea hare is an ideal source of easily digestible protein, which is especially valuable for athletes and people involved in physical labor,
    • the presence of fatty acids in meat has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin, hair, nails, internal organs, in particular the liver, and regulates blood cholesterol,

    Important!Few people know that the European chimera has a poisonous upper fin, so when cutting a carcass you need to be extremely careful not to hurt it and not get hurt.

  • Vitamins A, E, D, found in the fillet of this fish, are useful for malnutrition and hypervitaminosis.

  • Contraindications and harm

    Of course, like any other product, the meat of a sea hare is not useful to everyone and not always:

    • first of all, you need to consider that this fish most often feeds in the bottom of the reservoir - accordingly, it is possible that it consumed carrion and toxic products,
    • like most seafood, the chimera is a highly allergenic food, so it is better to avoid allergies, children under 3 years old and pregnant women.

    How to cook in the oven

    The sea hare is an infrequent guest on the shelves of shops and markets, more often it can be found in restaurants as an exquisite delicacy. Indeed, the preparation of a chimera without certain experience and secrets may end in failure.

    Her meat is quite stiff, but juicy, with proper preparation, has a mild fish taste and a dense texture. If the fish was not the first freshness or when the carcass was cut, the fins were damaged, the finished fillet will give bitterness.
    To avoid this, you need to buy seafood only in proven places equipped with refrigerators. A fresh chimera should have clear eyes and red gills. There are quite a lot of recipes for making a sea hare, but keep in mind that simply frying it in oil is impractical due to the specifics of meat.

    You can best appreciate the taste of fish by baking it in the oven under various marinades and sauces that add juiciness and piquancy. The fillet of a sea hare turns out to be very tasty if you bake it under a double fur coat.

    For this you need:

    • fish (1-2 medium carcasses),
    • ground black pepper
    • spice mix for fish,
    • greens ,
    • pickles (3-4 medium-sized pieces),
    • (3-4 cloves),
    • (1 PC.),
    • (approximately 300 g)
    • (1 glass)
    • (2 tablespoons)
    • fresh champignons (approximately 200 g),

    Mysterious creatures inhabit the deep waters of mysterious oceans. 400 million years ago evolution an unusual underwater inhabitant appeared - a chimera fish.

    This creature is sometimes called ghost sharks. And this fish got the name chimera for its appearance. The fact is that in Greek mythology there was a legend about a monstrous woman, whose whole body was formed from parts of different animals. Seeing a fish with a strange appearance, the ancient Greeks decided that its body does not at all look like an ordinary representative of fish - as if it was also made up of parts of animals. Therefore, the chimera fish got its name.

    This fish belongs to the cartilaginous, is a chimeric-like detachment, a family of chimeric.

    Among the class of cartilaginous fish, chimeras appeared on our planet the very first. They are considered to be distant relatives. Today, scientists have counted on our planet about 50 species of these unusual fish.

    The appearance of chimera fish

    The body length of an adult reaches 1.5 meters. The skin of these fish is smooth, with colorful shades. In males, between the eyes on the head there is a bone growth (spike), which has a curved shape.

    The tail of these fish is very long, it reaches sizes equal to half the length of the whole body. The appearance of these representatives of the chimeric family can be called large wing-shaped lateral fins. Spreading them, the chimera becomes something like a bird.

    The colors of these fish are very diverse, but the predominant colors are light gray and black with frequent and large white patches throughout the surface. In the front of the body, near the dorsal fin, the chimeras have poisonous outgrowths, they are very durable and sharp. Their animal uses for its own protection.

    Where does the "ghost shark" live?

    Representatives of chimera fish can be found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean - from Norway to Iceland, from the Mediterranean Sea to the southern coast of the African mainland. In addition, these creatures live in the Barents Sea.

    Nature behavior

    These fish are inhabitants of deep waters. They can be found at a depth of over 2.5 kilometers. They lead a rather secretive lifestyle. That is why scientists still can not investigate these creatures in detail.

    It is only known that these fish hunt in the dark, to the touch. To attract prey, special devices of the oral apparatus are used - photophores. These "devices" emit a glow, and the victim herself floats into the light, right in the mouth of the chimera.

    What is the basis of the diet of deep-sea chimera fish?

    These cartilaginous fish feed mainly on mollusks, echinoderms, and crustaceans. They can eat other fish that live at the same depths as the chimeras themselves as food. To eat armored and echinoderm animals with sharp spikes on the body, the chimera has sharp teeth that have decent strength and a strong grip.

    How do chimeras breed their offspring?

    These fish are dioecious creatures. After mating females with males, females lay eggs, which are placed in a special hard capsule.

    The breeding process, just like the lifestyle of these fish, is currently poorly studied by scientists.

    Natural enemies of chimeras

    In view of the deep-sea lifestyle, chimera fish have virtually no enemies. But there is one caveat: young relatives of these fish are often eaten by their relatives, only older in age. So they are, these underwater predators!

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