Main indications male castration are: prevention of sexual behavior (marking the territory, interspecific aggression, search for a sexual partner), sterilization (lack of opportunity to have offspring), testis neoplasms (photo 3), treatment and prevention of perianal adenomas (photo 4) (Wilson GP, Hayes HM.).
Dog castration is also indicated for the removal of infected, twisted and irreversibly injured testes.
Dogs are castrated for prostate diseases (Freitag T, Jerram RM, Walker AM, et al.): Benign hyperplasia, cysts, abscesses and hormone-dependent alopecia.
Advantages of castration males
- Prevention of sexual behavior (marking the territory, interspecific aggression, searching for a sexual partner) Sterilization - the inability to reproduce offspring (to prevent accidental mating and the risk of an unplanned pregnancy in a bitch) common diseases are: injuries, torsions and infections) Prevention of prostate diseases: benign hypertrophy, cysts, abscesses (for example, after 3 weeks after e-castration - the prostate in dogs is reduced by 50%) Prevention of hormone-dependent pathologies: perineal hernias and alopecia
Cons castration of males
The main disadvantage of castration is the risk of obesity, but it can be easily prevented with a suitable diet.
There are publications about an increased risk of developing tumors of the bladder, prostate and skeletal system in castrated dogs, however the reliability of the results of these studies is doubtful and requires additional verification (Bryan JN, Keeler MR, Henry CJ, et al.) (Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, et al.).
Dog castration age
Traditionally, veterinarians recommend sterilizing dogs and cats aged 6 to 9 months (Olar TT, Amann RP, Pickett BW.). This age is considered optimal in terms of anesthetic risks (at this age they are minimal) and immune status (animals have already been vaccinated by this age).
If necessary, it is permissible to carry out the operation at an earlier age - 8-16 weeks. Castration at this age has similar results in the long and short term compared to surgery at an older age (Howe LM, Slater MR, Boothe HW, et al.).
P.S. For surgery at such a young age, puppies need a specialized anesthetic protocol: food deprivation 3-4 hours before surgery, low doses of medication, additional administration and monitoring of glucose levels, and others (Howe LM.).
Chemical castration of dogs
Chemical castration - is one of the methods of non-surgical sterilization of dogs and cats. These methods are resorted to by owners who want to preserve the testes of their animals, but do not want to use them for breeding or have offspring from them.
The most common method of non-surgical chemical castration of males is the introduction into the testes of preparations based on zinc gluconate (photo 5). Typically, the amount of sperm in an animal decreases within 60 days, and when it is preserved, repeated injections are required.
Due to the preservation of the production of sex hormones by the testes, there remain risks of developing hormone-dependent pathologies: perineal hernias, perianal adenomas, prostate diseases, and several others.
All methods of chemical sterilization have unpredictable long-term consequences: pain, inflammation, infection, ulcer or necrosis of the scrotum. At the moment, chemical sterilization is not the method of choice in animals and the surgical method is a priority (Immegart HM, Threlfall WR.).
Medical castration of males
For reversible medical castration of males, the veterinary drug Suprelorin is used (photo 6) - a subcutaneous implant containing 4.7 and 9.4 mg of deslorelin acetate.
After getting into the blood, deslorelin leads to a decrease in the functional activity of the testes and a decrease in the level of sex hormones in the blood. It is administered to dogs once every 6 or 12 months.
Contraindications: hormone-dependent genital tumors. It is also not recommended for use in animals that have not reached physiological maturity.
What do you learn about castration of males by reading this article
Does your four-legged friend eat and sleep poorly, trying to run away from you on a walk, whining at the window or at the door, leaving marks on the street and in the apartment, became aggressive? This behavior indicates that you have encountered problems with your pet’s sexual hunting.
Most owners wonder whether it is worth castrating their dog to cope with the antisocial behavior of the pet. In this article we will talk about the problems that await the owner, who nevertheless decided on castration.
Clinical examination of a dog
Since castration of a male dog is a preventive operation and does not carry any particular risk, obviously healthy animals with good appetite and “stool” are allowed to operate. The veterinarian will conduct an examination of the dog and evaluate the health, and if any contraindications are identified, an additional examination will be recommended.
Prevention of anesthesia
Premidication is a series of measures necessary before administering anesthesia to a male dog. Since this is the preparation of the body, in particular the heart, nervous system and lungs, we consider premidication as an extremely important stage. And in practice, we were convinced that animals after anesthesia recover much faster after preliminary preparation.
