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The most poisonous fish on planet Earth

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About forty-five years ago, American zoologist William Bib wrote: “Do not die until you have occupied, bought, or made a diving helmet yourself, to at least once in your life go down into the depths of the sea and see this wonderful world with your own eyes.”

We have tens of thousands of people of various ages and professions, wearing fins and masks, plunging into the depths of the sea, full of colorful landscapes and inhabitants unusual for the human eye. Fans of such sea voyages need to learn to recognize “in the face” of the poisonous inhabitants of our seas.

So, in the Black and Azov Seas one should be wary of meeting with a quatran, stingray, sea dragon, starfish, scorpion, monkfish, and mouse-lyre. In the Baltic Sea there are ramps and kerchak. In the Far Eastern seas live: katran, stargazer, stingray, high-beam perch.

There are a lot of poisonous fish in our seas, we will briefly talk about those that are more common than others.

With the help of sharp fins, spikes and thorns, which can injure a person, toxins are injected into the blood of the victim through special ducts of the fish, most often acting on the nervous and circulatory systems of a person. The ratio of poisons in different species of fish can vary greatly. The most dangerous substances that affect the nervous system, as they act very quickly and practically do not allow timely assistance to the victim. Poisons that affect the circulatory system cause poisoning much more slowly, which in most cases makes it possible to save a person's life. The response to these toxins largely depends on the characteristics of the human body.

In people with increased irritability (especially with autonomic neurosis), as well as those suffering from diseases of the liver and kidneys, signs of poisoning are more pronounced.

It should be noted that poisonous fish are not aggressive and never attack a person themselves. Injuries usually occur as a result of swimmer negligence. Most often a diver steps on a fish buried in the sand.

MARINE DRAGON OR SEA SCORPIO

The most poisonous fish in many European seas lives in the Black Sea and the Kerch Strait. Length - up to 36 centimeters. In the western part of the Baltic Sea there is a smaller species - a small sea dragon, or viper (12-14 centimeters). The structure of the poisonous apparatus of these fish is similar, therefore, the development of signs of poisoning is similar.

In a sea dragon, the body is squeezed from the sides, the eyes are set high, drawn together and look up. The fish lives near the bottom and often bury itself in the ground so that only the head is visible. If you step on it with your bare foot or grab it with your hand, its sharp spikes pierce the body of the "offender." The poisonous glands of the scorpion are equipped with 6-7 rays of the anterior dorsal fin and spines of gill covers.

Depending on the depth of injection, the size of the fish, the condition of the victim, the consequences of a dragonfly attack can be different. At first, a sharp, burning pain is felt at the site of damage. The skin in the wound area turns red, swelling appears, tissue necrosis develops. There is a headache, fever, profuse sweat, heart pain, breathing is weakened. Paralysis of the limbs may occur, and in the most severe cases - death. However, usually poisoning disappears after 2-3 days, but a secondary infection necessarily develops in the wound, necrosis and a sluggish (up to 3 months) ulcer. It has been established that dragon poison contains mainly substances that act on the circulatory system, the percentage of neurotropic toxins is small. Therefore, the vast majority of cases of poisoning ends in a person's recovery.

STAR AND SEA COW

Close relatives of the dragon. Their usual sizes are 30-40 centimeters. They live in the Black Sea and the Far East.

The stargazer, or a sea cow living in the Black Sea, has a grayish-brown spindle-shaped body with white, irregular spots running along the lateral line. The eyes of the fish are directed upward to the sky. Hence its name. The stargazer spends most of the time at the bottom, burrowing into the ground, with his eyes and mouth hanging out with his worm-like tongue hanging out, which serves as a bait for fish.

There are sharp spikes on the gill covers and above the pectoral fins of the sea cow. During the breeding season, from the end of May to September, an accumulation of toxin-producing cells develops at their base. Through the grooves on the spikes, the poison enters the wound.

Shortly after being wounded, a person has sharp pain at the injection site, the affected tissue swells, and breathing is difficult. Only after a few days a person recovers. The poison emitted by stargazers resembles the toxin of dragon fish in its action, but it has not been studied enough. There are known cases of fatalities in lesions of these species of fish that live in the Mediterranean Sea.

