North American Red-necked Anolis
Green anole, Carolina anole (English)
Rotkehlanolis, Amerikanisches Chamäleon (German)
Detachment - Scaly (Squamata).
Family - Anolis (Polychrotidae).
Kind - Anolis (Anolis).
View - Caroline anolis (Anolis carolinensis).
It lives in the southeastern United States. With people settled in the Hawaiian Islands. It is found in tropical forests, tree species, almost never descends to the ground (only for reproduction). He likes to settle close to a person’s home, can even populate abandoned and simply sparsely populated buildings.
Dimensions males can reach 20 cm, females are smaller - only up to 15 cm in length. Sexual dimorphism is well expressed.
The main color is bright green, can change to bright brown, depending on the color of the substrate. The male's throat sac is colored bright red. The lizards themselves have a flattened body, long fingers and a generally very elegant look. Appearance and color allows them to hide well in the foliage of trees, which protects them from predators and helps imperceptibly sneak up on prey.
On the fingers of the anoles there are sticky scales that help them climb vertical surfaces.
Carolina anolises shed several times a year, the anolis eats away the skin leaving during molting.
Calm, but moving fast. They get used to a person well, it is interesting to watch them. They can be tamed, they are good to hands, do not bite.
In case of danger that cannot be avoided, the anoles take a threatening pose - they shake their heads, inflate the throat sac and flatten the body, and as a result appear larger and thereby frighten off the predator.
Males are territorial, do not get along with each other. It is possible to contain anoles in one terrarium with medium-sized frogs, for example, hyperoluses or small tree frogs.
Woody species (they almost never descend to the ground), are active during the day, sleep at night in thickets of plants.
Can throw tail in case of danger. A new tail grows, but it is not so beautiful and long.
Terrarium requires a vertical type, since the Caroline anolis is a woody species. It is better to keep anoles in groups, for one male and two to three females a terrarium of 50x40x60 cm is required, for a group of their male and five to six females a terrarium of 90x45x90 cm is required.
As the soil, you can use wood bark or coconut chips. You need to install pots with living plants in them - anoles do not spoil them, aroid (calathea, arrowroot, syngonium, philodendrons, scindapsus), orchids (cattleya, phalaenopsis, precious orchids), as well as ficuses and ferns, are suitable. Living plants create thickets to shelter anoles and increase the overall humidity in the terrarium. As shelters and for climbing snags from the vine are suitable. At the bottom, you can put a coconut substrate or coconut chips, and mask pots with plants in it. You can simply pour the earth at the bottom of the terrarium and plant the plants there, covering the ground with moss and leaf litter.
A drinker is needed, but not deep (otherwise anoles can drown in it), the water in it needs to be changed daily. It is necessary to spray the terrarium once a day, since anoles love to drink, licking droplets of water from plants, that is how they drink in nature.
Temperatureair in the afternoon 24-28 * C, at a warming point of 29-32 * C. At night, the temperature is lowered to 18-24 * C. It is not recommended to use thermo-mats for heating; it is best to heat the terrarium with incandescent or mirror lamps aimed at the snag area where the lizards will be heated. If anoles are kept at a low temperature, their silver-white belly becomes a dirty gray and dark speck.
Air humidity 75-80%.
Lighting: The daylight hours for the Caroline anolis are 12-14 hours. Mandatory ultraviolet lamps.
Insectivorous species, feeds only on live insects. Suitable feeds are commensurate larvae of wax flares, cockroaches of medium-sized species, and crickets. Feed must be deboned in mineral dressing. Adults are fed once every two to three days. Young animals are fed with small proportional insects, small cockroaches and cricket dust, as well as fruit flies - Drosophila (it is better to use its flightless form).
Medium-sized species requiring a small terrarium.
Unpretentious in food.
Easily tamed, begins to take food with tweezers.
The skin is very delicate, so you need to take them carefully. May throw tail.
In the diet, live food is required.
Unpretentious, interesting to observe and uncomplicated in the content of the lizard. Good for a beginner.
If the required humidity is not maintained, then anoles experience problems with molting - during molting, not all skin comes off, but its scraps remain on the body of the lizard, under them necrosis can develop. Soak these areas with water and carefully remove with tweezers. Prevention of this problem is to maintain high humidity in the terrarium.
