Cirsium oleraceum - Kohldistel (Cirsium oleraceum) Systematik Ordnung: Asternartige (Asterales) ... Deutsch Wikipedia
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CIRSIUM OLERACEUM (L.) SCOP. - GARDEN - see 976. Perennial plant. C. oleraceum (L.) Scop. B. Garden Fl. Cam. ed. II, 2 (1772) 124. Akemine (1933) 24. S at n. Cnicus oleraceus L., Serratula oleracea Neck., Cnicus pratensis Lam., C. bracteatus Gilib. M e n and a c. Germ. ... ... Handbook of plants
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. - many., VII – VIII Sem. Asteraceae (Compositae) - Compositae 270. Genus Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. - Butyak 514. Buttock garden Raw tall tall spruce forests and gray alder forests along river banks and streams, secondary small-leaved forests, raw ... ... Flora of the Central Forest State Reserve
Cirsium - vulgare (Spear Thistle) Scientific> Wikipedia
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Cirsium - Kratzdisteln Blütenstand der Acker Kratzdistel Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnli ... Deutsch Wikipedia
Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. - Genus 270. Cirsium (Sem. Asteraceae - Compositae) 512. Cirsium arvense Scop. - Field Cirsium (Syn: Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bieb.) 513. Cirsium heterophyllum Hill - Cirsium heterophyllus 514. Cirsium oleraceum Scop. - Buttock garden 515. Cirsium ... ... Flora of the Central Forest State Reserve
Bodyak is not included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation and is not used in official medicine, since the useful properties of the plant are poorly studied, as well as its active substances. At the same time, the healing properties of an artisan are used in folk medicine. For example, a thistle varifolia (lat. Cirsium heterophyllum L.) is used for diseases of the respiratory tract, including tuberculosis and asthma, and garden thistle (C. oleraceum L.) - as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent.
Contraindications and side effects
Cirsium is a poisonous plant! Therefore, the use of plants for medicinal purposes is not recommended!
Cirsium - perennial, 60-150 (200) cm tall, slightly spiky herbaceous plant, with a short thick rhizome. The stalk is thick, erect, not prickly and not winged. The leaves are alternate, weakly prickly, large (10-40 cm in length and 8-18 cm in width), green above, completely gray from below from densely pressed pubescence, lower ones are petiolate, middle and upper ones are sessile, semi-small, lanceolate in outline. The uppermost and lower leaves are usually whole, serrate, median - deeply ciriform or dissected into thin lobes, the edges of the leaf blade and their lobes are prickly or finely prickly. The flowers are small, tubular, lilac, collected in large 3-5 cm in diameter, single or several at the ends of the stems, prickly baskets with spiky leaves of the wrapper. Fruit - achene with crest of cirrus hairs. It blooms in June - September.
In the non-flowering state, the species of artifact is outwardly similar, but in the garden’s gardenac (lat. Cirsium heterophyllum L.), the leaves do not have gray felt pubescence, contrasting coloration and variegation (a combination of cirrus and whole) as in the variegated cirsium (lat. Cirsium oleraceum L.). The flowers are also of different shades: in a variegated peduncle - lilac, and in a gardener artifact - pale, greenish-yellow.
The thistle grows mainly in Eurasia, is most diverse in the Mediterranean, Central and Western Asia, and is also found in North Africa and North America. In the flora of Russia there are 11 species. The thistle is multi-leaved - throughout the European part of Russia, the usual type of moist and swampy broad-grass forests, but mainly coniferous and small-leaved, grows in broad-leaved only along the banks of streams and deep moist ravines, in swampy alder forests and birch forests, it often forms thickets along waterways, is the dominant. Often grows in treeless and shrubby flood plains, as well as in tall grassy meadows. Garden pebble - a typical representative of moisture-loving grasses (especially in Central Russia), is associated with rich soils and more or less flowing excess moisture. It also grows in moist forests, spruce and small-leaved forests (birch forests, alder forests, aspen forests), as well as in swampy meadows, forest edges, in damp bushes, vegetable gardens.
Harvesting raw materials
For medicinal purposes, grass and root are mostly used. Grass is usually harvested during flowering. The root is dug up in the fall, washed well, dried under a canopy in the air, or in a dryer.
Finished raw materials are stored in paper containers in dry, well-ventilated areas throughout the year.
An artisan garden, not growing in the garden
The plant, called the Cirsium oleraceum, is a perennial grass that chooses raw meadows, river floodplains, viscous shores of forest streams, the outskirts of marshes, and bushes for life.
Its neighbors are meadowsweet meadowsweet, various sedges, kaluzhnitsa, spring brush. From tree species - black alder, three-stalked willow.
It is clear that grass with similar addictions has nothing to do in our gardens. An artisan gardener will soon choose a peat bog for life.
The plant is widespread in the forest zone of European Russia, in the south of Western Siberia.
A long creeping rhizome, equipped with numerous fibrous roots, provides a supply of nutrients and spring renewal of aboveground shoots.
The gardener can reach a height of a meter and even more. The hollow inside the stem is covered with numerous grooves, often pubescent. At a height of 30 - 40 centimeters from the ground, the stem begins to branch.
Large basal leaves on long petioles are dissected into lobes. The stem leaves are smaller, they are also petiolate, with a large serrated margin. On the stalk are arranged alternately and far enough apart.