MARINE RORS (SKORPENA)

It is found in the Black and Azov Seas; it is also common in the Kerch Strait. Length - up to 31 centimeters. The color is brownish-pink: the back is dark brown in color with dark spots, the belly is pink. Big head, slightly flattened from top to bottom. Eyes set high and close. Scorpene loves a rocky bottom and in low light it resembles a stone with algae growing on it. Eleven rays of the anterior dorsal, one of the ventral and three rays of the anal fin have poisonous glands. The poisons they produce are especially dangerous in early spring. Fin injections are very painful. In small doses, the toxin causes local inflammation of the tissues, in large doses - paralysis of the respiratory muscles. The poison of the sea ruff contains mainly substances that act on the blood, so the symptoms of poisoning in the victims persist for several days and then go away without complications.

SKAT-TAIL TAIL (SEA CAT)

These fish, otherwise called sea cats, are found in the Black, Azov and southern Baltic seas. In the Far East, in the Gulf of Peter the Great, a giant stingray lives; in the waters of southern Primorye, a red stingray is common. Individual specimens reach 2.5 meters in length (tail up to 50-80 centimeters). These fish are well known, they have a flattened diamond-shaped body, which ends with a thin long tail, equipped with a sharp serrated spike from the sides (sometimes two or three). Poison glands lie in the two lower grooves of the spike. Stingrays lead a bottom lifestyle. If you accidentally step on a stingray buried in the ground in shallow water with a sandy bottom, it begins to defend itself and inflicts a deep wound on a person with its “weapon”. A prick reminds him of a blunt knife strike. The pain intensifies rapidly and after 5-10 minutes it becomes unbearable. Local phenomena (edema, hyperemia) are accompanied by fainting, dizziness, impaired cardiac activity. In severe cases, death from heart failure can occur. Usually, on the 5-7th day, the victim recovers, but the wound heals much later.

The poison of the sea cat, having got into the wound, causes painful phenomena similar to the bites of a poisonous snake. It acts equally on both the nervous and circulatory systems.

BARK SHARK OR KATRAN

It lives in the Black, Barents, Okhotsk and Japanese seas. Length is up to 2 meters. It is called prickly for two strong sharp spikes, at the base of which there are poisonous glands located in front of the dorsal fins. They katran is able to inflict deep wounds to the careless scuba diver. An inflammatory reaction develops at the site of the lesion: pain, hyperemia, edema. Sometimes there is a rapid heartbeat, slowed breathing. Do not forget that the katrana and shark teeth, despite their modest size. Its poison, unlike the rest, contains mainly myotropic (acting on the muscles) substances and has a rather weak effect, so in the vast majority of poisoning of people ends in complete recovery.

KERCHAK, SEA PERFISH, RINSTER-NOSAR, AUHA OR CHINESE RAT, SEA MOUSE-LIRA, PERFORMANCE

In addition to these poisonous fish, in our seas there are also sea cherchak living in the Baltic, Barents and White Seas, monkfish and sea mouse lyre in the Black Sea, sea bass in the Barents Sea and, finally, high-beam perch living in the Japanese and Barents seas. All these fish have a poisonous “weapon” in the form of sharp spikes and thorns, however, the toxins they produce are less dangerous for humans and cause only local damage.

KerchakSea bassRuff Nosary
Auha or chinese ruffSea mouse - lyreHigh beam perch

IT SHOULD KNOW EVERYONE

To prevent poisoning, scuba diving enthusiasts, divers, scuba divers, tourists and just relaxing by the sea must observe the following precautions.

Never try to catch fish with an unprotected hand, especially those unknown to you, located in crevices or lying on the bottom.

It is not always safe, as experienced scuba divers testify to this, to touch unfamiliar objects located on sandy soil. It can be masked stingrays, sea dragons, starships and sea mouse lyre. It is also dangerous to rummage underwater caves with your hands - in them you can stumble upon a hidden scorpion.

Fans of barefoot hiking on the seashore in the low tide should carefully look at their feet. Remember: sea dragons often remain in the wet sand after the retreat of the water, and they are easy to step on. Children and those who first arrived on the coast of the sea should be warned about this.