Oviparous view. Reproduction stimulation is an increase in temperature and an increase in daylight hours. The male during mating shows the female his bright throat bag. Two weeks after mating, the female lays the only leathery egg in the dug hole and buries it. An egg can develop right in the terrarium. Newborn anoles immediately begin to feed on small larvae and insects (cockroaches, cricket dust, Drosophila). All insects must be sprinkled with mineral and vitamin top dressing, ultraviolet lighting is required.
Life span - The average life expectancy in a terrarium is from 3 to 5 years, with a maximum of 8 years.
Origin of view and description
Anolis-knight (Anolis equestris) is the largest variety of anolis, it belongs to the family of polychrotides, otherwise called the Cuban knightly anolis. This creature with an open mouth was imported to Hawaii from Florida, but initially these lizards fled to Florida from the island of Cuba. In Hawaii, there are three types of anoles. The Anolis Knight is probably the most recent performance first reported in 1981. This was reported to Oahu from Kaneohe, Lanikai, Kahaluu, Kailua and even Waipahu.
Video: Anolis Knight
They have been common in the pet trade in Florida since the 1960s. However, keeping them as pets in Hawaii is illegal. These lizards are completely woody, that is, they live on trees, where they eat medium and large insects, spiders, and sometimes small lizards. Males have large territories and often “make a large body”, opening their mouths and showing a pale pink flap under their mouth, called a stern. They support this pose and swing up and down near other males until one or the other retreats.
Knight anoles can be 30 to 40 cm in length (mainly the tail) and have small teeth that can lead to a painful bite when carelessly handled. They may seem like perfect “pets,” but they are actually “pests” in Hawaii because of their threat to local small animals. If not controlled, they can threaten the existence of some of the fragile local insects, such as damselflies and colorful beetles and butterflies, as well as small chicks.
Appearance and features
Photo: What does Anolis Knight look like?
Adult species of knight anoles have a total length of about 33-50 cm, including a tail that is longer than the head and body. The weight of the species is about 16-137 g. As a rule, males grow larger than females, while adult individuals are 10-19 cm long from snout to funnel. The color of the animal is mostly bright green with a yellow stripe on the sides of the head and the other on the shoulder. They can also change colors to pinkish white.
Interesting fact: A sting of an anolis knight can be painful. These anoles have sharp, small teeth that can cause pain. However, they do not have poison, so you do not need to worry if any anolis bites you. Just clean the bite area with a good antiseptic, or use alcohol to clean the bite area.
The muzzle of the anolis-knight is long and wedge-shaped. The tail is slightly compressed with a serrated upper edge. Each paw is extended in the form of a sticky pad. Adhesive pad occupies the central part of the finger and has an elongated shape. The body is covered with small granular scales with a yellow or white stripe under the eye and over the shoulder. They have a bright green color, which can change to dun. There is sexual dimorphism.
Females often have a line that runs along their dorsal surface, from neck to back, and ends before their tail begins. Most males have sediments that extend from the ventral side of their neck. Such precipitation is rare in females.
The color coat usually has a pinkish tint and is believed to be used by males to improve visibility when caring for females. On the five clawed fingers of the knights of the anoles-knights there are special adhesive plates that allow them to stick to surfaces, making it easier for them to run. This adhesive pad is located on the center of each finger.
Interesting fact: Like all anoles, if an anolis-knight loses its tail, it has the ability to regenerate a new one. However, the new tail will never be the same as the original in size, color or texture.
Where does the anolis knight live?
Photo: Cuban Anolis Knight
This species of anoles is originally from Cuba, but is widespread in South Florida, where it is easily propagated and distributed. They cannot survive in cold temperatures because they freeze in Florida during the winter. Sometimes they were seen on warm asphalt, stones or sidewalks. Knight anoles are especially common in the shade of a tree trunk, as they like to dwell on trees. These animals live during the day, however, due to the heat of the rocks, asphalt or sidewalks at dusk, they temporarily live at night.
Since knight anolis can be found in the United States, they are often caught and captured. This is not necessarily bad, it can lead to the fact that you will not have a very friendly pet. At least for a short period of time. Many report that their ability to adapt to captivity is excellent, and your new pet will eventually become an obedient, friendly pet.
Interesting fact: Faced with an alleged threat, for example, when you try to catch him, the anolis knight will raise his head, exposing a white-red neck, and then begin to swell.
