An intestinal obstruction is the closure of the intestinal canal by its contents. Most often recorded in young waterfowl up to a month old.
Eating by a hungry bird in a large amount of food: oats, barley shells, barley, overgrown green grass, various foreign objects - sawdust, twine, bedrock peat, etc. In young young children, clogging of the claw hole (anus) with fecal matter is observed with the development of gastroenteritis of various origins.
Signs and course of the disease
An obstruction of the intestine leads to digestion, weakening of the secretory-motor function of the intestine and leads to stagnation of the contents. Usually stagnation forms at the branch of the blind processes from the intestine and cesspool. In places of stagnation, the contents dry out, harden, violating the intestinal patency. Accumulating, the dense contents stretch the intestinal wall, irritate the mucous membrane, cause inflammation, up to necrosis.
Stagnation of the contents of the intestines is complicated by secondary expansion. In connection with the decomposition of the contents and the absorption of toxins, liver function is impaired and general intoxication phenomena increase. In a sick bird, dehydration, anemia, and blood clotting are often recorded. There is an overflow of intestines with contents, as a result of intestinal blockage, bloating often develops. With clogging of the anus in the rectum and cesspool, an accumulation of feces can be detected. With obstruction of the anus in young animals, the urge to defecate and to live is noted. There is general inhibition, refusal of feed, defecation is difficult or absent.
The course of the disease depends on the age of the bird and the place of closure of the intestinal lumen. With blockage of the duodenum, death occurs within a week, the anus - within 1-2 days from intestinal and endogenous intoxication.
Eliminate the causes of the disease, prescribe a diet regimen taking into account the type of bird. Vegetable oil is introduced as a laxative: young animals - 5-10 ml, adult birds 30-50 ml. When stool is accumulated in the cesspool, they are mechanically cleaned and treated with disinfectant solutions.
Poultry provide a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. It is necessary to give succulent food, exclude food that can cause blockage of the intestine. Waterfowl should be provided with green and succulent food, plenty of drinking water, walking and ponds. Fodders containing awn shells of cereals, young animals can be fed after sifting.
Vitelline peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, pleura and serous integument due to the penetration of the vitelline mass of torn ovarian follicles into the abdominal cavity. They are observed in all types of laying birds, but more often among young chickens with gross violations of feeding and keeping technology.
Layers of waterfowl and turkey suffer from vitelline peritonitis
relatively rare. The disease is almost always recorded in parallel with other diseases of the organs of egg formation and oviposition: ovarian inflammation - ovaryitis, oviducts - salpingitis, atrophy of the ovaries and oviducts, abnormalities of egg formation, difficult egg laying.
The main cause of the disease is the inadequate feeding of laying hens, that is, deficiency in the diet of vitamins A, D, E, excess phosphorus, protein overfeeding, deficiency of choline, riboflavin, pyridoxine, calcium deficiency, etc. The onset of the disease is promoted by:
traumatic injuries of the oviduct and ovaries,
Frequent catching and probing birds to find eggs,
early oviposition by not yet formed juveniles,
the transition of inflammation from the lower parts (cesspool, oviduct),
The disease is complicated by penetration into the vitelline mass and the propagation of conditionally pathogenic microflora in it, located in the cesspool. Yolk peritonitis can occur in a number of contagious diseases - pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, etc.
Signs and course of the disease
In the body of laying layers, under the influence of unfavorable factors, the maturation of the ovary is delayed, the strength of the follicle membranes and the resistance to microflora are reduced. The contents of the follicles undergo purulent-putrefactive disintegration and, when they break, is poured into the abdominal cavity, which leads to pleuroperitonitis. The course of the disease is acute and chronic. In the early days, general depression, weakness, loss of appetite, cyanosis of scallops and earrings, outflow from cloaca are noted, body temperature rises in some birds.
Egg production decreases, then it stops. In a chronic course, emaciation and an increase in the abdomen, limitation of mobility are observed. On palpation, fluid fluctuation or the presence of calculi is detected. In individual layers, the abdomen is strongly pulled out and hangs to the ground. The bird stops flying and dies after a few weeks. The disease is most often acute. Chickens die in the first 3–7 days from general intoxication with decomposed yolk and products of inflammation. The disease is accompanied by an increase in the concentration of total and residual nitrogen, protein, free amino acids, uric acid in whole blood and plasma.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of signs and characteristic pathological changes. Differentiate with colibacteriosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis and other diseases, in which bacteriological research is crucial.
As a rule, treatment is ineffective. The use of antibiotics and sulfa drugs in some cases can stop the development of the disease. Laying hens are usually rejected, as egg laying is rarely restored. To ease the course of the disease, drugs from lactic microorganisms are used.
Feeding technology should be followed, diets should be complete, especially in terms of minerals and vitamins. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the sanitary condition of the premises, inventory and equipment, periodically carry out disinfection and apply measures to prevent internal injuries.