Emergency measures for poisonous fish being prickly with thorns should be aimed at alleviating the pain caused by the injury and poison, overcoming the toxin and preventing secondary infection. When injured, immediately immediately vigorously suck out the poison from the wound with the mouth with blood for 15-20 minutes. The aspirated liquid must be spat out quickly. No need to fear the action of the toxin: bactericidal substances contained in saliva reliably protect against poisoning. However, remember that this procedure should not be performed for someone who has wounds, injuries, and sores on his lips and oral cavity. After this, the lesion site should be washed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide and apply an aseptic dressing. Then the victim is given a painkiller and diphenhydramine to prevent the development of allergic reactions, as well as heavy drinking, preferably strong tea. In the future, the prompt qualified help of a doctor is needed.

In conclusion, we remind you once again: be careful and careful when swimming, diving and swimming with scuba diving. You can easily avoid unpleasant contact with dangerous inhabitants, since they themselves never attack a person, but use their weapons exclusively for self-defense.

A. POTAPOVA, toxicologist, and A. POTAPOV, master of sports in scuba diving (Leningrad.

Palm of active poisonous creatures

They hide the poisonous glands and ducts in the teeth and fins, on the surface of the gills and tails. The poisonous fish of the sea include:

Katran (prickly shark, marigold)

She has no nails, but there are 2 sharp stitching spikes on 2 dorsal fins. Lives in packs, eating mollusks, crayfish, fish.

A small representative of the class of cartilaginous fish will use poisonous spikes only when approaching the "enemy" as a defense.

The poison has a protein structure, causes edema, redness, pain shock. It is destroyed by acid, alkali, UV radiation. Not fatal. Shark is a valuable commercial species.

Note!

Scorpion (sea ruff)

Common view for the tropics and subtropics. 30-45-centimeter fish has unique adaptive mechanisms.

Her ability to molt and a variety of protective color is the subject of admiration and admiration for all scuba divers in the world.

A distinctive feature of scorpion is skin outgrowths on the head. All 20 rays of the front fin on the back contain poison. It causes tissue numbness, low blood pressure and severe pain, but is not lethal.

Blue-spotted stingray (stingrays)

Typical inhabitant of tropical seas, one class with a quatran. He spends the main part of his life buried in sand to camouflage and watch over prey. It looks like a flat pan with beautiful blue spots, but is “armed” and very dangerous.

A spike with poison (whose properties are very poorly understood) is located in the tail, which the ramp can use not only for self-defense, but also for attack.

Zebra fish (striped lionfish)

The wide and beautiful fan-shaped fins of the striped predator attract the attention of small fish and inexperienced divers who decided to conquer the depths of the sea near Asia or Australia.

The poison contained in the processes of the ridge causes paralysis of the muscles and breathing. In the absence of timely assistance, a fatal outcome is inevitable.

Wart (stone fish)

A scarecrow similar to corals and stones. This is a master of mimicry and the most poisonous sea fish. The fish resembles a floating heap, consisting of growths, tubercles and poisonous thorns. An injection leads to paralysis, so the victim needs to swim ashore as soon as possible.

If there is no antidote at hand, then the injection site is heated very hot water or a hairdryer. Heat partially destroys toxins, and reduces poisoning.

Lethal Lionfish

There are about 1300 species of poisonous fish on Earth. One of the most dangerous are sea lionfish from the scorpion family. They got their name because of the peculiar kind of fins. In addition to the presence of “wings”, they are also distinguished by needles that go, starting from the head, throughout the body along the line of the dorsal fin. These spikes contain an extremely dangerous substance.

Number one killer

These laurels went to the wart, or stone fish. She is not only deadly, but also a recognized master of disguise. A person with such talents would clearly find a place among professional mercenaries. The killer’s body is covered with growths. It can be mistaken for a bunch of corals, a sea sponge, a tubercle on the ground.

About the inhabitant of the Pacific and Indian oceans The following is known:

  1. Prefers to settle among the reefs. It is faced by divers and scuba divers. There were cases when the wart pierced their most reliable protection.
  2. It is found in shallow water, even near the shore. Here you can step on it without noticing and get a painful injection. But on the coast, "stones" and collect the locals.
  3. Remains dangerous on land. It is recorded that it can remain active and viable in a strange element, without water, for almost a day.
  4. Poisoning causes pain, swelling. After a short period of time, it becomes difficult to breathe.
  5. An effective antidote has not yet been invented. Existing drugs require prompt administration, but do not guarantee salvation. Even if the victim remains alive, she has to undergo a long course of treatment.