It is a tree-lizard that requires a well-ventilated wire or mesh cage with ample climbing space. At home, one option would be to use a grid from the reptarium.
Knight Anoles need a lot of space to prevent possible fighting. Each time you bring two animals together, you risk that they can fight, but if you keep the animals in a large aviary and feed them well, this will help prevent these fights.
The cage should contain a mixture of soil or bark for the substrate. A cage should contain several branches and plastic plants for climbing and sheltering, and even some living plants will be appreciated.
Now you know where the anolis knight lives. Let's find out what he eats.
What does the anolis knight eat?
Photo: Anolis Knight in nature
Knights anoles are active during the day; they rarely leave the trees they live on. Animals hunt and eat almost everyone who is smaller than themselves, such as insects and spiders, other lizards, tree frogs, chicks and small mammals. Although they do not have large teeth, their teeth are sharp and the jaw muscles are very strong.
The diet of the knight anolis mainly consists of insects at a young age. This species feeds on adult invertebrates (most often snails and insects), but regularly collects fruits and can serve as a seed distributor.
They can also eat small prey of vertebrates such as small birds and reptiles. But it is noticed that they are less common than several other types of anoles. In captivity, an anolis-knight can be fed with crickets, decapitated flour worms, wax worms, mice, earthworms and small lizards.
In the wild, they feed as follows:
Some knight anoles may bite on fresh herbs, if possible, and as an owner you can try an assortment of herbs, but don't expect the anolis to live entirely on fruits and vegetables. These anoles rarely drink from a source of stagnant water and need a waterfall, or at least a bowl with an air stone and a pump to create moving water.
Features of character and lifestyle
Photo: Lizard Knight Anolis
The species is considered diurnal and violently territorial. They can be extremely defensive when a snake or something like it (a stick, a garden hose) comes too close. Their defensive demonstration is to turn sideways, stretch their throats, raise their crests back and yawn menacingly.
The male, fighting with other men, pushes the throat fan at full strength, and then draws it in, repeating this several times. He rises to all four paws, barely nods his head and turns toward the opponent. Then the male becomes bright green.
Often the battle ends in a draw, and the man most impressed by this outcome of events will drop his crest and slip away. If the struggle continues, the males rush at each other with open mouths. Sometimes the jaws are blocked if they go with their heads, otherwise they try to find the limb of their opponent.
Interesting fact: Knight anoles are long-living animals that can live in the wild for 10 to 15 years.
Animals communicate using different signals, which vary dramatically between species. In this regard, an amazing variety of cracking among knight anoles attracts much attention. Nevertheless, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and are mainly studied only in males.
The population differs in all characteristics of cracking, except for the display speed in females. In addition, males and females found in xeric media have a higher proportion of solid precipitation with a higher UV reflectance. In addition, in lizards in the populated mesic environment, mainly marginal shifts were found, showing a high reflectivity in the red spectrum.
Social structure and reproduction
Photo: Anolis Knight at home
The breeding of knight anoles takes place anywhere from late March to early October. Courtship is like starting a fight, but relationships are less extreme. The male nods his head one or more times and often widens his throat, and then grabs the female by the back of the head. The male forces his tail under the female to bring their cloaca into contact. The male introduces his hemipenis into the female cesspool.
Interesting fact: Laboratory studies have shown that males sometimes try to mate with other males, possibly due to their inability to distinguish between males and females.
Mating with knight anolis is not difficult, but females lay fertilized eggs, and it can be very difficult for children to maintain life until they are old enough to take care of themselves. When the female and male mate, the female retains sperm. If she does not mate with another male, stored semen fertilizes her eggs.
Females can lay one or two eggs every two weeks. These eggs, which look like smaller, leathery versions of a chicken egg, are hidden in the soil.The female does not stay with the egg and does not care about the offspring, which will hatch in five to seven weeks. Young knight anoles feed on small insects such as flour worms, fruits, house flies and termites. Eggs usually need four to seven weeks to hatch at a temperature of 27-30 degrees Celsius with almost 80% humidity.
Natural Enemies of the Anoles Knights
Photo: What does Anolis Knight look like?
The generally accepted concept in ecology is that predators have a strong influence on the behavior of other species of predators. Knight anoles were used as a classic model system to study the effect of predator presence on the behavioral response of other predator species.
