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Order: Euphausiacea Dana, 1852 = Euphausian

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The Euphausiaceae squad - Euphasiacea - combines small crustaceans (body length from 5 to 96 mm), similar to shrimps. Unlike shrimp, euphausian gills on the bases of the pectoral legs are present, not covered by a chest shield.

The Bentheuphausiidae family consists of the only genus Bentheuphausia, including one species of Bentheuphausia amblyops G.O. Sars, 1885, the family Euphausiidae (Euphausiids) is much more diverse and includes eight genera.

Commercial species of euphausiae are known as krill.

Species composition

The krill fishery on a small scale has been conducted since the 19th century, however, it acquired industrial scale only in the second half of the 20th century, especially with the beginning of fishing in the Antarctic waters in the USSR and Japan in the early 1970s, the species composition was not specified. Since clusters of commercial importance in Antarctic waters form as representatives of the euphausian groups (genera Thysanoessa and Euphausia) and amphipods (genus Themisto hyperorder suborder) - primarily euphausids Euphausia superba and hyperides Themisto gaudichaudii, then initially a fairly wide range of various species fell under the definition of commercial krill, for example, in BSE krill amphibians also included in the composition of krill, however, with the further development of the fishery and the detailed composition of the species composition, including including licensing of catch, krill began to be understood before of all, and then, in some cases and exclusively, euphausiids.

Currently, krill fishing names are given by geographic fishing waters. Of greatest importance is the “Antarctic krill”, which includes up to 80 species of nektonic crustaceans, among which about 30 species are represented by euphausiids, the main commercial species being Euphausia superba, reaching a size of up to 6.5 cm, included in the list of commercial species of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) under the name of Antarctic krill.

Pacific krill is represented by several major commercial species:

  • Euphausia pacifica with a range extending in the northern Pacific Ocean from Japan to the coast of southern California and the coast of Canada, it is fished off the coast of Japan and British Columbi.
  • Euphausia nana, area - the waters of southern Japan and the East China Sea, fishing is conducted off the coast of Japan.
  • Nyctiphanes australisliving in the waters of Southeast Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.

Several commercial species of the genus Thysanoessa common in the cold waters of the northern parts of the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean:

  • Thysanoessa inermis - fishing is conducted off the coast of Japan and in St. Lawrence Bay.
  • Thysanoessa raschii - common in Arctic waters, fishing is carried out in St. Lawrence Bay, proposed for fishing as a species with commercial potential.

Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Norwegian krill, has the most extensive range in the Atlantic waters of the northern hemisphere - from the subarctic waters of Greenland, Iceland and Norway to moderately warm waters - from Cape Hatteras off the American coast in the west to the Mediterranean in the east. Fishing is conducted mainly in the bay of St. Lawrence.

The list of various taxa united by the national, commercial or other collective name "Krill".

  • Order EuphausiaceaDana 1852 - Euphausian
    • Euphausiidae Family
      • EuphausiaDana 1852
      • MeganyctiphanesHolt and W.M. Tattersall 1905
      • NematobrachionCalman 1905
      • NematoscelisG.O.Sars 1883
      • NyctiphanesG.O.Sars 1883
      • PseudeuphausiaHansen 1910
      • StylocheironG.O.Sars 1883
      • TessarabrachionHansen 1911
      • ThysanoessaBrandt 1851
      • ThysanopodaLatreille 1831
    • Family Bentheuphausiidae
      • Bentheuphausia amblyops G.O.Sars 1883
  • Squad AmphipodaLatreille - Amphipods
    • Hyperiidae Family
      • Themisto gaudichaudii
Table 1. Main commercial species of krill (by FAO Krill Fisheries of the World 1997)
ViewFishing name
local name
Maximum weight (g)Maximum length (mm)Life cycleDepth of habitatFishing areas
Euphausia superbaAntarctic krill2655-7 years oldFrom surface to 500 mAntarctic
Euphausia pacificaPacific krill
Isada
0.1201-2 yearsFrom the surface to 300 mJapan, British Columbia
Euphausia nanaAmi-ebi0.0110Fishing

Industrial fishing of krill is currently carried out in Antarctic waters and off the coast of Japan; world production of krill at the beginning of the 21st century is estimated at 150-200 thousand tons.

Annual catch E. superba, FAO data.
“-” - fishing was not carried out, “0” - catch less than 500 tons.
The countryAnnual catch (in 1000 tons)
198081828384858687888919909192939495969798992000010203
Japan362835434740607873796969785761635960676681675160
South Korea--123--222411-----30781420
Poland0-00-02358310157813221420202014169
Ukraine------------55-135910--7-143218
USSR / Russia441420492186692283333443102583262491032----------
USA---------------------21210

Sources

  1. ↑ Krill // Fishbase.Org
  2. Euphausia superba // Species Fact Sheet, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
  3. ↑ Data extracted from the FAO Fisheries Global Capture Production Database for Antarctic krill. The most recent data sets are for the year 2003. Accessed June 24, 2005.

Literature

This page uses content Wikipedia section in Russian. The original article is located at Krill. A list of the original authors of the article can be found in revision history. This article, like the article posted on Wikipedia, is available under CC-BY-SA.

Content

The krill fishery was conducted on a small scale since the 19th century, however, it acquired industrial scale only in the second half of the 20th century, especially with the beginning of fishing in the Antarctic waters in the USSR and Japan in the early 1970s, the species composition was not specified. Since clusters of commercial importance in Antarctic waters form as representatives of the Euphausian groups (genera Thysanoessa and Euphausia) and amphipods (genus Themisto suborder hyperiids) - primarily Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and hyperiids Themisto gaudichaudii, then initially a fairly wide range of different species fell under the definition of commercial krill, for example, in BSE krill amphibians-hyperiids were included in krill, however, with the further development of the fishery and the detailed composition of the species composition, including including licensing of catch, krill began to be understood before of all, and then, in some cases and exclusively, euphausiids.

