Kind Hirundo Linnaeus 1758
- Hirundo rustica Linnaeus 1758 - Barn Swallow - nests. In the printed version of the catalog of 2008 is indicated as a rare breeding species, however, now it has become common, including in the village. The Black River and in the village of the White Sea biostation of Moscow State University. A species confined mainly to settlements and complexes of agricultural landscapes.
Kind Riparia T. Forster 1817
- Riparia riparia (Linnaeus 1758) - coastal swallow (Kokhanov, 1999). According to survey data, a small colony 3 km south-east of the village. The Black River, where almost every autumn single individuals are caught.
Kind Delichon Horsfield at Moore, 1854
- Delichon urbica (Linnaeus 1758) - funnel - for the first time at BBS MSU, nesting of several pairs was noted in 2017 (P.V. Kvartalnov). In the village Black River, nests, common. The species, confined mainly to settlements and agricultural lands.
Family Motacillidae Horsfield 1821 Wagtail
Kind Anthus Bechstein 1805
- Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) - forest horse, common, nests.
- Anthus hodggsoni Richmond, 1907 - spotted horse - flights. One individual was captured in vil. Black River in September 2012
- Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) - meadow horse - nests in vil. The Black River and the coastal meadows in its vicinity.
- Anthus cervinus (Pallas 1811) - red-throated skate - on the span (Bianchi, Flerov, 1960).
Kind Motacilla Linnaeus 1758
- Motacilla alba Linnaeus 1758 - white wagtail - common, nests.
- Motacilla flava Linnaeus 1758 - yellow wagtail - rare, nests (Freude, 1986), common on migration (P.S. Kvartalnov, personal communication).
Laniidae Rafinesque 1815 family, forty
Kind Lanius Linnaeus 1758
- Lanius excubitor Linnaeus 1758 - a gray shrike usually nests (Blagosklonov, 1960, personal communication G.S. Eremkina).
- Lanius collurio Linnaeus 1758 - an ordinary julan - flights. In the village The Black River was caught 2 individuals, at the end of August in 2002 and in 2011. Penetration to the north is mainly associated with stations of settlements and agricultural lands.
Family Sturnidae Rafinesque 1815, starling
Kind Sturnus Linnaeus 1758
- Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus 1758 is an ordinary starling (Freude, 1986; Voronetsky, 1988). Currently, living in this area is very unlikely. From the 1970s and 80s, the population depression throughout the northern part of European Russia and in the Subpolar Region almost disappeared. According to survey data (Pavel Shelkov), in the village. Black River in the early 2000s. met irregularly on spring migration.
Family Corvidae Leach 1820, Corvidae
Kind Perisoreus Bonaparte 1831
- Perisoreus infaustus (Linnaeus 1752) - kuksha, common, nests, hibernates.
Kind Garrulus Brisson 1760
- Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus 1758) - jay is rare, breeds and hibernates (Black River - Panov, BBS - Krasnova, personal observation). An individual ringed in September 2009 in the village Black River, re-caught there in January 2010
Kind Pica Brisson 1760
- Pica pica (Linnaeus 1758) - magpie, nests, hibernates.
Kind Corvus Linnaeus 1758
- Corvus corax Linnaeus 1758 - Raven, nests, hibernates.
- Corvus cornix Linnaeus 1758 - Crow, nests, common on migration.
Family Troglodytidae, Wren
- Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus 1758) - Wren - rarely, but regularly, possibly nests. A singing male was observed in 2002 in June and August on the same site 1.5 km to the north of the village. Black River. Regularly in the fall, single individuals enter the net, including young birds in the early stages of post-juvenile molting.
Prunellidae Richmond 1908 family, virulent
Kind Prunella Vieillot 1816
- Prunella modularis (Linnaeus 1758) - forest swirl - rare, nests (Voronetsky, 1988). In the last decade, growth in numbers. In the vicinity of vil. The Black River is common and nests with a density of up to 5 pairs per square meter. km, in captures in the hospital is 5-10%.
