author Anashina A. (www.podmoskovje.com), author photo
The evening party does not strike with the same luxury of flowering as roses or peonies. But how much charm in a blooming night violet!
Hesperis Matrona should not be confused with the annual matthiola bicorn (Matthiola bicornis) up to 50 cm high. Mattiola is also often called the "night violet."
Nocturnal violet, or Matron's supper, Hesperis matron (Hesperis matronalis) belongs to the cabbage (cruciferous) family. This is a lovely plant that has long been growing in our areas.
Due to their distant resemblance to blooming phloxes, the Vespers of Matron is called in some places “bull phloxes”.
Blooming hesperis by the end of summer can become higher than a meter. The upper part of its stem is branched. A dense rosette of Hesperis Matrona leaves can be recognized by the color saturation of elongated oval-lanceolate leaves. They are dark green, giving off in blue, with a slight (sometimes almost imperceptible) pubescence.
Night violet in the garden and in a bouquet
In Russian gardens, Matron's evening is more common with violet, lilac or pinkish-lilac flowers, less often with white (garden form nana candidissima). The terry form of night violet (purpurea plena) with terry reddish flowers is bred. However, more often we are used to seeing hesperis with simple, fragrant, lilac-pink flowers.
Leaky brushes of fragrant evening flower inflorescences decorate the gardens from May to early autumn.
To make the night violet bloom longer, you need to regularly remove its faded inflorescences.
Blooming night violet harmoniously fits into many garden compositions. She creates a wonderful backdrop for many plants in the garden.
The flowering shoots of the evening party are kept for a long time in a cut, it looks beautiful in any bouquets. However, the main advantage of Vespers Matrona is the pleasant aroma of its flowers, which intensifies in humid, cloudy weather, as well as with the onset of darkness.
In the photo: blooming night violet, evening in the garden, hesperis and sea buckthorn
Cultivation of the party
Vespers Matrona is a very resistant plant that does not require special care.
Night violet is grown as a biennial.
Caught in good garden conditions, this unpretentious plant godlessly weeds.
Hesperis Matrona successfully grows in a bright sunny place or in partial shade. It is better to plant this plant where in the spring meltwater does not stagnate for a long time in order to avoid the appearance of mold and rot on leaves tamped with heavy snowdrifts.
An ideal option for growing evening crops are loose fertile soils, preferably slightly alkaline.
In our area, the self-sowing of the evening supper Matrona grows into tall flowering bushes even “at the foot” of a heap of sand. And near the recently brought peat, the evening party is obviously worse off.
The winter hardiness of the party is high. Hesperis Matrona in winter does not freeze more often, but vomits during prolonged exposure to snow.
In the spring, you need to remove from the evening party outlet those leaves that began to deteriorate.
In terms of pests and plant diseases, special problems with the cultivation of night violets in the garden and the vegetable garden usually do not arise. True, its lower leaves occasionally eat slugs and caterpillars.
Cruciferous fleas may appear at the party, which are easily washed off with water from a hose.
The keel inherent in cruciferous plants on the hesperis has not yet been seen by me.
Propagation of night violets
The night violet in my area first appeared many years ago. I bought a modest flowering evening bush from my grandmother, who was selling plants near the metro station.
The purchased Hesperis not only survived (although this plant had almost no roots), but also gave numerous offspring, which continues its genus in modern times.
Hesperis Matrona is a biennial that blooms in its second year. However, with early sowing, night violet can bloom by the end of summer of the first year of life.
The fruit of the night violet is a pod about 6 cm long. Many brown-brown seeds ripen in it.
I support the “population” of the hesperis very simply: in the autumn I cut or break off the stem with pods and lay it on the ground in an empty place in the garden. In the spring there are many seedlings of the Vespers.
Vespers’s self-seeding also occurs in other places, even in the greenhouse.
Night violet seeds are often sold under the names "Hesperis Matrona" and "Matron's Vespers". In stores there are bags of plain plants or a mixture of seeds of colorful plants (purple, lilac and white). For example, the “Inspiration” mixture.