Pneumoaerocystitis is an inflammation of the lungs and air sacs. It is found in all species of young birds. In chickens and turkey poults, mainly the lungs and bronchi are affected, in ducklings and goslings, in addition, air sacs (aerocystitis) are also affected. Depending on the nature of the inflammatory exudate, pneumoaerocystitis can be serous, catarrhal, purulent, hemorrhagic and fibrinous. According to the magnitude of the lesion, there are focal and diffuse lesions, acute and chronic along the course, and primary and secondary by origin.
The main causes of the disease are the same adverse factors that rhinitis and situsitis, if these factors act more strongly and for a long time. More often young animals undergo severe hypothermia in conditions of high humidity. It can develop from bronchi to lung tissue and air sacs.
Signs and course of the disease
Adverse factors disrupt local respiratory protection, increase blood vessel permeability and exudate output. Due to a violation of the mucous membrane, the formation and accumulation of exudate in the alveoli and air sacs, breathing is difficult, shortness of breath, tachycardia occur, which leads to the development of acidosis, hypoxia. The birds develop general weakness, unsteady gait, severe depression, lack of appetite, tense breathing, with wheezing, neck is extended, beak is open. In the early days, the temperature is usually elevated, in the future it can be normal. If measures are not taken, in the acute course, young growth dies in the first 2-3 days.
The diagnosis is based on anamnesis, characteristic clinical signs and results of postmortem autopsy. With a differential diagnosis, infectious diseases that occur with damage to the respiratory system are excluded - parellosis, plague, infectious laryngotracheitis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, etc.
Therapeutic measures begin with the elimination of etiological factors. The diet should consist of benign feed, while the amount of vitamins is increased by 2-3 times. The treatment complex includes etiotropic, pathogenetic and, if necessary, symptomatic therapy. As antimicrobial agents, antibiotics, sulfonamides, etc. are used.
Pre-establish the sensitivity of microflora to antimicrobial drugs. They are tried on individually, for group therapy with food, water and in the form of aerosols. To enhance the regeneration of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and lungs and increase resistance, vitamins A, E, C, B12, ultraviolet radiation and aeroionization are most often used. To dilute and remove exudate, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride with feed and water, trypsin and deoxyribonuclease enzymes, turpentine in the form of aerosols are prescribed.
Attention should be paid to observing the norms of temperature and humidity and planting density for each species and age group of birds. To do this, periodically measure the air temperature at the level of all tiers (with battery content) and in the area of birds at the level of the heater (with floor content). Do not allow dampness in the premises, drafts, the use of wet litter. It is necessary to monitor the gas and bacterial composition of the air, the density of planting, especially young animals. During transportation, the bird should be protected from colds. In case of respiratory diseases, along with compliance with the temperature and humidity regime, a good preventive effect is exerted by ultraviolet radiation and artificial ionization of indoor air.
Hypovitaminosis A occurs with a lack of vitamin A in the body (retinol, retinoic acid, retinal), is clinically manifested by growth retardation, development, a decrease in natural resistance and local immune defense, increased peeling of the epidermis and dermatitis, metaplasia and keratinization of the epithelium of the mucous membranes and glands, visual impairment and lower egg production.
In bird embryos, the formation of cartilage, bones and the iris of the eye is disturbed. Adult birds are sick. Often the disease is recorded at poultry farms among young animals after a period of incubation and broiler feeding. Hypovitaminosis A quite often causes gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, growth retardation and development of the bird.
The main supply of vitamin A is in the liver and in the yolks of eggs. The accumulation of vitamin A in the liver occurs gradually and is closely associated with its presence in the diet, resorption in the intestine, liver condition, etc. In young animals under 2 weeks of age, the disease occurs mainly due to the inferiority of egg yolks in the content of retinol (less than 10 μg / g of yolk) and carotenoids (less than 20 μg / g of yolk.
Signs and course of the disease
In the body, vitamin A is formed from provitamins, which belong to the group of carotenoids. The most active is beta-carotene, which, under the influence of the carotinase enzyme in the intestinal mucosa, turns into vitamin A. Vitamin A is deposited in the liver. In addition, it is found in serum and in all organs rich in epithelial tissue.
With significant reserves of vitamin A in the liver, the poultry needs of the body can be provided for a long time, despite the apparent lack of carotene in the feed. In the body, vitamin A is involved in the metabolism of many substances, but especially protein. It is included in the structure of epithelial cells, the composition of the lipid layer of many membranes, is directly involved in the synthesis of the visual pigment rhodopsin and in the reproduction processes, and also has a regulatory effect on bone growth.
With a lack of vitamin A, metabolic processes in the epithelial tissue are most severely disrupted, which leads to metaplasia and increased keratinization of the epidermal epithelial cells of the skin, conjunctiva, lacrimal and digestive glands, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, digestive tract and genitourinary organs.
In addition, the mucous membranes lose their protective mucin-glycoprotein cover. As a result of metaplasia and keratinization of the epithelium, necrosis and atrophy of the sebaceous and sweat glands of the skin, lacrimal and digestive glands occur, resulting in a sharp decrease in secretion. The functional activity of the endocrine glands - the pituitary, adrenal glands and thyroid gland - is also inhibited. The barrier properties of the skin and mucous membranes are reduced, the content of nonspecific protective factors and immunoglobulin A is reduced in secrets, the activity of phagocytes is inhibited.