Family Sylviidae Leach 1820, Slavic
Kind Acrocephalus J. A. et F. Naumann 1811
- Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (Linnaeus 1758) - warbler-badger is rare, nests (Blagosklonov, 1960).
- Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849 - garden warbler - flights. In the village The Black River caught 1 individual, at the end of August 2010
- Acrocephalus palustris (Bechstein, 1798) - marsh warbler - flights. In the village Since 2008, from August 2008, the Black River has been caught for 1-2 individuals.
- Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann, 1804) - reed warbler - flies. In the village The Black River was caught 2 individuals, in September 2010 and 2011.
Kind Phylloscopus Boie 1826
- Phylloscopus borealis (Blasius 1858) - Talovka - rare, nests.
- Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot 1817) - a stick-shadowka - nests. In the last decade, an increase in numbers has been noted; by now it is usual.
- Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bechstein 1793) - ratchet wand. In the Catalog published in 2008, this species is presented as common, nesting. According to the ringing station in the village. The Black River is unlikely: for the entire observation period from 2000 to 2012, there was not a single registration of this species. In Kandalaksha reserve there were very rare registrations of singing males.
- Phylloscopus inornatus (Blyth, 1842) - warbler - flies in the fall (Panov, Shutova, 2009) ²
- Phylloscopus proregulus (Pallas, 1811) - Korolkovaya penochka - flights in the fall (Panov, Shutova, 2009) ²
- Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus 1758) - warbler - common, nests.
Kind Sylvia Scopoli 1769
- Sylvia nisoria (Beshstein, 1795) - hawk warbler - the only capture in the village. Black River in September 2012
- Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus 1758) - warbler-black-headed - according to the ringing station in vil. Black River: regular fall season (September-October).
- Sylvia borin (Boddaert 1783) - garden warbler - rarely, nests (Freude, 1986).
- Sylvia communis Lathham, 1787 - gray warbler - according to observations in der. Black River: rare, in recent years, may nest. First caught in the fall of 2009. In the spring of 2010 and 2011. a singing male was noted in the village, in the fall - captures of birds of the first year in a juvenile feather. The distribution of the species to the north (as well as that of the hawk warbler and, to a lesser extent, the warbler warbler) is associated to a large extent with anthropogenically modified landscapes.
- Sylvia curruca (Linnaeus 1758) - warbler-curler - according to observations in vil. The Black River: rare, nests, in the village of the biostation is found on post-nesting wanderings (P. Kvartalnov, personal communication).
Muscicapidae Fleming 1822 family, old world flycatcher
Kind Ficedula Brisson 1760
- Ficedula hypoleuca (Pallas 1764) - pied flycatcher - rare, nests (Bianchi, Flerov, 1960).
- Ficedula parva (Beschtein, 1794) - a small flycatcher - rare, possibly nesting. In 2010 and 2011 in the vicinity of the village of Chernaya Reka, one meeting of singing males on a standard route (10.3 km). In the fall, single specimens are caught almost annually.
Kind Muscicapa Brisson 1760
- Muscicapa striata (Pallas 1764) - gray flycatcher - common, nests (Bianchi, Flerov, 1960).
Kind Saxicola Bechstein 1803
- Saxicola rubetra (Linnaeus 1758) - meadow minting - rare, nests (Bianchi, Flerov, 1960).
Kind Oenanthe Vieillot 1816
- Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus 1758) - an ordinary Kamenka - rare, nests (Freude, 1986).
Kind Phoenicurus T. Forster 1817
- Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus 1758) - common redstart - common, nests.
- Phoenicurus ochruros (S.G. Gmelin, 1774) - blackstart redstart - flies. One individual was captured in vil. Black River in August 2010 V.D. Kokhanov watched on about. Great in April 1975 (Bianchi et al. 1993).
Kind Erithacus Cuvier 1800
- Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus 1758) - zaryanka - common, nests.