But at the top of the shoots of leaves much more. It seems that they are squeezing each other, forming a dense "ball". By such leafy tops, the gardener is easily recognizable.
In shape, these leaves are already different. The pointed apex, the heart-shaped base covering the stem, petiole no. Neither give nor take - the tip of the spear!
And the lobes of the basal leaves, and large teeth of the stem, and the edge of the upper leaves are broken by small teeth, each of which ends with a spine. But these spines are soft. Buttock gardener is not prickly.
The upper leaves differ not only in shape but also in color - they are pale green. And those located above all are yellow-green, with cilia along the edge. These particular leaves are called supporting bracts. Baskets of flowers grow next to them.
Several flower baskets on "felt" flower stalks grow in a tight group, crowning the main and side shoots of the garden garden. The bases of the baskets are "spider". The web looks like very narrow, non-spiny wrapper leaves.
In the baskets collected tubular flowers are yellow-green or pale yellow. They are rich in nectar, like the flowers of other bodyparts. But not very noticeable externally.
It is to attract insect pollinators that a close neighborhood of baskets and large yellowish bracts that stand out from other leaves are needed.
Beginning in June, an orchard gardener blooms on moist meadows and shrubs, providing nectar to bees, bumblebees, and some other insects. And it blooms, as it should be to the calf, until late autumn.
Why was the gardener so named?
Why did the plant get such a name? Most likely, "there is a place to be" some kind of mistake in the translation from Latin into Russian. In reference books and qualifiers, the Latin name is written like this - Cirsium oleraceum (L.) .
The letter L in brackets means that the name was given by Karl Linnaeus, who first applied the binary (double) system of names of plants and animals in biology. (Naturally, Linnaeus did not give the names in Russian, but in Latin).
The word Cirsium is the name of the genus. In Russian, this genus is called Bodyyak. The second word is oleraceum - a specific name.
I am not a connoisseur of Latin. However, searches for translation on the Internet give such a result. The word "olus" in Latin meant something like "green", "vegetable". And the word "olera" translator Yandex translates as "vegetables". Of course, translation is automatic. But something like this was to be expected.
The fact is that the gardener is a wild-growing edible, vegetable plant. Its leaves and young stems can be used for salads and soups. Boiled with boiling water, the shoots are ground and cooked with vitamin puree.
They came into the forest at the beginning of summer, gathered young shoots of common Dreams, found and prepared leaves and stalks of garden peppermint. Here is the salad, and dressing for cabbage soup or topping! By the way, the harvesting of not only dreams, but also the gardener was recommended during the Great Patriotic War for the use of these wild-growing vegetables in dining rooms.
Therefore, it seems to me that Karl Linnaeus once called this bodyker still not "garden", but "vegetable". The translators let us down a bit. Where do vegetables grow? - in the garden! And then it went - and got used to it.
That's just the poor users of Runet googling everything: "How to deal with a gardener?" ..
Why fight it?
The use of gardening
I have already said above about the use of garden peppermint for food. And how else is the plant used?
This is a good honey plant, as well as other bodyparts. They use gardenine and as a fodder plant. In any case, when harvesting hay for pets, no one even thinks to throw it away - not prickly, not bitter.
It seems to be using a plant and traditional medicine. But very limited. In any case, in serious books on medicinal plants I have not yet met a gardener. But nevertheless, kinship should not be discounted. And many germs have healing properties.
Perhaps you still know something about the use of garden peppermint? In this case, please share in the comments.
The gardener is Russian scientific name of the plant. Surely in different places other grass names existed on this grass. But, it seems to me, they are now completely forgotten. If you recognize the weed and remember what your grandparents called it - this is also a good reason to comment.
Thistle variegated - the chemical composition has not been studied enough, the plant found: essential oil, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, rubber, anthocyanins, fats, resins.
The gardeniocardum contains a lot of ascorbic acid, tannins, alkaloids, essential oil, resins, fats, flavonoids and glycosides are revealed.
Application in traditional medicine
In folk medicine, they mainly use the grass of two types of gingerbread (thistle variegated and garden). For example, an artifact of variegated healers is used as a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing agent. The plant in folk medicine is used for diseases of the respiratory tract, including asthma and tuberculosis. Cirsium is used in the form of powders and lotions, finely chopped fresh grass plants are applied to abrasions and boils. For the quick healing of fresh wounds, lotions are made from the infusion of the butyx, and purulent wounds are sprinkled with dry leaf powder. To give the body freshness and reduce perspiration, the infusion of crushed roots of the butyx is added to the bath. The young leaves and shoots of plants have long been eaten.
Artipot garden in folk medicine is used primarily as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent, as well as an anesthetic for severe pain and attacks of various etiologies. In some places of growth, decoction of the root of the body of the garden sorceress heals toothache, cramps, rheumatism and gout. A decoction of the herb of the garden’s gardeny helps with epilepsy, conjunctivitis - cotton swabs moistened with it are put on the eyes. To improve digestion, traditional healers recommend eating young leaves and shoots of a gardener garden in the form of a salad. The healing properties of the butyak are also used in veterinary practice.
1. Abrikosov H.N. et al. Bodyak // M .: Selkhozgiz, 1955. P. 27.
2. Biological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Ch. ed. M.S. Gilyarov) 2nd ed., Rev. M .: Sov. Encyclopedia. 1989.
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