Against the background of a decrease in natural resistance and immune reactivity, conditionally pathogenic microflora is activated, inflammation occurs in the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary systems, growth, development and puberty of young animals are delayed. In the retina of the eye with a lack of vitamin A, rhodopsin does not resynthesis containing the aldehyde form of vitamin A - retinal, and hemeralopia develops (nightly night blindness), inability to perceive weak light irritations.
In the future, due to metaplasia and keratinization of the epithelium of the lacrimal glands and blockage of their ducts by the desquamated epithelium, the eyes lose the necessary medium - the lacrimal secretion, which leads to drying out and clouding of the cornea (xerophthalmia). Subsequently, as a result of a decrease in local protection (lack of lysozyme) under the influence of microorganisms, cornea softens and ulcerates (keratomalacia), which is often complicated by inflammation of the entire eyeball (panophthalmitis).
In young animals with a lack of vitamin A, the activity of osteoblasts changes, disproportionate bone growth is noted, enchondral ossification is delayed, narrowing of channels and holes in the bone occurs, which causes compression of nerve trunks and an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure. A deformed spinal column and skull damage the central nervous system and cause ataxia and impaired coordination. In young and adult birds, clinical signs of the disease develop gradually.
The first signs of the disease are observed in chickens after 7 - 50 days with insufficient vitamin A in the egg and diets. The time for the appearance of clinical signs in chickens after their hatch depends on the vitamin A stores in the yolk of the eggs. Chickens are weakening, poorly kept on their feet, their appetite is lost. In the future, growth retardation, weight loss, and emaciation are observed.
Characteristic features are night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, conjunctivitis, dry skin, fragility and prolapse of feathers, depigmentation of the beak, limbs and their hyperparakeratosis, the development of inflammatory changes in the upper respiratory tract and digestive system (serous-mucous discharge from the laryngeal catarrh, laryngitis, goiter, inflammation of the intestines and cesspools). In sick laying hens, egg laying sharply decreases or completely stops; eggs from them contain little carotenoids and vitamin A in the yolk. The yolk is slightly colored, has a gray-yellow color and is more mobile. The hatchability of eggs from laying hens with hypovitaminosis A is several times lower than from healthy ones.
In addition to a growth lag in ducklings up to 60 - 70 days of age, nervous phenomena are noted: a wagging zigzag stilt gait, circular movements, falling to the back. In the blood of sick birds, the amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, especially lymphocytes, platelets, immunoglobulins, vitamin A decreases, the activity of transaminases increases.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the anamnesis, clinical signs, pathological autopsy data and the results of biochemical studies of the liver, blood, egg yolks and feed for carotene and vitamin A.
To predict hypovitaminosis A in poultry farms from each batch of hatching eggs, examine the yolk for the content of vitamin A and carotenoids, and also determine the level of vitamin A in the liver of chickens. In the differential diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude infectious diseases similar to hypovitaminosis A: infectious bronchitis, laryngotracheitis, smallpox-diphtheria, Marek’s disease, respiratory mycoplasmosis, hemophilia, candidiasis, etc. These diseases develop relatively quickly, occur with severe fever, cover a large fever. Hypovitaminosis A develops slowly, proceeds without body temperature. With smallpox-diphtheria and infectious laryngotracheitis, diphtheria in the larynx and eye area is difficult to remove, after removing it, an ulcerated bleeding surface remains, while with hypovitaminosis A, the deposits are easily removed.
Eliminate the causes of the disease. Foods with a high carotene content are introduced into the diet: red carrots, chopped green mass, which also contains a lot of xanthophyll, which, compared to carotene, is better deposited in the skin, herbal flour containing carotene, tocopherol, B vitamins, trace elements and minerals.
Assign an oil concentrate of vitamin A, fish oil of 2-5 drops, aquital-quinoin, containing 2 million IU of vitamin A in 100 ml. The drug is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 20 and added to the feed 1 drop per day. Therapeutic dosages of retinol should exceed the prophylactic dosages on average 3-5 times daily until the signs of the disease disappear. Usually used for three weeks in feed or drinking water.
In cases of severe illness, carotene or vitamin preparations are given to a particularly valuable bird intramuscularly in the doses taken for 5 to 10 days. Difasol (water soluble vitamin A and D) is also used. It must be remembered that with an overdose, a vitamin A concentrate can have a toxic effect and lead to fatty degeneration of the liver.
The bird must be provided with a diet that is complete in terms of the content of retinol and carotenoids. Only eggs full of vitamin A and carotenoid content are selected for incubation. Vitamin supplements are introduced into the poultry diet: fish oil, vitamin A preparations, carotene-rich feeds - fresh alfalfa, clover, peas, cereals, nettles, fresh and dried red carrots, fresh and strong yellow pumpkin, grass or corn finely chopped silage, spruce needles , pines, linden, birch and other trees, artificial dried grass flour, hay dust. In conditions of intensive production, the main source of carotene is grass meal. Its inclusion in the feed in the amount of 7–8% allows us to provide the need for young and adult chickens in carotene.