Castration or sterilization
You can solve the sexual problem of dogs using castration or sterilization. The essence of both operations is to stop the reproductive functions of the animal. Both procedures are irreversible, after them the dog or bitch cannot have offspring. However, the principle of the procedures is different. Castration involves the removal of certain organs: males lose their testes, and females are ovarian, sometimes with the uterus. By sterilization is meant the ligation of the seminal ducts or fallopian tubes. After the operation, animals can go hunting and mate, but they will not have offspring.
Operations have supporters and opponents. The final decision must be made with the veterinarian. It is worth considering not only the owner’s desire, but also the dog’s age, state of health, breed, and show career. For example, having sterilized a bitch or a dog, it will not be possible to exhibit it in the usual ring, the dog will be transferred to the class of animals with sexual changes. Castrated males are often not allowed to exhibit at all.
Before deciding on an operation, it is worth talking to a zoopsychologist. The specialist can explain why the procedure is needed, how the operation for castration of dogs takes place, describe what the pet will feel. Do not be afraid of sudden changes in his character. The level of sex hormones decreases, but their production does not stop completely, because not only the testes and ovaries, but also the thyroid gland, adrenal glands and the pituitary gland are responsible for it.
An alternative is the chemical castration of dogs. The procedure involves the introduction of a drug that blocks the production of sex hormones for 6-7 months. The method is recommended for sick and old animals that are not suitable for classical surgical intervention. Chemically castrated dogs of hunting and service breeds, the procedure significantly improves working qualities. The drug is activated after 4-5 weeks, after which temporary infertility occurs. Some veterinarians do not recommend this method because of the risk of edema, allergic reactions, and a gradual decrease in the testes.
Male Castration: Pros and Cons
Most often, male dogs undergo surgery. The procedure takes much less time, complications are rare, the rehabilitation period is short. Castration of dogs lasts no more than 7 minutes and takes place under general anesthesia. Large animals are best brought to the clinic, dogs of small breeds are often neutered at home. The hair in the lower abdomen and inguinal region is shaved, 2 small incisions are made on the skin to remove the testes. Wounds are treated with antiseptics, sutured by absorbable threads and closed with a bandage. It is not necessary to remove the seams. The wounds heal completely after 3-4 days, during the recovery period, the animals practically do not feel anxiety.
The advantages of the procedure include:
- low invasiveness and absence of complications,
- solving the problem of homeless animals,
- reduced risk of escape,
- protection against serious diseases (testicular cancer, perianal fistulas, diabetes).
After the operation, the owners note that the character of the pet is stabilizing, while the dog does not lose watchdog qualities. Castration of dogs is recommended if the house contains several animals of different sexes. It is noticed that after the operation, males become more clean, stop smelling, better contact with children, become more sensitive and receptive. The owners note that the effect of the procedure is especially noticeable if the dog behaved aggressively before it and was inclined to dominate.
Some owners fear that castration of a dog will make him phlegmatic, boring, provoke obesity or stunted growth. To exclude such fears, you need to perform the operation on time, do not overfeed the pet and devote enough time to it. The question at what age to castrate a dog cannot be answered unambiguously. It is not recommended to castrate a male up to 3 months. It is best to carry out the procedure before puberty, then the intervention will not affect the development of the pet.
When castration dogs are possible risks. As a result of the operation, the animal may face:
- urinary tract and prostate cancer
- bone sarcoma.
It is worth noting that not a single veterinarian can confirm whether castration will become the cause of the disease or not. Serious health problems arise due to a complex of reasons, one of which is a hereditary predisposition.
Route of administration
Several routes of anesthesia are used:
- Intramuscular - This is a standard method of injecting the drug into the muscle. Here both inexpensive anesthesia and combined anesthesia are used, costing from 1,500 rubles.
- Intravenous - the preferred method of drug administration, since the desired effect is quickly achieved, and the animal quickly leaves the anesthesia. It is an expensive type of anesthesia in terms of cost, but its positive characteristics, consisting in a short action and the absence of negative effects on the heart and lungs, should also be taken into account.
- Inhalation - carried out on special anesthetic equipment only in a veterinary clinic. Therefore, when castrating a male dog at home, this anesthesia method is not used. Narcosis is expensive and rarely used in dog sterilization and castration.
