Bred in England at the turn of the 17-18 centuries.
It goes back to the eastern stallions Darley-Arabian, Godolfin-Arabian and Beyerley-Terk and the best local mares. The offspring received from them was tested in races and bred "in themselves" with an exact account of their origin and working capacity, not allowing crossbreeding with other breeds.
The homeland of purebred riding horses is the British Isles. The horse’s head is of medium size, the profile of the head is both concave and straight, the ears are of medium length, mobile, eyes expressive. The neck of a purebred horse is straight and long, the withers are high, long, the back is straight or tilted forward, short. The croup of these horses is moderately lowered, rounded, the shoulder blade is long and rather steep.
Since 1793 a studbook has been kept. Purebred horses are characterized by a proportional dry physique.
The average height at the withers of the mares is about 160 cm, the circumference of the chest is 184 cm, the metacarpus is 19.5 cm. The head is light, with large eyes and moving ears, the neck is long, and the chest is deep.
The length of the body is usually equal to the height at the withers. The legs are dry with clearly defined tendons. The color is bay, red, black, rarely gray. The temperament is lively, energetic, jagged horses are often found. Thoroughbred horse breed - an improver for many breeds of riding and draft horses. It was used in the breeding of half-breed horse breeds, as well as the Oryol and American trotters.
The source material is the horses of the East. The creation of a purebred breed was not concentrated in one stud farm and did not have any planned installations and methods. It went simultaneously in a number of horse-breeding farms of the country, and the main thing that united all the work, set its purpose and forced to consolidate the best part of the livestock, there were leaps.
It was the appearance of horse racing back in the 13th century and the widespread occurrence in England that allowed the English breed of riding horses to form as something coherent and fairly uniform in their main feature - high agility at a gallop. In addition to professional racing, thoroughbred horses are also widely used in other types of competitions.
They are most representative in the steeplechase (jumps with obstacles), where they confidently dominate, showing not only good agility, but also remote endurance and the ability to jump. Purebred horses also show good results in eventing competitions.
Bred by the method of long complex reproductive crossing of horses of eastern origin with local riding stock.
The breed has three eastern ancestors. Godolfin Barb (or Godolfin Arabian, as he is often called), a Berberian or Arabian breed, born in 1724, whose grandson Matchem, appeared in 1748, became one of the founders of the three initial male lines in the breed.
This is Turkish Beyerley Turk born around 1680 (hippologists are inclined to consider him even an Akhal-Teke), from whom the founder of the second line Herod, born in 1758, is descended. - great-grandson of Beyrlei Terka.
And finally, the Arabian Darley Arabian (some horse breeders classify him as Akhal-Teke, since all eastern horses in those days were called Arab, therefore it is sometimes difficult to establish the true breed of many stallions taken from the east), born in 1702, to which his great-great-grandson famous Eclipse, born in 1764 and left the most extensive and productive line in the breed.
The English thoroughbred breed of horses appeared in the late XVII - early XVIII centuries. Colonized England needed fast and hardy horses. There were many wars. And also horse racing became popular. It was decided to breed a breed that would meet all the requirements.
Breeders selected horses that showed their best in equestrian competitions and crossed them among themselves. Mostly local horses with eastern and Spanish roots.
So, by mixing the best with the best, the fastest horse in the world appeared.
To this day, this breed is kept in suitable conditions, fed with the best food, and its gene pool is constantly improved.
By the way, only those individuals that are included in the purebred list are allowed for mating. This is how they ensure that the blood of another breed does not get in the way and does not interfere with the long work of the breeders, which brought an impressive result.
Appearance: aristocratic power
The English thoroughbred is known for its beauty and grace.
- She has large expressive eyes, a long neck, a classic head shape, large nostrils, small ears.
- Massive body, deep chest, muscular croup.
- Long, very hardy limbs, which is not surprising for the fastest horse in the world.
- The body is not long, but high.
- The height at the withers is on average 160 cm.
- Strong muscles.
- The bangs and mane are slightly developed, the tail is sparse, the coat is thin.
- The color is one-color. Mostly red, bay and brown. Sometimes gray is found.
- Weight an average of 500 - 600 kilograms.
- Lives 20 - 23 years. Stallions usually live a little longer than mares.
The appearance and achievements of the English breed of horses are admirable, which can not be said about the character. In youth, they can be bold and unbridled. Sometimes a lot of time passes until the coach finds an approach to her. In no case should a horse be offended, much less beaten. Weasel and moderate severity are the keys to gaining trust. Over time, the severity of character passes completely.
However, the character is lively and energetic. And although a tendency to blues sometimes manifests itself, the maximum return of strength from the horse is guaranteed to you. The character is determined by the pedigree, but much depends on upbringing too.
Maintenance and care
The proper maintenance of this breed requires compliance with many conditions, time and money. The horse is very demanding care.