For waterfowl, characterized by high growth energy, 13-15% of grass meal is included in the feed. As a natural source of carotene and carotenoids for chickens and chickens, it is recommended to use flour from yellow corn kernels, 1 g of which contains 5 - 12 μg of carotene. In certain periods of poultry keeping, it is advisable to use such sources of carotene as carrots, pumpkins, and dietary silage.
To restore vitamin A deficiency, especially during intensive egg laying, after a period of incubation and broiler feeding, retinol oil concentrate, a synthetic preparation aquital-quinoin and a microgranular form of retinol - microvit A, which contains 325 thousand in 1 g are used as additives and premixes. IU Vitamin A, Aquital Biogal (Soluble Vitamin A) in generally accepted doses. Usually it is given orally with food to chickens of 5000 - 10,000 IU and chickens of 15,000 - 20,000 IU once. Repeatedly a single dose can be entered no earlier than 2-3 weeks.
Per day, the bird's need for retinol (thousand IU per 1 head) is:
Diseases of poultry in poultry farms
Poultry disease can be reduced into three groups - infectious, parasitic and non-infectious.
Infectious diseases are considered the most dangerous. When a foci of infection occurs, the entire herd contained in the house is affected. Infections can be transmitted by contact or by airborne droplets. For example, pasteurellosis (bird cholera). The causative agent can cause outbreaks of the disease, in which up to 80% of the livestock can die in a few days.
Avian parasites can become pathogens. They are:
- Internal - these are worms that live in the intestines, esophagus. They can be sources of toxic substances, affect internal organs, deprive the bird of nutrients. The source of parasite larvae are rodents and wild birds.
- External - ticks, fleas, poohoedov, can bite into the skin and under the feathers, the bird as a result of anxiety, itching. Parasites multiply rapidly, as a result of which the bird reduces weight gain, reduces egg production, depletion, anemia appears. In this case, treatment of poultry must be carried out under the supervision of a veterinarian.
Some non-communicable diseases do not pass from individual to individual, however, when a large number of livestock is kept in a limited space, it is likely that they can cause mass diseases, which include:
- Low viability of bird juveniles, the reason is the low quality of the hatching eggs selected by a person or violation of the temperature-humidity and ventilation regime during incubation,
- Blockage of goiter, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, the reason is a violation of the rules of feeding (improper preparation of feed mixtures, poor-quality feed),
- Cuticulitis, a stomach disease, the reason is a metabolic failure due to a lack of vitamins A and E, mineral supplements.
- Cloacite. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the walls of the cloaca is often the result of improper feeding and maintenance. Keratoconjunctivitis, vitelline peritonitis, stomatitis, an abnormality of egg formation and salpingitis also belong to diseases of this type.
Each type of bird has its own treatment characteristics, and if it is already required, it is most reliable to turn to a veterinarian for help.
Bird Disease Prevention
Prevention of bird diseases. In the conditions of intensification and specialization of production, the decisive factor in maintaining the poultry population and increasing its productivity is the implementation of a set of planned preventive measures aimed at preventing morbidity. Veterinary specialists can solve this problem only in collaboration with employees of the zoo engineering and administrative services.
In order to competently control the correct observance of technological processes in poultry farming, a veterinarian must not only know the special veterinary issues well, but also have the necessary methods of feeding and keeping technology that affect the productivity and incidence of birds.
If, under the conditions of individual farming and small poultry farms, the birds themselves largely regulate the daily regimen and the intake of minerals and vitamins in the body, then in the conditions of industrial poultry farming, violations of feeding should be eliminated and the veterinarian should strictly observe the hygiene standards for growing and keeping.
In poultry enterprises of an industrial type, the prevention of poultry morbidity is carried out taking into account the content system (cell-battery, floor-mounted, camp) and the types of poultry farms and poultry farms (egg production with young animals for the repair of their own herds, poultry farms for raising and feeding broilers, breeding poultry farms and farms and other). Scheduled preventive work is necessarily carried out taking into account the specifics of the workshops (hatchery, parent flock, repair young stock of the breeding farm, repair young stock of the industrial farm, broiler shop, etc.).
First of all, it is necessary to constantly take care of the acquisition of a full-fledged brood herd, to provide the breeding layers throughout the year with complete feeds and strictly observe the regime of keeping birds.
It is necessary to carefully select eggs for incubation. A tribal egg must meet the requirements not only in terms of mass, shape, and condition of the shell, but also in content in the yolks of retinol. For this, the eggs arriving at the poultry hatchery and at the poultry hatchery should be subjected to laboratory analysis.
Hatching eggs of egg breeds must meet the following requirements: egg weight not less than 50 g, shell thickness on average 0.33 mm, egg density 1.075-1.090, hatchability of at least 85% of the laid eggs. The content in 1 g of yolk should be: in chickens retinol - 8-10 μg, the amount of carotenoids - 15-20 μg, in turkeys - 9-12 and 10-20 μg, respectively, in ducks - 10-20 and 25-40 μg , in geese - 12-20 and 18-40 mcg.