On small experimental islands in the Bahamas, as a result of the manipulated introduction of large-tailed lizards (Leiocephalus carinatus), a large land anolyse predator, it was found that brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) move higher in vegetation, apparently in an understandable attempt to avoid the possibility of being eaten . However, such interactions between a predator and a prey that can form a community structure are often difficult to observe.
The biggest threats to the life of an anolis knight are:
The significance of tail loss or damage in the population is still under discussion. The classical point of view states that a high proportion of tail injuries of anoles-knights indicates a high pressure of predators, therefore, prey populations are under high stress of predators.
Alternatively, a high proportion of tail injuries may indicate poor predator performance, suggesting that prey populations experience low stress in relation to predators. But the debate does not end there. Having lost the tail, the lizard can experience either an increase or a decrease in predation, depending on the type of predator and the associated food search tactics.
Population and species status
Knight Anolis is part of the genus Anolis, numbering about 250 species. Although invasive effects on introduced populations have not yet been reported, the knight anolis is a versatile food that is known to prey on small vertebrates such as nesting birds and similar reptile species. Thus, predation reports may begin to appear as this species continues to spread throughout Florida, having already spread to at least 11 counties.
Knight Anolis, a popular species in the pet trade, is widespread in Florida, where, as a universal food with an expanding range, it raises concerns about possible predation in various small vertebrate species.
Various methods have been used for scientific purposes to catch knight anoles and other herpetofauna for scientific purposes. For example, loops made of dental floss and attached to a long pole were used. When they were ineffective, a fishing rod was used to throw food next to a person, which was then easily wound after the bait was acquired.
It is believed that the spread of knight anoles throughout the state of Florida is accelerated by the deliberate release and escape from captivity associated with the sale of exotic animals, as well as the unintentional transport of agricultural goods.
Anolis Knight is the largest type of anoles. These animals have a large head, a bright green color with a yellow stripe on the neck, they live up to 16 years and grow up to 40 cm in length, including the tail, and are often mistakenly called the iguana. Their main habitat is shady tree trunks, as these lizards are arboreal tree dwellers. Anolis-knight is a daytime predator, although, warming up on asphalt, stones or sidewalks at the end of the day, it can remain active for some time during the night.
Anolis-knight (lat. Anolis equestris) is a medium-sized iguana-like lizard from the Anolis family (lat. Polychronitidae). It is the largest representative of the genus Anolis. The species was first described by the German naturalist Blasius Merrem in 1820. He gave him such an extravagant name because of the skin shiny as knightly armor.
Anolis-knight easily gets used to captivity. Being a real noble creature, it requires respect for itself. It is enough to take him in his hands, as silent indignation boils in him, dark or bluish spots go on his body, and his eyes become offended. As a true knight, he tolerates humiliation with dignity, but he heroically abstains from the passionate desire to bite his owner.
He is distinguished by calm and poise, but with excessive familiarity he is able to fend for himself. Only the most stupid and arrogant breeders get bites.
This species originally inhabited only Cuba, where 11 subspecies currently live. In the era of geographical discoveries, it was introduced to many islands in the Caribbean, and in the 60s of the last century it was introduced to Florida (USA), where it successfully acclimatized and gradually began to move to neighboring states. Apparently, he moved to the American continent along with Cuban refugees who were fleeing from the Fidel Castro regime en masse.
Small populations were seen in Mexico, Bolivia, and Ecuador.
Probably the lizards were simply released into the wild by exotic lovers. They prefer to settle in subtropical forests and savannahs, but they also feel very comfortable in urban parks, living on the tops of deciduous trees, shrubs and palm trees.
In private collections, these reptiles, due to their unpretentiousness, are grown around the world. In EU countries, the cost of one adult is about 50 euros.
The diet consists mainly of insects, spiders, small amphibians and lizards. Anolis will not miss the opportunity to feast on bird eggs and chicks. Cannibalism thrives among young individuals. Larger reptiles often eat their less well-fed counterparts.
During the hunt, the predator approaches the prey as close as possible and kills with a swift blow of the paws or grabs tightly with its mouth. He climbs trees well and obtains his food in the crowns of trees. It rarely descends to earth. Can eat ripe fruits in limited quantities.
Anolis-knight refers to the territorial animals. The male is relatively tolerant of females, but can not stand the representatives of his sex. Especially fierce fights between them occur during the mating season.