We will not indicate the name of the drugs, but divide them into groups:
- Muscle relaxants - drugs that invoke muscle relaxation, have a calming and analgesic effect. In veterinary practice, there is a combined anesthesia when only muscle relaxant and local anesthesia are used.
- Drugs for anesthesia - These substances cause deep depression of the nervous system and the state of artificial sleep. In duration, they are short (more expensive anesthesia) and long-acting. With castration of males, the shorter the anesthesia, the better.
Actually castration male
We have come to the operational stage in the question of how the castration of the dog occurs. In time, the operation itself lasts from 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the age and size of the dog, as well as the experience of the surgeon.
Stage 1 - disinfection of the surgical field
Stage 2 - a longitudinal section of the scrotum no more than the diameter of the testis
Stage 3 - removal of the testis from the scrotum and ligation of the spermatic cord to prevent bleeding
Stage 4 - excision of the testis
Stage 5 - suturing of the scrotum
There is the possibility of carrying out a cosmetic procedure - amputation of the scrotum, which aesthetically looks more beautiful. However, the price of castration of a male increases.
Postoperative treatment is the removal of blood clots from the incision and the testis cavity, dusting the surgical wound with antiseptic powder. All this is done once by the veterinarian, so the owner of the dog does not need to repeat the treatment every time.
In the following days, the seam will need to be processed 1-2 times a day until the seam is removed, that is, 10-12 days. Processing is carried out with antiseptic agents (chlorhexidine solution, Levomekol ointment).
Removing sutures can be done independently at home, as shown in the picture, or call a veterinarian at home.
Dropper and withdrawal from anesthesia after castration of a male
These are additional services that are provided to owners of neutered males, both in the veterinary clinic and at home. Thanks to the dropper, the toxic effect of anesthesia is eliminated, the phenomena of hypoxia and perfusion disorders of the coronary and cerebral vessels are eliminated. As a result of this, the condition of the animals is restored as soon as possible, appetite appears on the day of the operation, the dog does not feel discomfort and pain in the area of the surgical wound.
We have finished the description of the article “How does a male castrate?”, But if a respected reader has questions, he can ask them on our forum.
Reasons for castration
There are medical and behavioral reasons for castration:
- Medical reasons are tumors of the testes, neoplasms and cysts in the prostate, inflammation of the prostate, cryptorchidism. Castration of males is carried out both for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. With the help of the operation, the risk of some diseases of the genitourinary system and sexually transmitted diseases is reduced.
- Behavioral causes - this is the aggressive behavior of the dog, marking the territory, a tendency to vagrancy.
Most often, owners turn to veterinary clinics with a request for castration due to aggressive dogs. However, there is no absolute guarantee that after the castration the pet will behave approximately.
How does male castration go?
If the dog is not cryptorch, i.e. both testes are lowered into the scrotum, then a standard operation is performed: through one incision in the projection of the penis of the male, both testes are removed. Operational access with such manipulation is very small and not traumatic. At the choice of the owner of the pet, two types of seam are provided: removable or intradermal-cosmetic (no need to remove). In the postoperative period, antibiotics and suture treatment are prescribed.
If the dog is cryptorch, i.e. if one or both testes are not lowered into the scrotum, but are located in the groin (inguinal cryptorchidism) or in the abdominal cavity (abdominal cryptorchidism), two different types of surgery are performed in which both testes are removed to prevent the development of neoplasms. With inguinal cryptorchidism, surgical access is performed in the inguinal region, and the testis is removed through an incision above the femoral canal.The operation is not complicated, all treatments and appointments are similar to the standard procedure for castration of a male. With abdominal cryptorchidism, abdominal surgery is performed to extract one or both testes. In this case, surgical access will be along the white line of the abdomen, the sutures can be sutured in two types at the request of the owner. All treatments and appointments as in the usual castration of a male.
With cryptorchidism, castration should be carried out as early as possible, in order to avoid subsequent problems.
Features of castration of bitches
Ovariohysterectomy (castration of bitches) takes longer. It usually lasts about 30 minutes and is performed under general anesthesia. After shaving the abdomen, an incision is made in the lower part to ligate the tubes or remove the ovaries. A double suture is applied to the wounds, which is closed with a sterile dressing. The dog is discharged after she regains consciousness.