Inhabitants of India, ocean islands all this does not bother. They consume warts in food by removing spikes and skin. And they fight against inevitable defeats by folk remedies, among which heat is also used. Heat kills some components of the poison.

Underwater tank

Zebra fish in human perception looks attractive. But she dresses up, of course, not for people, but in order to scare off her underwater enemies. Its bright striped coloring is truly combat. In addition to this, the “cute” fish has frightening spiky spikes on its face, belly and tail. By equipment it is almost a tank.

Fish Tank He loves the warm and salty waters of the ocean coasts, but he also feels confident in fresh water:

  1. The zebra range includes all ocean basins, excluding the Arctic.
  2. The coloring is brown, purple, red, yellow shades against the background of obligatory white stripes and spots.
  3. The front of the dorsal fin resembles a line made of rays. They receive poison from special glands.
  4. The body is a little hunchback, flattened laterally. The forehead is massive and pushed forward.
  5. A zebra prefers peace, but will not run away and hide if it is detected by an adversary. She is always ready for battle. She shows the enemy the back, but this is not a sign of cowardice. Here most of the needles are located. While the enemy is rebuilding, a zebra can strike with its tail.
  6. The damaging substance can be fatal both for natural enemies and for humans, although not necessarily. A single injection is not deadly, but several of them are fatal. Some researchers say that immunity is developed to the poison of the “tank”.

Scorpens are not only eaten. The least dangerous, but the smallest and brightest are kept in home and office aquariums. In handling such fish dense nets and protective gloves are used.

Stingrays and eels

Scientists and lay people have argued for a long time whether to consider stingrays and eels as fish. Finally, they finally settled on assigning them to fish. What unites most of these peculiar creatures is not only belonging to the same family, but also the danger they bring to man.

Stingrays and tenon tails

The tail of the ramps ends with a spike, a needle. This is a killer attacking weapon that fish are ready to use at any moment. The toxicity of poison stingrays differ very much, there are even almost harmless species. However, general statistics indicate that approximately one out of a hundred pricked people die, and thousands of people are killed each year.

It is believed that the most dangerous are blue-spotted stingray and tenon tail:

  1. The bluish-spotted stingray is found off the Atlantic coast of the Americas and enters rivers. Attacking it on people here is a common thing.
  2. Poisoning immediately causes severe burning pain.
  3. The poison itself affects primarily the nervous system, which can completely disable the human body.
  4. Death from a stingray hit is not instant. Timely assistance provided saves a person’s life, although painful sensations can persist for a long time.
  5. The tenortail prefers the bottom surface. Rather, it carries only potential danger to people. First of all, it is necessary to reckon with it as professional divers who will disturb the inhabitant of the depths with something: he needs poison only for protection against sharks.
  6. The spike easily pierces the skin and rubber protection. An injection leads to cramping, paralysis. The diver may no longer surface.
  7. Adult spine tails can grow up to almost 2 meters. The poison in their body is enough for several injections in a row.

There are freshwater stingrays. The Indian tribes of the Amazon a century (if not millennia) ago learned to use their poison in military affairs. They were greased with spears, arrows, knives.

It will not seem a little

Electric eel is a separate species, although the victim, who will receive a blow of 500-700 volts, from this is not easier. The weapons of defense and attack of this creature can both paralyze and kill. Ordinary sea eels, characterized by excellent taste, are dangerous when eaten.

More than others poisonous eels living in the tropics:

  1. In a favorable environment can grow up to three or more meters.
  2. Accumulating marine substances useful for human health, they also collect hazardous elements.
  3. In particular, they like to feast on such mollusks, the diet of which includes specific products.
  4. The areas where creatures live together can be distinguished by the red color of the water. This is due to the large number of small crustaceans.
  5. Water becomes harmful to most fish. They either die, or go to other areas. Acne, on the other hand, learned to adapt.
  6. The poison is found both in the eel organs and in the skin. With proper cooking, it can evaporate, but this is not certain.
  7. The first sign of poisoning is a metallic taste.

Approximately one in ten of acne poisoning can be paralyzed, or even die.