Currently, fishing names for krill are given by geographical location. Of greatest importance is the “Antarctic krill”, which includes up to 80 species of nektonic crustaceans (of which about 30 species are represented by euphausiids), the main of which is the species of the same name, whose individuals reach a size of 6.5 cm, included in the list of commercial species of Food and United Nations Agricultural Organization (FAO).

Pacific krill is represented by several major commercial species:

  • Euphausia pacifica with a range extending in the northern Pacific Ocean from Japan to the coast of southern California and the coast of Canada, it is fished off the coast of Japan and British Columbia.
  • Euphausia nana, area - the waters of southern Japan and the East China Sea, fishing is conducted off the coast of Japan.
  • Nyctiphanes australisliving in the waters of Southeast Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.

Several commercial species of the genus Thysanoessa common in the cold waters of the northern parts of the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean:

  • Thysanoessa inermis - fishing is conducted off the coast of Japan and in St. Lawrence Bay.
  • Thysanoessa raschii - common in Arctic waters, fishing is carried out in St. Lawrence Bay, proposed for fishing as a species with commercial potential.

Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Norwegian krill, has the most extensive range in the Atlantic waters of the northern hemisphere - from the subarctic waters of Greenland, Iceland and Norway to moderately warm waters - from Cape Hatteras off the American coast in the west to the Mediterranean in the east. Fishing is conducted mainly in the bay of St. Lawrence.

The list of various taxa united by the national, commercial or other collective name "Krill".

  • Order EuphausiaceaDana, 1852 - Euphausian, or Euphausian
    • Euphausiidae Family
      • Euphausia Dana, 1852
      • Meganyctiphanes Holt et W. M. Tattersall, 1905
      • Nematobrachion Calman, 1905
      • Nematoscelis G.O.Sars, 1883
      • Nyctiphanes G.O.Sars, 1883
      • Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910
      • Stylocheiron G.O.Sars, 1883
      • Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911
      • Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851
      • Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831
    • Family Bentheuphausiidae
      • Bentheuphausia amblyops G.O.Sars, 1883
  • Squad AmphipodaLatreille - Amphipods
    • Hyperiidae Family
      • Themisto gaudichaudii
Table 1. Main commercial species of krill (by FAO Krill Fisheries of the World 1997)
ViewFishing name
local name
Maximum weight (g)Maximum length (mm)Life cycleDepth of habitatFishing areas
Euphausia superbaAntarctic krill2655-7 yearsFrom surface to 500 mAntarctic
Euphausia pacificaPacific krill
Isada
0,1201-2 yearsFrom the surface to 300 mJapan, British Columbia
Euphausia nanaAmi-ebi0,0110The Importance of Krill in Oceanic Ecosystems

Krill, being at the beginning of food chains, is the basis of a number of ocean ecosystems (for example, the coastal ecosystems of Antarctica): feeding on phytoplankton and small zooplankton, it, in turn, serves as food for baleen whales, crabeater seals, pelagic fish and birds.

Industrial fishing of krill is currently carried out in Antarctic waters and off the coast of Japan; world production of krill at the beginning of the 21st century is estimated at 150-200 thousand tons.

Annual catch E. superba, FAO data.
“-” - fishing was not carried out, “0” - catch less than 500 tons.
The countryAnnual catch (in 1000 tons)
198081828384858687888919909192939495969798992000010203
Japan362835434740607873796969785761635960676681675160
South Korea--123--222411-----30781420
Poland0-00-02358310157813221420202014169
Ukraine------------55-135910--7-143218
USSR / Russia441420492186692283333443102583262491032----------
USA---------------------21210

Antarctic krill are fished exclusively in the Antarctic zone according to quotas determined by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

CCAMLR was established in 1982 based on the international Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. This international organization not only regulates the catch of animals, but is also responsible for the conservation of Antarctic marine ecosystems using the ecosystem approach to their management.

Catching krill in a gentle, safe and environmentally friendly manner is a major CCAMLR requirement. CCAMLR also determines the size of quotas for catching krill for its member countries. Quotas are calculated based on how much krill is consumed by whales, marine mammals and penguins.

The fishing season begins on December 1st and ends on November 30th of the following year. The maximum permissible catch of krill in 2014 amounted to 620 thousand tons. This level is based on the historic maximum of annual catch in region 48 (the place where krill are harvested the most) and is an indicator of how much krill can be caught before special resource management measures are put in place.

The fishing is carried out by special vessels - trawlers, which are huge floating factories where caught krill can be frozen, processed into krill flour and / or krill oil, and Omega-3 capsules and food additives can also be made from it. The systems for catching and processing krill for each trawler are developed by our own specialists and are a kind of know-how. The search for krill is carried out by special sonar equipment.

In 2014, fishing was conducted by six countries: Ukraine, Poland, Norway, China, Korea, Chile. The only former republic of the USSR that resumed fishing for krill after its collapse is Ukraine (Interrybflot OJSC). A company trawler called the Commonwealth Sea was modernized in January 2013 and today is the second largest trawler fishing for krill in the Antarctic waters.

Krill meat is a natural source of vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the product is rich in magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, phosphorus, chromium, which improves the production of hormones and enzymes in the body, and normalizes metabolism. It is recommended to use krill meat in salads with the addition of eggs, nuts, lemon and various green vegetables.

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