Kind Tarsiger Hodgson, 1845 Tarsiger cyanurus (Pallas, 1773) - bluetail - a very rare migratory species, also occurs during invasions, nesting in some years is possible (Panov et al., 2009). The female was caught in the net on August 11, 2019 in the territory of the village of P.V. Biostation. Quarterly. Kind Luscinia T. Forster 1817
- Luscinia svecica (Linnaeus 1758) - Bluethroat - rarely, nests (Blagosklonov, 1960). It is usual on an autumn flight.
Kind Turdus Linnaeus 1758
- Turdus iliacus Linnaeus 1766 - blackbird thrush - common, nests.
- Turdus philomelos C. L. Brehm 1831 - songbird - common, nests.
- Turdus pilaris Linnaeus 1758 - thrush mountain ash - common, nests.
- Turdus viscicorus Linnaeus 1758 - sackcloth - rare, nests (Freude, 1986).
- Turdus merula Linnaeus 1758 - blackbird - rare, possibly breeding in some years. First met in July 2011 in a biostation village and stayed there until August (Krasnova, personal communication). In the village The Black River has caught single individuals since 2007, possibly nesting - Panov, Shutova, 2008. "
- Turdus torquatus Linnaeus 1758 - the white-throated thrush - is found on the span. One bird was captured in vil. Black River in May 2008, V.D. Kokhanov observed a male on the shore of the Eremeevsky threshold in May 1991, in addition to this, several registrations by the same author on about. The Great (Kokhanov, 1999).
Family Paridae Vigors 1825, Tit
Kind Parus Linnaeus 1758
- Parus montanus Baldenstein 1827 - brown-headed gadget - common, nests, hibernates.
- Parus cinctus Boddaert 1783 - gray-headed gadget - common, nests, hibernates.
- Parus ater Linnaeus 1758 - Muscovite - rare, nests, hibernates (Bianchi, Flerov, 1960, Blagosklonov, 1960).
- Parus cristatus Linnaeus 1758 - grenadier - rare, common in some years, bites, hibernates (Blagosklonov, 1960, P. Kvartalnov - personal communication).
- Parus major Linnaeus 1758 - great tit - common, nests, hibernates.
- Parus caeruleus Linnaeus 1758 - common blue tit - rare, occurs annually on post-breeding wanderings, possibly nests. It is regularly caught in the fall at a hospital in the village Black River.
Passeridae Rafinesque 1815 family, passerines
Kind Passer Brisson 1760
- Passer domesticus (Linnaeus 1758) - house sparrow - rarely, previously regularly nesting and hibernating on the estate of BBS MSU, while there was a stable. Currently, neither in the village of Biostation, nor in the village. Black River does not occur.
- Passer montanus (Linnaeus 1758) - a rare sparrow, nesting and wintering on the BBS manor, while there was a stable. Currently, neither in the village of Biostation, nor in the village. Black River does not occur.
Family Fringillidae Leach 1820, reel
Kind Acanthis Borkhausen 1797
- Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus 1758) - common taproot - common, nests, hibernates.
Kind Carpodacus Kaup 1829
- Carpodacus erythrinus (Pallas 1770) - common lentils - rare.
Kind Chloris Cuvier 1800
- Chloris chloris (Linnaeus 1758) - common greenfinch - rare, nests.
Kind Fringilla Linnaeus 1758
- Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus 1758 - finch - common, nests. The printed version of the Catalog (2008) was listed as rare, but in the last decade the number of this species has been growing rapidly. In the vicinity of vil. The Black River in some years, nesting density in places reaches 20 pairs per square. km
- Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus 1758 - reel - common, nests.
Kind Loxia Linnaeus 1758
- Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus 1758 - a whip-spruce tree - is rare, breeds (personal communication G.S. Eremkina).
- Loxia leucoptera Gmelin 1789 - a white-winged leaf was recorded on Kasyan Island (personal communication P.V. Kvartalnova).
- Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkhausen 1793 is a pine-leaf klest, found in years with a pine seed crop, including on post-nesting wanderings, possibly nests, hibernates (Blagosklonov, 1960, personal observations of P.V. Kvartalnov).