Puffer dog

The dog, better known as puffer, is the most poisonous member of the pufferfish family. But dishes from it attract gourmets, true connoisseurs of Japanese cuisine. Fish has become one of the symbols of the land of the Rising Sun. Deaths among eaters are not so rare that it not only does not scare away the crowds of lovers, but also adds excitement to them.

It is not out of place to know about fugue in nature and food:

  1. The body is wide, short, flattened on top.
  2. A large head ends with a beak-like mouth.
  3. A fugu ball resembles only when defended. Swelling, drawing in water, she tries to scare off enemies.
  4. Able to swim backwards.
  5. Four rows of fused teeth allow the predator to bite through the strongest shells and shells.
  6. Favorite food - shellfish. It is this food that serves as a source of toxins. They accumulate in the dog’s liver. The poison of one fish is enough to kill up to three or even four dozen people. There is no guaranteed antidote.
  7. Before cooking, puffer remove the skin, liver, caviar, milk.
  8. But the poison is not completely removed. Otherwise, the effect of the dish disappears. The fact is that the substance gives a narcotic, paralytic effect. Amid euphoria, the eater congeals limbs, jaws, tongue. In the end, only the eyes remain mobile. After a while, the body begins to come to life.
  9. The line between death and pleasure is quite thin. In Japan itself, people die every year from fugu poison. Even the “living symbol” of the Kabuki theater - Mitsugoro Bando the Eighth, was not saved here.
  10. Cooks study for a long time, undergo licensing. They should keep in the pufferfish such an amount of poison that the consumer will enjoy, but not kill him.

4.1. Actively poisonous fish

Common prickly shark, or katran -Squalus acanthias L. Class Cartilaginous fish - chondrichthyes Katraiform - squaliformes Family Spiky, or Katran Sharks - squalidae

Ecology and biology. A medium-sized shark about 1 m long. It is painted in gray-green color, darker on top. Both dorsal fins carry one sharp, prickly spike. Common in the Black Sea, also found in the Barents and White Seas, where it is known as knocker (or clipper) Numerous in the Far Eastern seas. In coastal waters, it leads a flocking life, descends to a depth of 180-200 m. It feeds on fish, crustaceans, cephalopods. Oviparous. It is dangerous only in direct contact - taken in hand, it can cause deep wounds with poisonous thorns.

Fig. 48. Prickly Shark KatranSqualus acanthias

The structure of the poisonous apparatus. The top of the spine is naked, but the lower part is covered with a leathery cover, under which the poisonous glands are located. They are strands of large polygonal cells, the cytoplasm of which is filled with small granules. When immersed in the victim’s body, the gland cells are compressed, and the poisonous secretion pours out.

The picture of poisoning. There is fragmentary information about the lesions inflicted by the Qatran. Local phenomena are of leading importance: tissue damage, pain, hyperemia, edema. Wound infection is possible.

The chemical composition and mechanism of action of the poison. The active principle has protein nature. The poison is thermolabile; it is destroyed by organic solvents, acids, alkalis, and UV radiation. In experimental animals in toxic doses causes paresis and paralysis of skeletal muscle.

Practical value. Commercial view.

Stingrays Class Cartilaginous fish - chondrichthyes Order Stingrays, or Rombotel stingrays —Rajiformes Stingray family, or Stingrays - Dasyatidae

Ecology and biology. In the Black and Azov Seas, there is a sea cat (Dasyatis pastinaca L.), reaching a length of usually 1 m. The color is grayish-brown, without spots. The tail is long, spider-like. In the middle of the tail there is a serrated spike on both sides. The much larger giant stingray Urolophoides giganteusoccasionally found in Peter the Great Bay in the Far East. The total length of his body reaches 2.3 m. The tail is short, thick, armed with two long serrated spikes. Typically, slopes lie at the bottom, partially burying themselves in sandy or muddy soil. They feed on fish, crustaceans.

Fig. 49. Catfish Dasyatis pastinaca

The structure of the poisonous apparatus. In the grooves of the ventral surface of the spines are poisonous glands. Spikes in large species can reach significant sizes - up to 30 cm. With strong impacts, they often break off, the fragment is firmly held in the victim's tissues, thanks to the notches directed backward. There are no special ducts of the gland, the secret accumulates in the gutters of the spike. At the time of impact under pressure from the victim’s tissues, the secret is released near the spear-shaped tip of the spike. In venom cells microtubule systemsurrounded by a common membrane. On a cross section inside an oval formed by a closed membrane, up to 5000 microtubules can be counted, the average diameter of which is 20 nm. It is assumed that these microtubules contain a toxic secret.