The seeds of the Hesperis Matrona are sown in open ground in May-June, in the fall or before winter. Seeding depth 5 mm.
Vespers of self-sowing, which appears in various parts of the garden, can be transplanted throughout the summer and in the first half of September, if you dig up young plants with a lump of earth for a guarantee.
In the spring, she succeeds in transferring the second year of her life to another place and evening, having dug it with the earth. I have successfully transplanted even flowering evening plants repeatedly.
Terry forms of hesperis are propagated by dividing an overgrown bush, it is carried out in August and September.
At the end of summer and the beginning of autumn, young evening plants are planted in a permanent place in the garden.
I don’t even know how many plants of Matron’s evening flower bloom in our area. It is in the flower beds, near the buckthorn bushes, everywhere in the garden and vegetable garden. This is one of those wonderful plant species that never happens much ...
Description of Night Violet
The plant is similar to a phlox with a branched straight stem of about 80 cm. Foliage is silky-fleecy, whole or pinnate.
The flowers are small simple or double, collected in panicled inflorescence, lilac, white, purple, bloom in late May for the whole summer. Then the fruit is formed in the form of a pod with brown seeds, which retain viability for two years.
Views of the evening party
|Purple||Prefers loose soil. Sow directly into the soil.||Violet 2 cm, persistent aroma.|
|Romance||Biennial.||White, exudes a pleasant smell at night.|
|Inspiration||Branched, blooming the next year after planting seeds. It grows about 90 cm. Frost-resistant.||Lilac, snow-white, lilac.|
|Raspberry||Propagate by self-sowing.||Cherry. In the dark, exhale fragrance.|
|Night beauty||The most fragrant variety. 50-70 cm. Winter-hardy, resistant to disease. Perhaps balcony growing.||Appear in the second year. Delicate pink and purple.|
|Sad||Height is not more than 50 cm. Loves light, moisture,||Creamy green with red streaks. Petals elongated with a blunt end, 3 cm long.|
Planting and propagation of night violets or evening dresses
The party is propagated by seed or by dividing the bush:
- In early June, seeds are sown.
- In the first year, a rosette of leaves appears, in the second, a stem grows.
- At the end of May, flowering begins.
It is possible to grow by sowing in the winter (autumn in a permanent place) or seedlings.
Spend in early March:
- A container with planted seeds is covered with a film.
- When sprouts appear, they are removed.
- Water, add soil to the roots.
- Dive after the appearance of 3 sheets.
- A two-week hardening is carried out, seated through 25 cm from each other upon the onset of heat.
Such plants will bloom later than those planted in June.
Bushes with double flowers are divided for propagation:
- Dig up in late summer and early fall.
- Separated with a knife, dried.
- Planted in a well watered place.
Caring for a Night Violet or Vespers Matrona
|Location / Lighting||Well lit or partial shade. Do not plant in the lowlands.|
|The soil||Alkaline, neutral. Peatlands are not acceptable. Loosen after each watering, weed.|
|Watering||In the morning, every 7 days. Do not allow stagnation of moisture.|
|Top dressing||Complex mineral fertilizers before flowering. Then every month wood ash.|
Hesperis is frost-resistant up to -20 ° C, with more severe winters, covered with non-woven material.
Growing hesperis from seeds and dividing the bush
Night violet or hesperis seed growing photo seedling
Vespers are propagated by sowing seeds or division. Vegetative propagation It is applied to terry forms. The transplant tolerates well enough if you moisten the earthen lump or carry out this operation after rain.
When to sow in open ground? Seeds are sown in loose, nutritious soil with the onset of June. In a week, sprouts will appear, which subsequently will develop a rosette of oval-lanceolate leaves. The next year, stems will grow from rosettes and flowering will begin in May. Take care of the seedlings as usual - weed and watered as necessary. After flowering, most of the plants fall.
Non-double forms usually give self-seeding. For more magnificent flowering, you can feed with mineral fertilizer. To update the plantings, it is better to stock up with the seeds of the evening party. To do this, the faded bush is pulled out of the ground, placed in a dry place for full ripening. When the bush dries, you should thresh it - for this, wrap it in a newspaper and roll a rolling pin along it. Seeds jump out of the pods - all that remains is to collect them.