Kind Pinicola Vieillot 1807
- Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus 1758) - Schur - rare, breeds, hibernates (Blagosklonov, 1960).
Kind Pyrrhula Brisson 1760
- Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus 1758) - common bullfinch - common, winters.
Kind Spinus Koch 1816
- Spinus spinus (Linnaeus 1758) - a siskin, nests, winters in some years.
Emberizidae Vigors 1825 family, oatmeal
Kind Emberiza Linnaeus 1758
- Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus 1758 - common oatmeal - rare, nests (Blagosklonov, 1960).
- Emberiza rustica Pallas 1776 - Bunting Remez - common, nests.
- Emberiza pusilla Pallas 1776 - baby oatmeal is rare and nests (Freude, 1986).
- Emberiza schoeniclus (Linnaeus 1758) - reed oatmeal - common, nests.
Kind Plectrophenax Stejneger 1882
- Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus 1758) - buntochka - usual, in flight.
Kind Calcaricus Bechstein 1802
- Calcaricus lapponicus Linnaeus 1758 - Lapland plantain - rare in winter (personal communication. Krasnova E.D.) and on the fly. In the Black River, single individuals are caught annually in late August - early September.
Emberiza hortulana Linnaeus 1758 (garden oatmeal) was listed in the printed version of the Catalog by mistake.
The Titmouse Family
Family Sinitsevye - Paridae - small forest passerine birds with a sharp short beak and contrasting coloration of the head, sometimes with a crest, found in the northern hemisphere and Africa. Despite the similarity of the name, the long-tailed tits do not belong to the titmouse family.
Tits usually nest in hollows. In clutch there are 3-13 white eggs with reddish spots, during the summer there are often two or three clutches. In autumn and winter, wander in flocks, usually consisting of several species of tits, nuthatch, pikas, woodpeckers, at which time they are common in gardens, parks and villages.
They adapt well to various environmental conditions, many species live close to human habitation and often visit feeders in search of nuts, seeds and other food. For example, in Britain they are known for their ability to open foil-covered milk bottles left by milkmen at the doors of houses and eat cream floating there.
Under natural conditions, they feed mainly on seeds and insects.
On frosty nights, they often climb under the snow at the roots of trees or shrubs, or spend the night in hollows of trees and other shelters.
Ten species live in Russia: Great Tit (Parus major), Eastern Tit (Parus minor), Tufted Tit (Baeolophus bicolor), European Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), European Blue Tit (Cyanistes cyanus), Muscovite (Periparus ater), gadget brown-headed (Poecile montana), black-headed nut (Poecile palustris), gray-headed nut (Poecile cincta).
The dexterous, mischievous and incredibly mobile bird belongs to the Sinitsev family and the Vorobinobrazny group. Tits - birds of prey and feed on various insects and larvae, which they get, searching all the cracks in the bark of trees.
Depending on the species, the weight of the birds varies from 14 to 30 grams, and the length of the body does not exceed 15 centimeters. To date, at least 65 species of this bird are known. In our article, we describe the most popular and widespread species that live in our country.
In the following sections, we propose to consider in detail the description, name and photo of species of tits. And we will start by exploring the most ordinary variety of this small bird.
The species of this tit is considered the most common in our country. Especially often it can be found in Siberia - from Altai to Lake Baikal, as well as from Arkhangelsk and to the Crimea, including the entire Caucasus. The species of tit got its name due to its rather large size (in comparison with other titmouse). She is also called a grasshopper or a big man.
The yellow breast of this white-winged bird is divided into two equal parts by a black stripe, and it is wider in males. The shiny black color has the upper part of the head, neck, and also goiter. A part of the back to the bluish overtail has a pale green color, and the tail and wings are dark brown in color with a slightly bluish tint. The great tit is completely omnivorous: it does not mind eating a piece of lard or meat, and seeds, and even stale bread. In addition, this species of tit is considered the most agile, cunning and predatory.