Fig. fifty. Scheme of the structure of the stingray stingray spike:

1 - Intango case, 2 - teeth 3 - epidermis, 4 - poisonous gland, 5 -dermis, 6 - meloventral crest, 7 - spike

The picture of poisoning. Most often, fishermen, scuba divers and just swimmers suffer from stingray injections. It is useful to remember that the tail strike power of large slopes is such that they easily pierce clothing and shoes. Nevertheless, stingrays almost never use their spike for attack: human damage is usually the result of careless handling of fish or an accident. Usually, after an injection with a stingray spike, the victim develops a sharp burning pain, hyperemia of the affected area. The pain radiates along the lymphatic vessels. Later, edema develops, sometimes spreading over a considerable distance. Poisoning is characterized by the development of weakness, sometimes with loss of consciousness, diarrhea, cramps, and respiratory failure. In humans and experimental animals, stingray venom causes a drop in blood pressure and impaired cardiac activity. With damage to the limbs, recovery can occur in a few days. However, an injection in the chest or abdomen can be fatal. The treatment is symptomatic.

Fig. 51. Poison stingray stingray prick

The active principle of the poison seems to be represented thermolabile protein, physico-chemical and toxic properties of which are not well understood.

Practical value. Sea cat, as well as Far Eastern red stingray Dasyatis akajei are commercial species.

Big dragonTrachinus draco L. Bone fish class - osteichthyes Squad perched - perciformes Family of sea dragons, or snake fish - trachinidae

Ecology and biology. Dark, almost brown fish, with a light fawn belly, 30-45 cm long. On the sides are oblique dark stripes. The fins are yellow with black edges, but the first dorsal fin is always black. The spine of the gill cover and the first six rays of the dorsal fin have poisonous glands. Distributed in the Baltic and Black Seas. He prefers to bury himself in the ground, exposing the head and spines of the dorsal fin to the surface. It feeds on fish and crustaceans. The structure of the poisonous apparatus. In the furrows of the prickly rays of the anterior dorsal fin, poisonous glands are located, consisting of strands of large polygonal cells. On top of the iron has an integumentary cover that leaves sharp spines bare. At the base of the rays there is a peculiar system of "shutters" that fix the rays in a straightened state. When the adductor muscles contract, the process of one ray enters the hole of the other - in this way all the rays of the fin are fixed in tension. Contraction of antagonist muscles puts rays along the body. Rays of other barbed-fish also have a similar structure - scorpions, sea bass, etc.

Fig. 52. Big dragon Trachinus draco

Fig. 53. The structure of the prickly rays of the active poisonous fish:

1 - posterolateral ridge, 2 - anterolateral glandular sulcus, 3 - anteromedial crest, 4 - interneural spike, 5 - distal hole 6 - proximal opening

The picture of poisoning. Most of the defeats of the big dragon are due to careless handling. Most often, fishermen who take the dragon out of the nets or accidentally step on it are the victims. The injection, as a rule, is not fatal, but causes extremely severe pain, swelling, necrosis of the affected area. In severe cases, paralysis, respiratory and hemodynamic disorders are observed.

First aid. It is recommended that the wound be washed with sea water or saline, which helps to remove the poison from the primary depot. It is also important to remove fragments of prickly rays remaining in the wound, but this should be done carefully so as not to damage the tissue. To reduce pain, it is necessary to lower the affected limb into hot water containing a 3% solution of magnesium sulfate. You should be careful not to skid a secondary infection. In Yugoslavia, therapeutic serum has been created. In its absence, treatment is carried out according to the symptoms.

The chemical composition and mechanism of action of the poison. To obtain the poison, either extraction from the poisonous glands or suction of the toxic secretion from the thorn under vacuum is used. In the latter case, it is possible to obtain up to 10 ml of poison from every 100 spines. The toxicity of the secretion is 0.5 μl for mice weighing 16 g. The poison is very unstable and is easily inactivated during storage even at low temperatures (–60 ° C) or lyophilization. The stability of the poison increases with the addition of a 15% glycerol solution and storage at low temperatures.