- The stable should be warm and comfortable. In area per unit, the stall should be from 50m 2. From each it is desirable to have a personal exit to the lawn. The floors must be dry and the room well ventilated. Timely carry out cleaning of manure and cleaning the room as a whole. It is very important to provide the horse with a comfortable temperature. To do this, you will have to conduct heating in the room. It will incur considerable costs, but the comfort of a champion who will bring you victory is worth it.
- Correct bedding is also an important condition for maintenance. Hay, sawdust or peat are best. They are not only easier to clean, but also absorb good odors. The litter should be an average of 30 cm thick. Replace the litter 2 times a day and disinfect the stall once. As for feeders and drinkers, they need to be cleaned as soon as contamination is detected.
- Horse cleaning should be done regularly. Hygiene is the key to the health of a thoroughbred horse. The skin must be cleaned every day. To do this, use warm water, a special brush and a comb. Sensitive skin of this breed requires delicate means for cleaning.
- Check teeth and hooves regularly.
Feeding: all individually
For each individual, the diet is selected personally. It takes into account age, weight, health and stress. The feed has all the necessary elements. It is especially important to ensure the presence of calcium and phosphorus.
A horse of this breed is fed with hay, special feed, vegetation. You also need to encourage the animal with apples, carrots, beets and potatoes.
Feeding is done 3 times a day.
For an individual of average weight per day, 12-14 kilograms of food are needed. Salt per day give at least 40 grams.
Fish oil and vitamins are usually added to water. In summer, the volume of water drunk per day is approximately 50 liters, in winter - 30.
Interesting about champions
- Purebred horses are the most expensive in the world. The record amounts for which they were bought amounted to 13, 16 and 40 million dollars!
- The Dino stallion raised in England had the longest mane - 3 meters. Remember that this breed is not hairy, but rather the opposite.
- Stallion Colin participated in his career in fifteen races and in all remained the winner.
- Beach Rekit developed the highest speed known in the world of horse racing - 69.69 km / h.
A lot of effort and time was invested by people working on breeding thoroughbred horses. The result paid off. Thanks to this breed, many varieties of equestrian sport have been created. They showed the limit of possible speed, brought countless victories and joy to the owners.
The price of horses of the English purebred breed starts from half a million rubles.
The British honoring the race as a national sport and the strict selection of horses according to the results of the race tests contributed to the creation of a thoroughbred horse breed as the fastest in the world
For 250 years, this breed has been bred in itself, without the influx of extraneous blood. On the contrary, it itself is an inexhaustible source for the formation and improvement of many semi-breeds of horses in Europe, as well as in Asia, America, Australia.
Purebred horses can reach speeds of up to almost 70 km / h; all world agility records belong to them. Thoroughbred horses are the most expensive on the international market, and there is probably no country where they would not breed and use horses of this breed in breeding. They have a fairly high growth (from 155 to 170 cm), have developed dry limbs, a dry head on a long neck, and are well muscled.
They are demanding of the conditions of detention, as they are brought out in the stable. Color: bay, red, karakova, less often gray and black. Since the purpose of horses almost all over the world from the military and agricultural is becoming more and more sporty, spectacular, and recreational, the demand for breeds is also paired with this.
Success in breeding thoroughbred horses depends to a large extent on the constant updating of the composition of stallions-producers, on their imports from other countries. Even the birthplace of the breed, England, can not maintain a high class of its products without the import of stallions from other countries.
In recent years, such import of producers has intensified in Russia. It can be assumed that this will significantly increase the class of our thoroughbred horses and make them competitive on the tracks of racetracks around the world. The role of this breed in half-breed horse breeding is not reduced.
Along with the participation in the formation of new breeds, purebred producers are constantly used to pour blood to the existing (and in many cases more than a hundred years old) half-breed breeds. Without such an introductory crossbreeding, half-breed horses in most cases lose many of their qualities, as if returning to their maternal basis.
Most often, these horses have such defects of the exterior as the goat, the size and clubfoot of the extremities, low hind legs, the narrow (converging) setting of the front legs and the lightness of the bones. Purebred horse movements are light and free. She trots well and has a great gallop.
Measurements: Rather large growth (the height at the withers of the stallions is usually between 160-165 cm), the length of the body usually almost does not exceed the height, the chest circumference is 182-190 cm.
Suit: The color of purebred horses is usually bay or red, and black and gray horses are rare.
Exterior: A typical purebred horse is characterized by: a dry, medium-sized head with a straight profile, a fairly long head, a straight line, with a high output, but with a relatively low (approaching the horizontal) set, a long and high withers, a relatively short, slightly inclined back, and a strong back loin, medium length, slightly half-croup. The chest, as already noted, is deep, with well-developed false (last) ribs. The limbs are relatively long, dry, with well-developed joints, although not massive. The horse often gives the impression of an angular, maximally adapted to the fast rectilinear movement.
Origin of breed
The origin of the breed originates in the XVII-XVIII centuries, then in England the production of the ideal breed began using the strict selection method. Individuals who took first places in the races took part in the selection. For selection, mares were selected from the royal factories. Mostly it was the Hungarian, Spanish and Eastern breeds of mares, of which 50 became progenitors. The stallions, on the other hand, mainly came from Arabian race breeds, however, a small part of the admixture is also from the Turkish, Turkmen and barbarian stallions.