Dystrophic chickens are hatched from a biologically defective egg entering the incubator, among which mortality has been observed for many months, despite good post-incubation conditions. The productivity of poultry hatched from defective eggs is very low.
The veterinarian must exercise daily control over the provision of adult poultry and young animals with complete food. Particular attention is paid to the regulation of protein, mineral and vitamin nutrition. A protein diet should satisfy the bird's need for protein and be complete in the content of essential amino acids. Therefore, animal feed must be included in the diet. It should not be allowed that the proportion of protein in the diet exceeds 25-30%, and animal feed - 5-7%. When antibiotics, cyanocobalamin or choline are introduced into the diet, the need for animal feed decreases. Overloading the body with excess proteins causes significant harm due to poisoning of the body with uric acid salts.
Throughout the entire period of life, young and adult birds should be provided, taking into account the physiological state and productivity, with mineral feed containing sodium, calcium, phosphorus and trace elements. In large poultry farms of an industrial type, the need for poultry in mineral feed is provided, as a rule, due to compound feeds and special premixes.
To ensure the poultry needs for vitamins, it is advisable to add grass meal, hydroponic greens, succulent feed, yeast, dairy products in the feed mixture. With a lack of natural sources of vitamins, it is recommended to enrich diets with vitamin concentrates retinol, calciferol, tocopherol, group B, choline. High-calorie and carotene-containing feeds stabilize antioxidants. They monitor the supply of gravel, shell, sapropel, etc. to the bird. In order to prevent atony of the gastrointestinal tract, the diet is not overloaded with fiber (not more than 4-6% of the diet).
For the prevention of young waste, it is necessary to carefully observe the feeding regimen, the quality and preparation of feed for feeding. Young animals in the post-incubation period are fed 5-6 times a day with a mash of mealy, vitamin and mineral feeds, whole grains are introduced into the diet from l ’/ g — 2 months of age. It is recommended to widely use yogurt, acidophilus, cottage cheese, acidophilus-broth cultures for feeding young animals.
The bird must constantly be provided plenty of clean drinking water with a temperature of at least 12 ° C.
All newly-fed feed, primarily of animal origin (meat, meat-bone, fish meal, etc.), in addition to organoleptic, must also be subjected to biological testing. To this end, it is recommended to distinguish three groups of young animals of 50-100 heads each and feed the tested food to one group in the set norm, the other in the double norm, the third group is left control (on the same feed).
The decisive condition for the prevention of poultry diseases is compliance with the hygiene conditions of care and maintenance. Poultry houses should be built in elevated places, mainly with sandy loam soil, not closer than 500 m from residential and livestock buildings and 1000 m from chemical industry enterprises.
Ventilation and heating devices must meet the requirements of compliance with the temperature and humidity conditions. The optimum temperature for an adult bird when kept indoors is 12–20 ° С, relative humidity is 50–70%. In the first days after incubation, the temperature for young animals is kept within 28-30 ° С, gradually decreasing by 3-4 ° С per week.
Dustiness of indoor air is permissible no more than 1 mg / m3, and the speed of air movement to avoid drafts should not exceed 1 m / s.
A prerequisite for the prevention of diseases of adult poultry and young animals is compliance with the standards for planting density, for which veterinarians must strictly follow the recommendations and instructions in accordance with the growing method adopted in this farm. When picking groups (layers, broilers, growing young animals, etc.), it is necessary to select birds of the same age. When keeping laying hens of different ages in the general house, young animals under 5 months of age under long daylight hours and plentiful feeding get sick with salpingoperitonitis, their metabolism is impaired, which leads to early rejection.
During the cultivation of waterfowl, turkeys, and also in some poultry farms with a livestock of laying hens, in the summertime walking practice of brood stock and young animals, as well as camp maintenance in mobile homes, is widely practiced. When keeping the bird on the floor or in the deep litter of the house, it is advisable to have areas for walking (tanning beds) at the rate of ‘/ g -’ / b of the usable area of the room. When keeping ducks in non-flowing closed reservoirs, it is necessary to strictly observe the planting rate (no more than 150-200 heads per 1 ha of a water mirror).
Young growth of waterfowl is kept on separate ponds, separately from adult birds, ponds (stagnant ponds) are used in such a way that young growth is not placed on those ponds where an adult bird was in the previous year.
When keeping hens in a room, they carefully monitor the observance of daylight hours taking into account the physiological state and productivity of birds. It is recommended to use artificial irradiation of birds with mercury-quartz or uviole lamps.
An important link in the prevention of bird diseases is the maintenance of houses and the surrounding area in good sanitary condition. It is recommended that sanitary measures be taken at the poultry farm at least once a month. The observance of zoohygienic norms of feeding and maintenance, in addition to the prevention of non-communicable diseases, contributes to an increase in the immunobiological resistance of the poultry organism to infectious and invasive diseases.
Modern, industrial poultry farming in technological processes and veterinary measures provides for anti-stress measures: removal of stress-resistant poultry lines, strict adherence to the rules of regrouping, transportation, veterinary treatments and the introduction of special anti-stress medications in the diets.