You can also sow in the winter or seedlings. This method is available to every grower, regardless of experience.
Hesperis seed growing photo seedling
- Sowing is carried out in early March.
- Containers with planted seeds are covered with a film, which is removed after the appearance of sprouts.
- It is necessary to regularly water young plants, add a little soil to the roots as they grow.
- With thickened seedlings make a pick, as soon as 3-4 true leaflets appear.
- With the onset of heat, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place or hardened for two weeks.
- Planted after the seedlings are fully accustomed to open air, observing a distance of 25 cm between plants.
- Wells are prepared in advance in order to injure the roots as little as possible and quickly transfer plants to a permanent place.
- When rooting in a new place, it is worthwhile to ensure sufficient watering. A matron evening party, grown from seedlings or sown before winter, will bloom a little later.
Terry forms of hesperis are propagated by dividing the bush in August-September. Dig a plant, carefully divide with a sharp knife. After a short drying of the slice, they are planted in a prepared place, which is previously carefully watered.
How to care for hesperis
Preferred night violet shade corners of the garden under a canopy of trees with moderately moist soil. Acidified and overdried soils have a depressing effect on the plant - they become smaller, reducing the flowering intensity. Due to the small branching of the stem, a single plant is quite unstable and is lost against the background of other flowers.
To maintain a vertical position, the hesperis needs support. It is best to plant the Hesperis in a dense group - individual plants will merge into a single array with a flowering lilac-purple spot on top and will serve as a support to each other. It makes sense to place an evening party between foreground plants and background large-sized plants.
- The soil for planting is suitable neutral or slightly alkaline with good drainage.
- It is advisable to place such plantings near arbors, open verandas, benches, since the main value of the evening party is its delicate aroma.
- Needs moderate watering at the beginning of growth and in hot weather.
- Hesperis is resistant to frost - he does not need shelter, usually enough snow cover.
- In the absence of snow cover, you can cover the landing with non-woven material.
- Hesperis can completely disappear if planted in areas flooded in spring.
Pests and diseases of night violet
Hesperis belongs to the cabbage family and is affected by their inherent diseases and pests. Its lower leaves gnaw at the snails. Cruciferous fleas, butterfly miners, and aphids attract plants. It is easy to get rid of all these pests by watering the bushes with tar water under the root. Dilute 1 tbsp. teaspoon of birch tar in 10 liters of water, mix everything thoroughly. Insects do not tolerate the smell of tar - preventive irrigation will ensure the complete absence of these insects at the party.
Night violet suffers from downy mildew with thickened plantings, it is affected by cabbage, viral mosaic. Keeping the distance between plants is the key to healthy planting. Kila is carried along with the seeds. It is necessary to disinfect acquired seeds before sowing. If the keel got on your site - avoid repeated sowing of hesperis on the infected area for 5 years.
Popular varieties with description and photo
Hesperis Inspiration Photo Seed Growing and Care
Gardeners are very fond of the Inspiration variety. It is a perennial grown as a biennial plant. Thick terry flowers cover the bush profusely. The color is purple, white, lilac: in a mixborder this combination looks truly fantastic. Likes a slightly alkaline soil containing a little lime. It is excellent in cutting, it is decorated with flower beds, flowerbeds, group and single plantings.
Hesperis romance seed cultivation
The variety is characterized by the amazing beauty of large snow-white flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in inflorescences. The stunning evening aroma cannot be forgotten, which is why flowers are so popular among gardeners.
Traditional medicine uses Vespers Matrona as a diuretic and diaphoretic. The Belgians apply crushed leaves on the tumor. Leaves and twigs are used in folk veterinary medicine. Fatty oil is used in the manufacture of soaps.
It is an excellent honey plant, actively visited by bees, bumblebees, butterflies. It can be planted along the paths as a supporting plant to enjoy the exciting aroma while strolling in the evening.