Electrophoresis revealed secret two albumin fractions. In addition, the poison contains polysaccharides. It is possible that the toxicity of the poison is provided. glycoprotein complex. Serotonin and histaminepresent in the poison can cause an algogenous (pain) effect. The introduction of poison in experimental animals causes the development of hypotension, impaired breathing and cardiac activity. Present in the poison cholinesteraseHowever, its effect on neuromuscular transmission has not been identified.

Practical value. It does not have commercial value, but the meat is quite edible.

Sea bassSebastesBone fish class - osteichthyes Squad Shaped - Scorpaeniformes Family Skoropenovye - scorpaenidae

Ecology and biology. Kind Sebastes totals over 100 species widespread in the oceans, including yellow perch in the Far East S. trivittatus, Pacific beak found in the Bering Sea S. alutus and golden perch S. marinushaving commercial value. All sea bass are ovoviviparous. Among the Pacific species there are many inhabitants of coastal waters, the Atlantic species are deeper. The dorsal fin carries 13-15 hard and sharp ray-spines; there are thorns on the gill cover.

The structure of the poisonous apparatus. The rays of the dorsal fin are T-shaped in cross section. In the furrows of the rays, small spindle-shaped glandscovered with a case. The tops of the thorns are bare. An abundance of mucous glands is characteristic on the dorsal and other fins, as well as at the base of the gill cover spines. When injected, the poison and mucus mix and together enter the wound.

The picture of poisoning. Most often, fishermen and fish processors are affected. When injected with prickly rays of sea bass, after a few minutes, severe pain and an inflammatory reaction develops at the site of the lesion. The poison is drained by the lymphatic system, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis develop. Edema, which is first localized at the injection site, can then spread to the wrist and even the forearm.Of particular danger is the penetration into the wound of a secondary infection, which leads to the development of abscesses and phlegmon. Frequent injections can cause tenosynovitis.

Treatment symptomatic, but with complications surgical intervention is necessary.

The chemical composition and mechanism of action of the poison. The active principle of the poison has protein nature. The poison is very unstable, to obtain it, rapid extraction from the homogenate of glands in the cold is used. Heating, organic solvents, acids, alkalis, UV radiation inactivate the poison. In sublethal doses, the poison causes a local pain and inflammatory reaction. With an increase in the dose, disturbances from the respiration, heart activity, and coordination of movements are noted. Death occurs from respiratory arrest. At autopsy, congestion in the internal organs, the left ventricle is filled with liquid blood. In the liver - acute fatty degeneration. The poison has a hemolytic effect. There is evidence that the poison of sea bass living in the Barents Sea is weaker than that of the Pacific species.

Practical value. Valuable commercial fish.

Scorpion or sea ruffScorpaena porcus L. Bone fish class - osteichthyes Squad Shaped - Scorpaeniformes Scorpion family - scorpaenidae

Ecology and biology. Bizarrely colored fish, common in the Black Sea. Skin outgrowths on the head are characteristic. He spends most of his time at the bottom, where he preys mainly on moving prey. All rays of the anterior dorsal fin have poisonous glands. The rays of the ventral and anal fins can be poisonous. The structure of the poisonous apparatus is typical for barbed-fish.

Fig. 54. Scorpion Scorpaena porcus

The picture of poisoning. The cause of scorpion lesion is an accident or careless handling of fish. An injection causes acute pain radiating along the lymphatic vessels. Lymphangitis develops, and with the accumulation of poison in the lymph glands - lymphadenitis, which can be expressed quite sharply and lasts for several days. At the site of inoculation of poison, a site of necrosis develops. General symptoms of poisoning are mild. Complications are most often associated with the introduction of a secondary infection. There is a description of infectious pericarditis caused by an injection of scorpion.

First aid. See (big dragon). The treatment is symptomatic. In Yugoslavia, therapeutic serum has been created.

The chemical composition and mechanism of action of the poison. The active principle of poison is high molecular weight labile proteins cmr

50 000 - 800 000. In poisoned animals there is hypotension, respiratory failure, cardiac activity, when using high doses - paralysis and death from respiratory arrest.

Practical value. It does not have commercial value, but the meat is quite edible.

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