During the period of veterinary treatments, poultry movements, transportation and other stressful situations, the diet provides for an increase in retinol and calciferol by 30-50%, and water-soluble vitamins by 10-20%.
Infections are dangerous because infected individuals pass them on to fellow tribesmen. During the day, they can cover most of the herd, which often leads to its death. Young animals are especially susceptible to infectious diseases. Certain pathogens are transmitted to humans and in some cases can be fatal.
This is an intestinal infection that affects the parenchymal organs in young chickens. In an adult bird, the ovaries become inflamed, which is the cause vitelline peritonitis. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum.
In chickens, the infection is hidden. Its symptoms are weight loss, decreased tribal properties. The mortality rate of young animals reaches 70%. Productivity is deteriorating, both in terms of egg production and in hatchability of the new generation (25-50% of chickens hatch).
Infection is transmitted through:
- litter fluff,
- drinking water and feed.
Cells and houses are treated with formalin (1%) or lime with active chlorine. For the prevention of the disease, a bacteriophage is used.
Table 1. Antibiotics against pullorosis
|Drug name||Mode of application|
|Mix in the feed (0.04 - 0.06% of the feed for 15 days, followed by a break of 3 to 5 days and a second course of treatment)|
| ||Add to food (dose of 200 mg per 1 kg of chicken mass), course - 10 days|
| ||Add to food and drink (0.05 - 0.1%) for 14 days, repeat after 3 days|
Pasteurella P. Haemolytica is transmitted from wild birds, rodents, insects, infected and ill individuals through corpses. All age groups are susceptible to the disease.
Young growth is particularly susceptible to infection. The disease spreads quickly, the incubation period can be 12 hours.
The acute form is more often diagnosed. The bird looks lethargic, half asleep, its temperature rises. Cyanosis appears on the crest and beard of chickens. Yellow discharge flows from the beak. Appetite decreases, but thirst increases. Litter becomes thin, slimy. In a chronic form, growths, swelling of the legs, wings are formed.
Attention! With a super-acute course, sudden death is possible without any symptoms.
Sick industrial birds are slaughtered, carcasses are disposed of. 5-7 days are given to healthy people for prevention Chloramphenicol, Norsulfazole, drugs with lincomycin and spectinomycin. The bird is treated with chlor-turpentine. Avivak is effective against pasteurellosis.
Dysfunctional enterprises vaccinate
Paratyphoid, or salmonellosis
Mostly young are at stake. The causative agent is the bacterium Salmonella. Getting into the ovaries of a hen, it reduces egg production, makes the embryos non-viable. The infection gets with food, poor-quality breeding material.
The bacterium affects the digestive tract, respiratory organs. It can enter the bloodstream and cause blood poisoning. Chronic salmonellosis affects the joints and the bird begins to limp.
The most common manifestations of infection:
- depression, drowsiness,
- muscle weakness
- mucus from the nose
- wheezing, shortness of breath.
Salmonella Sick Bird
Salmonellosis in the early stages is well treated. For therapy, such drugs are used:
Chicks are vaccinated with Biovac.
The disease causes the DNA-containing Herpesvirus galli-2 virus.
Bird with Marek's Disease
There are three forms of the disease:
The incubation period is 14-150 days. The acute form is dangerous for young animals.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- digestive disorders
- decreased appetite
- paresis, paralysis,
- change the color of the iris.
The eyes of chickens with Marek’s disease
Acute Marek's disease leads to high mortality. The classic form is less dangerous. An effective way of protection is vaccination.
Nephrosonephritis, or infectious bronchitis (IB)
The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets and quickly infects the entire herd. If no action is taken, up to 70% of the livestock die.
Attention! IB is not dangerous to humans. The meat is not contagious; it is eaten.
With IB, chickens are affected by the respiratory system. Adults lose their productivity. The main symptoms include:
- shortness of breath, whistles,
- decrease in oviposition,
- liquid green feces,
- young growth is crowded with heat.
For treatment, drugs are used:
Premises where birds are kept are treated with drugs iodine.
Escherichia coli is present in avian feces. It penetrates the shell, transmitted with food and drink. Mostly young animals of the first weeks of life are susceptible to infections; his disease is acute. The main manifestations:
- refusal of food with increased thirst,
- beak color change
- loose stools.
For treatment, Lexoflon OR, Enronit preparations are used. For the purpose of prevention give Enronit OR.
Infection affects the respiratory and digestive systems. The virus is transmitted through direct contact, through water, food, feces, eggs, meat. The bird has watery eyes, it sneezes, vilifies, and looks tousled. The hens have a blue crest.
Attention! Avian influenza type B, C is transmitted to humans and can be deadly.
There are no effective treatments. All sick and those in contact with them are destroyed. The main preventive measure is quarantine. Maintain cleanliness in rooms, limit the area of walking.
Bird Flu Comb Condition
Smallpox is caused by the Avipoxvirus virus, and is manifested by conjunctivitis, rashes on the skin and mucous membranes.