A female can be castrated at any age. Often, pedigree dogs bred from breeding undergo this procedure. The operation is indicated for animals with congenital defects of the genital organs, as well as for females with a sharp increase in hormonal levels and the risk of malignant tumors. In this case, ovariogisterectomy should not be postponed, it is preferable to carry it out until reaching the age of three.
The advantages of the operation include protection against such pathologies:
- breast or uterine cancer
- perianal fistulas.
The behavior of a dog after castration changes little. And the female can hardly be distinguished from the usual one; her activity depends only on her natural temperament.
Despite the advantages, castration of bitches has disadvantages. After the operation, the dog runs the risk of getting sick:
- bone cancer (relevant for too early ovariogisterectomy),
- sarcoma of the heart and spleen,
- urinary tract infections.
In some cases, temporary or permanent problems with urination are possible, which are treated with appropriate drugs.
Caring for a dog after castration is simple, but requires attention. Usually the dog is released from the clinic after he wakes up completely from anesthesia and the doctor makes sure that everything is in order with him. Dogs have an involuntary urination, but after a couple of days this problem is solved naturally. If the dog licks and bites the seams, they put on it a plastic protective collar.
Sometimes the sutures are slightly swollen and redden. In this case, they are treated with disinfectant fluids: hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine. A dressing is not required; in the open, the wounds heal faster. Full recovery occurs in 3-4 days.
Rehabilitation in bitches takes longer. After 10 days, it is necessary to remove the stitches yourself or in the clinic. In the postoperative period, the dog should not overexert, it is contraindicated for long walks, jumps, violent games. A veterinarian can explain how to care for a pet. A sparing diet is recommended for speedy wound healing. If a dog eats industrial feeds, they are given nutritious canned foods and dry diets designed specifically for convalescents. For those who eat natural food, cereals with meat or fish, cottage cheese, kefir, chicken eggs are suitable.
The negative effects of castration are rare. In rare cases, an allergic reaction to drugs is possible, including anesthesia. Sutures can become inflamed, sometimes bleeding opens, which is stopped in the clinic. It is important to carefully monitor the pet in the early days, after the end of the recovery period, the animal’s health returns to normal and the dog behaves as usual.
What is castration of a male?
Male castration or sterilization is the deprivation of the dog’s ability to reproduce offspring. When castration, the males remove the reproductive glands (testes) producing sperm.
If the male is not neutered, he, like the cat, can mark territory not only on the street, but also at home, sometimes show aggression, not listen to the owner’s commands and run after a dog that has heat, refusing to feed for several days.
Male castration age
At what age is male castration necessary and can puppies do it? The optimal age is 7 months for a small dog and 1-1.5 years for large dogs. However, the age at which the animal is castrated is very individual, usually the owner himself feels the moment when it is necessary to do this.
Early castration (4-5 months) has no negative aspects in comparison with late castration, which is proved by studies.
Late castration (over the age of 7 years) is not so preferable, because the animal may have reduced health indicators. In an age-related animal, changes may have affected the whole organism: the heart and blood vessels are not as strong and hardy as in youth, sometimes postoperative sutures heal longer.
Reasons for castration of males
Dogs are pack animals. In their flock, units have the advantage of breeding, this means that the bulk of the males serve as defenders and guards, and only a small part of the males, distinguished by their special dexterity and intelligence, can breed. This means that any dog psychologically and physiologically can live life without mating with a female or with a minimum number of them. The lack of sexual partners should not have an effect on their general condition.
Among domestic dogs, individuals who are unable to cope with hormonal fluctuations are more common, this is an innate feature of the body. Such males can run away to an unknown place, smelling a dog that has estrus. An unsatisfied dog is tormented, cannot enjoy life to the fullest and watch it from the side, without taking any action, cruelly.
After castration, the dog’s behavior will change and become even. He will cease to actively mark the territory of the house, will not run away, constantly jump on other dogs and people. Even if castration is performed by an adult animal, it is still very likely to cease to show disobedience, a daring disposition, and certainly will not seek adventures in pursuit of a female.
Khomutinnik Ekaterina Igorevna Chief Veterinarian. Specialization: soft tissue surgery, abdominal and thoracic surgery, endosurgery.
Preparation for surgery
All dogs undergoing castration must be healthy, regardless of age. Inspection of a veterinarian before surgery is required. A specialist will assess the health of your pet, weigh it to calculate the dosage of the drug for anesthesia. If any contraindications are identified, an additional examination will be prescribed.