Bright, high inflorescences of hesperis are clearly visible at large distances. The plant is suitable for making bouquets, it keeps for a long time in a cut, harmoniously combining with other flowers. It is planted with pleasure near the places of evening relaxation in order to enjoy the delicate aroma, intensifying in the evening and during the rain. Vespers Matrona is a completely non-burdensome plant. It balances between cultivated garden and ornamental weeds. Very popular in creating a natural style on the site.
Hesperis matrona flower white photo in the garden variety Hesperis matronalis ‘Alba’
When growing a species in May, seeds are sown immediately to a permanent place. The evening party looks attractive only in a large group, shoots will have to be dived to maintain a distance of about 10-15 cm.
In the presence of an unusual variety, only division will remain in early spring.
Growing a perennial variety, it is necessary to divide the plant every 2-3 years.
Planting and caring for the party
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early April, transplanting seedlings in open ground - in the second half of May. Sowing seeds in open ground - in late June or early July.
- Bloom: from May to August.
- Lighting: bright diffused light, partial shade.
- The soil: loose, moderately moist, slightly alkaline or neutral reaction.
- Watering: morning, regular, moderate.
- Top dressing: in the first season - with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer with a high nitrogen content, in the second - potassium-phosphorus liquid fertilizer for flowering plants.
- Reproduction: varieties with simple flowers - seeds; terry varieties - division of the bush.
- Disease blackleg, keel, peronosporosis, alternariosis, sclerotinia, fomosis, botritis and fusarium.
- Pests: aphids, cruciferous fleas and bugs, stem crypto-scavenger, cabbage moth, caterpillars of turnip and cabbage whites and cabbage scoops, rapeseed sawfly and cabbage fly larvae, crucifer gall midges.
Flower evening - description
The stems of the Hesperis are branched and erect, reaching a height of 50 to 120 cm. Petioles or sessile, whole lanceolate or lyre-shaped, serrated green leaves on the edges are arranged on the stems in the next order. Both leaves and stems are covered with pubescence.
Small, fragrant, simple or double flowers of white, pink, purple or lilac color are collected in loose brushes. The fruit of the evening party is a cylindrical, linear or tetrahedral pod with barely noticeable ribs.
In the first year, the hesperis forms a dense rosette of root leaves, and the next season the plant forms a stem on which the flowers open.
Sowing seedlings for seedling seedlings
Growing hesperis from seeds begins with sowing seedlings. At the beginning of April, fill shallow containers with disinfected seedlings, sow evening seeds on its surface and sprinkle them with a layer of peat mixed with humus 1 cm thick. Lightly compact the surface, spray it with settled room-temperature water and cover it with glass or film.
Keep crops awaiting emergence at a temperature of 20 ˚C. The first seeds will germinate in 2.5-3 weeks.
When the seedlings begin to appear massively, the coating from the crops can be removed. Care for the evening seedlings is to maintain moderate humidity of seedlings and its careful loosening. In the developmental stage of seedlings of the first true leaves, after conducting two-week hardening procedures, seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.
It is better to grow hesperis in well-lit areas, although in partial shade the plant will develop and bloom no worse. The soil for the evening party needs a loose, moderately moist, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. They dig a plot before sowing, organic and mineral fertilizers are added to scarce soil.
The evening party is planted at a distance of 35-45 cm from each other. The depth of the holes should be such that the root system of the seedling with an earthen lump is placed in them. After planting, the plants are watered.
Sowing hesperis seeds in open ground
You can sow vespers directly into the ground. In this case, there is no need to hurry with sowing: all the same, you will not see flowers in the current season. Sow evening seeds at the end of June or beginning of July in a well-warmed land sparse and to a shallow depth. The site is pre-excavated with fertilizers. Hesperis shoots appear in three weeks. At the end of the season, when the evening party forms rosettes, it is transplanted to a permanent place, observing a distance of 35-45 cm between the bushes. You can do this the next spring. The transplant is easy for transplantation: if a decent lump of moist earth remains on the roots of the plant, it can be transplanted even in a flowering state.
How to care for the evening party
Caring for an evening party is not much different from caring for other garden flowers. Unless he is less burdensome. Vespers should be watered, after irrigation and rain, from time to time, loosen the soil around the bushes, weed the emerging weeds and apply fertilizing.