Large throat bags and raising the crest on the neck are used to scare off competitors who violate the boundaries of other people's possessions. The threat is reinforced by open mouth, hissing and bouncing in one place.
If a psychological attack does not make a proper impression on the opponent, a skirmish is inevitable. Sometimes it ends with injuries and even the death of one of the duelists.
The main natural enemies of these reptiles are birds of prey, so they react violently to any shadow that suddenly appears above them. Poor fellows panic and immediately seek to hide somewhere. In a terrarium, they are able to panic against glass and even inflict injury on themselves. In times of danger, they often discard their tails, on the site of which new ones soon grow.
The reptile leads a daily life. The peak of activity occurs in the first half of the day and in the evening twilight. In the morning before going on a hunt, she takes sunbaths for about an hour. Occasionally it can be active at night.
Anoles reach puberty at the age of about two years. The mating season takes place in the summer. At this time, the males become aggressive and desperately fight for the right to continue the race. In a fit of passion, they sometimes take their competitor for a female and try to mate with him.
The beauty, ready for reproduction, patiently waits for the gentleman, motionlessly sitting on a branch. If motherhood is not yet included in her plans, then she is fleeing from him.
The male approaches his chosen one, inflating the throat sac from the surging feelings and politely weighed down his nods. Having seized a convenient moment, he grabs his beloved with his teeth by the scruff of his neck and, for greater reliability, twists her tail around her. Mating lasts up to ten minutes and can be repeated several times.
One male, as a rule, forms a short-term harem of 2-3 girlfriends. After a few days of cohabitation, the partners lose interest in spending time together and diverge in their plots.
Pregnancy lasts about three weeks. The female descends from the tree and digs a hole in moist soft soil, where it lays one egg 25x20 mm in size. In one season, she makes 10-12 of these clutches.
Depending on the ambient temperature, incubation lasts from 60 to 90 days. Toddlers are born completely ready for independent existence. The length of their body with the tail is about 14 cm.
The first months they lead a secretive lifestyle, fearing to be eaten by their older relatives. At first they feed on invertebrate animals, and then gradually switch to larger prey. In captivity, they can refuse to eat and require forced feeding.
Anolis-knight, unlike many other reptiles, does not need too large a terrarium. A reptile likes to spend hours in the same motionless position. One adult animal will need a living area of 80x140x70 cm. If possible, you can provide your pet with large mansions.
In the terrarium, it is necessary to firmly install branches (the thickness of a hand) or other climbing devices, stones and ceramic products for shelter. The miniature waterfall will not interfere in the interior. Representatives of this species in the wild are used to drinking rainwater from leaves, so it’s quite difficult to accustom them to drinking bowls.
During the day, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature within 25 ° -30 ° C, and at night it can be lowered to 20 ° C. The reptile loves heat. For this reason, it is advisable to equip 1-2 places that will warm up to 35 ° -40 ° C.
Anoles fall into hibernation, lasting 2-3 months. During this period, the daytime temperature is maintained in the range of 20 ° -23 ° C, and the night temperature is in the range of 15 ° -18 ° C.
Lighting is limited to ten hours a day. Hibernation has a positive effect on health and well-being, but it is recommended to introduce only healthy and adult animals into it. After its completion, the temperature and lighting should be increased gradually.
Recommended air humidity is 70-90%. It is advisable to spray the terrarium daily with warm water or install an automatic sprinkler in it. They illuminate it with halogen lamps for 12 hours a day. Every day for 2 hours it is useful to turn on an ultraviolet lamp, the radiation of which is necessary for the formation of vitamin D in the body of a reptile.
Knights anoles can be kept in groups of one male and two or three females. Content with other species of lizards is not recommended. In captivity, they can be fed mice, chicks, cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, zofobas and flour worms.
The total length reaches 55 cm, of which up to 35 cm per tail. Females are smaller than males.
The main color background is light green. There are light brown or turquoise shades. The occiput and upper jaw are yellowish. A yellow stripe runs along the shoulders, which is partially interrupted by dark green spots.
The triangular head is massive and slightly flattened. Bone plates are clearly visible on the back of the head. Both sexes have pink colored throat bags. The forelimbs are shorter than the hind limbs. Toes are equipped with wide plates with sticky brushes from small hook-shaped hairs. With their help, it can “stick” to an uneven surface.
The lifespan of knight anolis is about 6-8 years.