Before the operation, the dog is kept on a 12-hour fasting diet, a few hours before the operation they do not give water.
Preparation for the operation, the operation itself and the recovery period are associated with stress for the animal.
Complications during anesthesia
Castration is performed under general anesthesia, during which complications are possible. Much depends on the professionalism of the surgeon. The most common problems are delayed awakening, a strong decrease in temperature, slowing of the heartbeat and breathing. An allergic reaction and acute intolerance to the drug for anesthesia are possible. Serious consequences of anesthesia are pulmonary edema and postoperative stroke. Such complications are observed in elderly and chronically ill pets.
Bleeding occurs primarily due to a surgeon’s error or is associated with poor coagulation of the dog’s blood. Prolonged internal bleeding leads to the death of the animal. The pet has signs of acute anemia: trembling, rapid breathing, rapid pulse, pallor of the mucous membranes. If blood enters the cavity of the scrotum, a hematoma develops, the treatment of which will require additional surgery. External bleeding is determined by local signs.
A slight swelling of the scrotum is a normal reaction of the dog's body to an operational injury. Inflammatory edema appears 3-4 days after castration. If the dog's temperature rises, when examining the scrotum, pain occurs, immediately consult a doctor.
- Suture inflammation
It occurs when the postoperative wound is improperly treated and hygiene rules are not observed when keeping the animal. The dog itself can cause infection by licking the seam. If reddening of the skin, tissue edema, or rash appears, the veterinarian will prescribe a course of antibiotics.
If during the operation the rules of asepsis and antiseptics were not followed, an infection gets into the wound, which progresses over time. The animal's temperature rises, appetite decreases, thirst rises, and apathy develops. Purulent or bloody discharge from the seam is possible. In this case, antibiotic therapy is used. To remove the focus of infection, a second operation is performed.
The negative effects of the operation
- Metabolic disorder after castration
After castration, the dog disrupts metabolic processes. The production of testosterone ceases, which leads to a hormonal imbalance in the animal's body. A metabolic disorder provokes obesity, the occurrence of diseases of the genitourinary, cardiovascular, endocrine and musculoskeletal systems. The dog's activity decreases, the condition of the coat and skin worsens.
Overweight is an extra burden on the dog's body. After castration, metabolic processes in the body slow down, the pet's appetite increases. Active physical activity and a special diet will help keep your dog in good shape. If you constantly overfeed your pet, then the risk of obesity is high. Obesity is never just external. In fat dogs, fat is deposited on the internal organs, too.
With obesity, the load on the bones and joints increases. This provokes the development of arthritis, displacement of the intervertebral discs, the risk of developing dysplasia of the joints of the hind limbs increases, especially in large dog breeds.
- After castration, the risk of developing orthopedic diseases increases: pathology of the ligaments of the knee, hip joints, bone fractures.
- The risk of developing malignant tumors
After castration, the risk of developing malignant tumors of blood vessels (hemangiosarcoma), lymph nodes (lymphoma), bones (osteosarcoma), and urinary tract increases.
In some cases, castration can be considered as a solution to problems associated with the sexual activity of the dog. Some owners, wanting to quickly get rid of unwanted pet behavior, expose the animal to stress during and after the operation, the risk of general anesthesia, the possibility of complications. Before deciding on such a radical operation, carefully study the behavior of the dog and make sure that castration is justified.
The most humane way to solve problems associated with sexual activity in a pet is to use drugs to regulate sexual hunting.
CounterSex Neo - a drug for solving problems associated with sexual activity
CounterSex Neo is designed to effectively solve all the problems associated with sexual hunting in males. The drug is chosen by experienced breeders, kennel owners and dog owners.
CounterSex Neo has gained the trust of animal lovers with the following benefits:
- Effective behavior correction
Effectively corrects aggressive and asocial behavior of a male during sexual hunting.
The concentration of active substances in the composition of the drug is reduced tenfold in comparison with analogues. This provides high security while maintaining the effectiveness of its action.
- Reversibility action
The reproductive function of the animal is restored 2-3 months after drug withdrawal. Your pet will again be able to have offspring.
CounterSex Neo is available in the form of drops and tablets. You can choose the most convenient form for your pet to use.
Pros and cons of castration male
Castration has many positive aspects:
- The animal will no longer mark territory, run away from the owner, show flashes of aggression and disobedience.
- In most castrated males, in most cases, “swoops” on other dogs disappear, annoying their owners.