Blue Tit are blue and white. The blue species of tits is characterized by bright blue crown and nape. Narrow stripes of off-white color pass above the beak and eyes, and blue stripes are located behind the eyes and on the upper part of the neck. The feathers on the humeral part of the wings are gray-green in color, the throat and lateral part of the cheeks are black-blue in color, the nipple of the juicy azure color, the abdomen is bright yellow, and the wings and tail are bluish-green.
The White Blue Tit (middle name is the prince) is the closest relative of the common Blue Blue Tit and is considered one of the cutest species of tits. For the first time, the famous traveler and naturalist I. I. Lepekhin gave a description of this bird. Blue Tit is quite rare in the Minsk region, but much more often it can be seen in the Volga region and in the Urals. In Siberia, this bird has a slightly different appearance, but the main color differs slightly.
This type of tit is also called black or small. Its size is about one and a half to two times smaller than that of the great tit, and the color scheme almost completely coincides with it. In Moscow, the following parts of the body are shiny black: throat, neck, forehead, upper and back of the head, as well as stripes on the sides of the back of the neck. The cheeks and side of the neck have a snow-white color. The wings and tail are dark gray, and the breast and abdomen are slightly reddish. Among all types of tits, this one is the most tame and gullible.
The habitat of Muscovites is a fairly vast territory: from Lapland to Ukraine, and in Russia - practically throughout the taiga, Ryazan and Ulyanovsk. Crimean, Caucasian and Tien Shan Muscovites are distinguished by the presence of brown or olive plumage on the abdomen, as well as stronger beaks.
The crested tit (the species has such a name) has a very noticeable difference from other tits, consisting in a long crest, which has a wide base and a sharp tip. The color of the plumage of the grenadier is rather dull and has mainly brown and red shades.
The wings and tail are dark brown, the back is slightly lighter. The sides and abdomen have a gray-brown tint, and the breast is off-white. The crest on the head is made of black feathers with white tips. Parallel black stripes pass from the beak through the eye and from the goiter to the back of the head, and the side parts of the head are white.
Tufted titmouse is most common in the northern half of the European part of our country. Most often, it can be found in coniferous forests from Arkhangelsk to Bashkiria. Grenadier is considered to be a particularly rare species of tit for the territory of the Caucasus. This type is not suitable for home content, because its singing qualities are not so good.
A brown-headed gadget, puff, a marsh tit - all these are the names of a large and medium-sized species of tits. It differs in a rather unremarkable color, devoid of colorful tones. The head, occipital part and a small speck under the beak have a saturated black color. The entire upper body is painted in light gray tones, and the breast, abdomen and cheeks are almost white. The tail and wings are darker - from gray to brown.
You can meet a gadget almost everywhere: from Pskov to Kharkov and Voronezh, as well as from the Volga region to the Pacific Ocean. Caucasian, Altai and Siberian bog tits are replaced by geographic subspecies that are most similar to the common nut. Gadgets nest in hollows, which they hollow out themselves, but sometimes they are able to occupy an already finished dwelling.
Among different species of tits, the long-tailed beauty-tit can be separately noted. From all other varieties, it is distinguished by a long tail and a small body size. The silhouette of this titmouse resembles a spoon. The very beautiful plumage of the moths consists of loose and light feathers. The head, neck and chest of this bird are white or slightly grayish in color. The sides and upper part of the tail has a pinkish-wine hue, and the nuft, shoulders, wings, and tail itself are burning black. In addition, the outer edges of the weed have a white color that expands from the middle.
In general, the long-tailed tit is considered a small bird. However, in our country they are especially common. Ledge is one of the most common species of tits of the Tula region, the Caucasus, Crimea and the Ussuri Territory. They especially love raw deciduous forests.
Interestingly, the militia is one of the few tits that can be tamed and able to live in captivity for a long time. A gullible bird is able to eat out of hand already 3-4 days after capture. The main condition for its maintenance is the presence of a variety of feed. In addition, the long-tailed tit sings loudly and melodiously, and therefore is especially appreciated both among beginners and experienced breeders. It is best to jointly keep it with a canary, which will teach the titmouse more beautiful singing.