The infection is transmitted through the staff’s dirty clothes, equipment, feces, and other bird waste products, with insect bites.
External symptoms of smallpox
Attention! Symptoms of the diphtheria form of smallpox resemble infectious laryngotracheitis and herpes, as well as a lack of vitamins.
The easiest smallpox is cutaneous, which is characterized by external rashes, similar to warts. The most severe is diphtheria. It is characterized by complicated breathing, wheezing, refusal to feed, constantly open beak, swelling of the eyelids, lacrimation. In advanced cases, 7 out of 10 individuals die. There is mixed smallpox, which combines the clinical signs of cutaneous and diphtheria forms.
Sick birds are given Anfluron. Vaccines VGNKI, FOWL Pox are introduced against smallpox.
The disease, which is also called pseudo-plague, causes pneumonia, encephalitis, hemorrhagic lesions of internal organs. The causative agent is a virus from the Paramyxoviridae family. It is characterized by a high degree of endemicity. Treatment regimens have not yet been developed. For prevention, vaccines are used.
Sick Chicken (Newcastle Disease)
Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro)
Infection caused by reovirus is acute and causes apathy, emaciation, diarrhea. The bursa and the bursa are affected, and intramuscular hemorrhages are observed. When infected, up to 20% of the livestock die. The virus spreads quickly and is transmitted through staff clothing, bedding, drinking, and feed.
The average incubation period is 1 week. The disease does not affect adults and young animals under two weeks old. Patients with chickens experience diarrhea, apathy, refusal to eat, disheveled and tremor observed. The factory bursa is doubled. Chickens die in 4-7 days. Prevention consists of vaccination with Nobilis, Gumbo-Vax or complex vaccines.
Gumboro's carcass of a bird
ILT is more often recorded in chickens at the age of 60–100 days, in unfavorable regions - in males.
Attention! The virus infects a person, but only if he works directly with the strains - for example, in a poultry farm. Egg, feather, meat are not dangerous.
The virus is transmitted from beak to beak. An ill chicken will always remain a carrier, as well as those vaccinated with live vaccines. Outbreaks are more often recorded in spring and autumn. In acute course, up to 80% of the herd gets sick, mortality - up to 60%. With a subacute form, the loss is less - 20%.
The main symptoms of laryngotracheitis:
- coughing, whistling, wheezing,
- discharge from the nose and eyes,
- while squeezing the trachea, the bird coughs,
- the larynx is red, swollen, mucus or cheesy discharge accumulates in it,
- the crest and earrings turn blue.
The virus can occur in conjunctival form. Treatment is impractical, the whole herd is killed.
Infected ILTs are killed
The disease causes Aimeria tenella. The infection is dangerous because the first time is asymptomatic. The following manifestations should alert:
- reluctance of the bird to eat,
- pen quality deterioration,
- decrease in egg production,
- blood, stool foam,
- bluish tint of a carcass.
4 days after the onset of severe symptoms, the birds die. For treatment, Koktsidiovit, Avatek, Koktsidin, Baykoks are used.
Coccidiosis in chickens
In birds, the following parasites are detected:
- Roundworms are roundworms (2-10 cm) that live in the small intestine. Chickens up to 8 months of age are especially susceptible to them.
- Heterkis - nematodes 6-12 mm long, living in the blind processes of the intestinal tract.
- Intestinal giardia is a flagellate protist, which is also a human parasite.
- Singamas are a round worm (up to 20 mm) parasitic in the trachea. It can be in the muscles of the earthworm (reservoir host) for up to 3 years.
Geteracis and roundworm
Helminthic infestations are manifested by lethargy, pallor of the crest, disheveled. With an advanced disease, the individual dies. Infection usually occurs in the summer, in houses or on a walk. For preventive purposes, every autumn deworming of adult chickens is carried out.
Fleas not only cause discomfort, but also carry diseases. They appear in different ways:
- thanks to wild birds
- on the body of newcomers,
- with hay and sawdust bought from private farmers.
Signs of the appearance of fleas:
- pen degradation
- hectic behavior.
With severe infection, growths resembling moles appear near the eyes.
Attention! Fleas are distinguished by a strong chitinous coating and flattened shape, which makes them difficult to catch.
With the fleas in the room they fight drugs Chlorofos, Karbofos, pyrethroids. Birds are treated with Butox, Bars drops, etc.
Poohoed and peroed (mallofagoz)
These parasites feed on skin, feathers and down. They survive by settling on the walls, litter. Infected individuals are constantly scratched, bald patches appear on the body. Small feathers are visible on the fallen feathers. The mass is lost, the young growth slowly, the females rush poorly. In order to get rid of insects, they carry out general cleaning, process rooms and cells with Karbofos, Yakutin. The structural elements of the premises are burned with a blowtorch and steamed with boiling water. Flea insecticides are also effective here.
A tick is one of the most dangerous parasites. By piercing the skin, it can cause infection. The fact that the tick is wound is indicated by the restless behavior of the bird and the reluctance to return under the shelter in the evening or nest in the same place. The bite site itches, the birds pinch themselves. Wounds appear on the body. Hens give fewer eggs, the mass of the livestock is reduced. The insect can penetrate the nasopharynx and ears. Respiratory symptoms appear from this - wheezing, coughing, and shaking of the ears.