Sometimes too heavy inflorescences bend shoots to the ground, and the decorativeness of the bushes suffers from this. In this case, you need to install supports and tie the plants to them.
It is advisable to prune withered inflorescences of the evening party: this will extend the flowering time.
They cover the evening party only in the case of a very cold and snowless winter. As a shelter use non-woven fiber - spanbond or lutrasil. But you can cover the site with spruce paws.
Watering and feeding the evening party
Watering the flower beds with the evening meal is carried out with water heated in the sun once a week. If the summer is hot and arid, you will have to water the plant more often.
In the rainy seasons, the hesperis can not be moistened at all, since constantly wet land will attract earthen fleas, from which all cruciferous crops suffer.
And moisten the soil in the flower garden, and loosen the soil around the evening bushes in the morning.
Feeding the evening party in the first year with a solution of a complete mineral complex with a high nitrogen content. The next season, during the budding of hesperis, potassium and phosphorus fertilizers or a complex for flowering plants in liquid form should be added to the soil.
Reproduction of the party
Vespers with simple flowers can be propagated by seed, but terry forms during seed propagation do not inherit their terry, therefore they are propagated vegetatively by dividing the bush. In the early spring or fall, an evening bush with terry flowers is dug up, divided into parts, the sections are treated with carbon powder, after which the dividers are planted in pre-prepared holes. With the onset of cold weather, the soil around the bushes is mulched, to prevent freezing of the roots in a snowless winter.
Pests and diseases of the party
Since hesperis belongs to the Cabbage family, it can be affected by diseases and pests of cruciferous crops. Of the pests, the danger is cabbage aphids, cruciferous fleas and bugs, stalking cryptocephalus, cabbage moth, caterpillars of turnip and cabbage whites and cabbage scoops, rapeseed sawfly and cabbage fly larvae and cruciferous gall midges. They destroy pests with insecticidal preparations, which can be purchased at any flower shop and garden pavilion. The choice of these drugs is very large, so try to buy a chemical that will cope with the problem, but it will not do much harm to the environment.
Even in the developmental stage of seedlings, a black leg can strike an evening party. In the future, you should beware of such fungal diseases as keel, peronosporosis, alternariosis, sclerotinia, fomosis, botritis and fusarium. Bacterial diseases and vascular bacteriosis and black rot can also develop at supper. Viruses of circular spotting and mosaics are also of great danger, since there is no cure for them. Fungal infections can be defeated with fungicidal preparations widely available in specialized departments and stores, but plants infected with viruses or bacteria must be removed and burned immediately. And in the place where the sick bushes grew, you can’t grow anything for 3-4 years.
Pest and disease control must begin with preventative measures, and then it is quite possible that you will never have to face this problem.
Vespers Matrona (Hesperis matronalis)
Or night violet originating from Western Siberia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and the Mediterranean. It is a perennial grown in a two-year-old culture. Its stems are erect, up to 80 cm high, branched in the upper part. Sharp, toothed oval-lanceolate leaves may be glabrous or pubescent with white hair. Simple or double, lilac, white, purple or pink flowers with a diameter of up to 2 cm form a cylindrical brush. The aroma of flowers intensifies in the evening and at night, as well as in cloudy and humid weather. Most often in the garden you can see such varieties of night violets:
- nana cand>In the photo: Vespers Matrona (Нesperis matronalis)
Siberian Vespers (Hesperis sibirica)
Siberian endemic, also gradually gaining popularity. In height, this biennial plant growing in the Sayan Mountains, Dauria, Altai, Irtysh, Lena and the Yenisei reaches from 35 to 130 cm. In the upper part, its stem, covered with glandular hairs, branches. The lower leaves of the supper are petiolate, sharp, dentate, oval-lanceolate and pubescent, and the upper leaves are narrow-lanceolate and sessile. Purple-pink or white flowers are located on the pubescent pedicels.
It is grown in culture and the form of the evening party is yellow, but mainly as a medicinal plant. We will talk about it in a separate article.