- Frequent unmotivated erections pass.
- Spontaneous ejaculation disappears.
- In addition to aesthetic and social indications for male castration, there are also medical ones. It is recommended that some animals with testicular tumors, prostatitis, or cysts be castrated. Genital neoplasms can disrupt the process of defecation and urination, lead to the appearance of perineal hernias and diverticula of the rectum. Castration is one solution to these problems.
- Castration significantly prolongs the life of the animal. If the dog is neutered, its shoots from the house are reduced to a minimum, which means that the chances of fighting with other animals or getting under the wheels of a car are minimal.
It should be noted that castration is actively used in hunting dogs, this operation allows the animal to focus on a passion for hunting, from which sexual instinct only distracts. In the far north, it is still customary to castrate all dogs that do not go at the head of a team.
The disadvantages of castration in males include only the so-called anesthetic risks that are present in any surgical intervention. But, due to the fact that the operation is very simple and long mastered by veterinary surgeons, the likelihood of any negative unpredictable situations is very small. If the procedure is carried out in a clinic, by an operating team with the presence of an anesthesiologist, then there will be no problems.
Castration of male cryptorchids
Cryptorchidism is a congenital malformation of the animal's reproductive system, in which the testes (one or two) do not fall into the scrotum in a timely manner. Timely castration of the male cryptorch allows you to save the animal from the appearance of malignant neoplasms.
Cryptorchidism is a genetically determined disease that is inherited, therefore males with this deficiency are usually not allowed for breeding. To get rid of cryptorchidism, castration of a dog is recommended, which excludes the transmission of malformations to descendants.
Preparing the animal for surgery
It is desirable that the animal be vaccinated at the time of surgery, however, the absence of vaccinations is not a contraindication.
It is recommended not to feed the dog 12 hours before the intervention and to limit his drinking to 4 hours.
Castration of dogs is always carried out under general anesthesia. Our clinic uses a wide range of drugs for anesthesia. Combinations of drugs, methods of their administration and dosage are selected individually by the anesthetist. Most often, epidural anesthesia is used in conjunction with gas anesthesia.
Khomutinnik Ekaterina Igorevna Chief Veterinarian. Specialization: soft tissue surgery, abdominal and thoracic surgery, endosurgery.
The duration of the intervention is only 15-20 minutes. The modern technique of the operation is simple: the surgeon treats the surgical field with an antiseptic, after which he makes a longitudinal section of the scrotum, removes the testis from the scrotum, ligates the spermatic cord and excises the gland.
A similar manipulation is carried out with another (testis). After excision, stitches are placed on the scrotum. Sometimes the scrotum is completely removed, this increases the cost of the operation, but it looks more aesthetically pleasing on the animal. This procedure is often performed according to indications.
Dog care after castration
Any postoperative period requires careful animal care. The dog can feel sick, freeze, it can walk on its own, be disoriented in space. The dog has shaky walking, poor coordination of movements. Usually this takes place within a couple of hours after surgery, it is important to properly care for the animal during this period.
After the operation, the doctor treats the suture with a protective antiseptic spray once. At home, the seam is treated 1-2 times a day for 10-12 days with an antiseptic solution or a special ointment.
Sutures for 10-12 days after surgery are removed by the operating surgeon in the clinic or at home if it is external, and not intradermal (cosmetic).
Postoperative complications after castration of a dog are quite rare.
Male behavior after castration
Soon, the behavior of the dog after castration will change, the dog will become obedient, flexible and friendly. She will stop competing with the owner and try to dominate him and other family members. She will not run away from the house for livestock animals, fight with other dogs and show her character.
After a simple operation, all the forces of the animal will be redirected to another channel - to live and enjoy life!
Male castration: price
|- up to 5 kg.||3500|
|- up to 10 kg.||4000|
|- up to 15 kg.||5000|
|- up to 20 kg.||5500|
|- up to 25 kg.||6000|
|- more than 25 kg.||7000|
|- up to 5 kg inguinal / abdominal||4000/6000|
|- 5-10 kg inguinal / abdominal||5000/7000|
|- 10-20 kg inguinal / abdominal||6000/8000|
|- 20-30 kg inguinal / abdominal||7000/9000|
|- 30-40 kg inguinal / abdominal||8000/10000|
|- more than 40 kg inguinal / abdominal||9000/11000|
|- over 40 kg inguinal / abdominal||9000/11000|