In order to combat the pest, infected individuals are quarantined. The house is cleaned in the same way as from the beetle. The herd is processed by means of Iretrium, Sevin.
The lack of vitamins affects the appearance and condition of the bird.
A lack of vitamins leads to a deterioration in the condition of birds
The most harm to health is caused by a lack of such substances:
- Vitamin A. With its deficiency, the number of eggs decreases, the plumage becomes dry. Young growth is poorly developed. Mucous membranes, conjunctiva become inflamed.
- Vitamin D. Deficiency conditions provoke the development of rickets in chickens for 3-5 weeks. With a lack of substance, appetite disappears, plumage is bad, the head is large, does not harmonize with the proportions of the body. The bones soften, the walk is shaky.
- Vitamin B1 (chicken fever). Vitamin deficiency is manifested by lethargy, rejection of the usual food. The bird can go into a stupor for a long time, breathing becomes frequent, shallow. In severe cases, paralysis, polyneuritis is possible.
- Vitamin B2 (ariboflavinosis). In this case, the balance of oxidative and reduction processes is disturbed, and the absorption and production of proteins is impaired. As a result, protein metabolism is disrupted. Young growth stops, chickens refuse to eat, anemia occurs. Legs become weak, fingers twist. Dermatitis develops on the head and neck. Adults lose weight, give fewer eggs, the quality of the incubation material decreases. Eggs themselves lose their nutritional value.
- Vitamin B12. In this condition, the birds are depressed, eat less. The comb, catkins, skin integument pale. With a lack of B12, the embryo freezes.
- Vitamin E. In addition to the manifestations characteristic of other vitamin deficiencies, the legs weaken in birds not receiving tocopherol. Reproductive function decreases. The embryos die. Young growth becomes susceptible to infectious diseases.
If it is impossible to extinguish the lack of vitamins with food, pharmacy complexes or single preparations containing the necessary substance are used.
Vitamin requirement of birds
Like humans, metabolism is disturbed in birds. Then they suffer from the following diseases:
- Gout. The concentration of uric acid rises, salts accumulate in the joints, organs. Gout can be of two forms - articular and visceral. In the first case, in birds, depression, loss of appetite, and thinness are observed. Lameness occurs, joints become rough. When visceral, the droppings become whitish. To prevent the development of gout, restrict protein foods, prevent vitamin deficiency, provide regular walking. Treating a bird is not economically viable.
- Perosis (another name is the sliding joint). Chickens and turkeys usually suffer. When the disease weakens the muscle and ligament apparatus, tendons, so the birds do not rise to their feet. Deficiency of choline, vitamins A, D, manganese provokes the disease.
With perosis, the chicken cannot stand up
- Cannibalism. This deviation is accompanied by peeling by chickens of their brethren and is usually observed among chickens and is a consequence of an unbalanced diet. Various injuries cause the cannibalism, the content in the same space of birds of different ages and breeds. To eliminate this phenomenon, provide relevant content.
Pathology of the egg system
A number of pathologies associated with this system are characteristic of the hen organism.
- Vitelline peritonitis. It occurs due to rupture of the yolk follicles in laying hens, which is due to poor nutrition, injuries of the oviduct or peritoneum, poisoning, changes in the ovaries, infections. Egg laying ceases, the female is oppressed, refuses to feed. Her abdomen is enlarged, pain is felt when feeling the abdominal wall. In the initial stages, antibiotics and drugs of the sulfonamide group are effective.
- Egg retention occurs with atony of the oviduct. The reason is a lack of vitamins, lack of exercise. Other causes include edema, including inflammatory edema, oviducts, neoplasm, and large egg size. It is noticeable how the layers are pushing. When feeling, you can feel the egg. Treatment - correction of the content regimen, change in food composition, reorientation to products enriched with vitamins and mineral elements.
- Inflammation of the ovary and oviduct. The system becomes inflamed from a lack of nutrients, calcium, choline, with protein poisoning. A provoking factor are diseases, injuries, infection, including parasitic. In this case, the females stop rushing. To prevent inflammatory processes, vitamins A, D, E, choline, and minerals are introduced into the diet.
Vitamins A, D, E, choline, minerals are needed for normal egg laying
Digestive organs play an important role in bird health. Such diseases worsen herd conditions and product quality.
Among the most common pathologies:
- Atony (blockage) of goiter. Goiter is clogged with swollen food. This occurs after a prolonged hunger strike when feeding dry, poorly chopped feed. Symptoms of atony: shortness of breath, saggy and hardness of goiter, decreased egg production. Often a bird dies due to asphyxiation.
- Goiter inflammation occurs due to poor-quality feed, when swallowing foreign objects, toxins. Birds look depressed, don't eat. Goiter is filled with gases and the remains of rotting food. Therapy consists in washing the goiter with potassium permanganate (1 to 3000), it is also given the first day instead of drinking (1 to 15000). In addition, biomycin, mucous decoctions are used.