Of the eastern stallions that gave rise to the English breed, three became known. The first, nicknamed Turok, was taken as a trophy by the British captain. Despite its origin, the horse was an Arab and became a wonderful producer. The second - Darley Arabian - became the father of 2 famous foals that played an important role in breeding. The third ancestor of the famous breed is Godolfin Barb, born in Yemen. From this horse, many famous horses were obtained in England, including the famous racehorse Les.
Features of purebred horses
What could be a horse mare? The English mare is dark, but most often it has a color from dark red with a copper tint to dark, almost coal-black. There are also shades of hairline ash gray. White colors and other colors are almost never found.
An English horse of rather impressive height: from 160 cm at the withers, has well-developed (but moderately powerful) long legs, a wide chest with a large strong heart and voluminous lungs, which contributes to faster gas exchange, and this, in turn, is very important for speed and stamina.
The race of a purebred individual at the races is not comparable to the race of any other breed. The Englishwoman develops a speed of up to 70 km / h in a matter of seconds, which is not given to all breeds. The English thoroughbred owes such reactivity to its distant ancestors, the Arabian horses, who initially participated in the selection. Not only are these horses famous for the speed of reaction, they are incomparable in barrier competitions, powerful jumps are another quality that proves that they are simply created for victory.
English steed is very demanding on feed and maintenance.
The aristocratic nature of this breed of horses allows them to recognize and obey only one person, which complicates the process of leaving, educating and preparing future champions.
Why you should choose an English thoroughbred horse
The English riding horse has no equal in running speed, stamina and devotion. Recognizing only one owner, a horse can perfectly interact with a person. Any jockey will confirm how important it is to feel the horse during the races, to respond to unforeseen circumstances and at the same time to be as if synchronized with the horse during the run.
A beautiful and sophisticated, fast horse of purebred English breed will emphasize the high status of its owner. The price of such a horse is considerable, but the expenses are justified. These pets become winners even before the start of the competition, because, due to their fame, it is on them that the highest bets are made.
Thoroughbred breed - ideal for equestrian sports
Since the formation of the purebred English racehorse species as a special horse population, breeding records have been required.So, the first registration began in 1793, only purebred individuals were recorded in it. Since then, horses have been considered purebred, both parents of which were recorded in this book. Regardless of the fact that all over the world such a variety is considered one of the best race horses, the requirements for competitors are always increased.
Before the races, the participants are carefully examined both externally and internally, an ultrasound examination of the internal organs of the horse is carried out. Each horse is necessarily evaluated for endurance, physique, health. In addition, the individual must have parents inscribed in the book of breeding registration. The English thoroughbred horse easily passes all these tests among the first contenders. For equestrian sports, such a breed is considered indispensable.
Thoroughbred riding horse
“Bred perfectly” - this is the literal translation of the name purebred english horse breed "Throughbred". This name is true. The fact is that the English thoroughbred horses descended from the most ancient Arab breeds. However, the English riding horse not only preserved the useful qualities of the Arab purebred breeds, but also significantly increased them. The thoroughbred riding horse surpassed its ancestors in many respects, including growth, strength, and even agility.
The well-known thoroughbred riding horse, which received the widest distribution across the planet, was bred in the 17th century, but the full formation of the English horse occurred in the first half of the 18th century.
England at that time was a powerful military power, a successful, economically developed country with established colonial trade. The state in every possible way encouraged the breeding of productive breeds of horses, so necessary for both military and everyday needs. Therefore, in the XVIII century, the import of horses from Arabia, North Africa, Turkey, Iran intensified. Horses brought from abroad contributed to the improvement of the abrasive qualities of local breeds.
As a result of careful selection, the best imported horses were crossed with local mares. Proper maintenance, proper nutrition, regular training at hippodromes and arenas contributed to the formation of an unprecedented horse, the playfulness and exterior of which hit many. The official date of creation of the breed is considered to be 1793 - the year of publication of the first volume of the English Stud Book (studbook).
All purebred English riding horses date back to three common ancestors that were imported to the UK from the Middle East: “Darley Arabian” - an Arabian stallion bought in Smyrna in 1710, “Godolfin Barb” - a horse of a barbarian breed, brought from France in 1730 year, and “Bayerley Turk” - a Turkish stallion who came to Europe in 1668. From this it follows that three different breeds took part in the formation of the English riding breed.
So, a modern purebred English riding horse is characterized by the following qualities:
- incredible agility. For an English horse, a gallop speed of 1km / min is the norm. According to the tests, a purebred English horse at short and medium distances (up to 2800 m) has an average speed of 60 km / h, and at long distances (from 3000 m) - 55 km / h. A stallion named Beach Rekitu set an absolute world speed record at a distance of 409.26 m, which is ¼ mile, he developed a speed of 69.69 km / h.
- The special structure of the body. No wonder they say that a purebred English horse was "born in races." The appearance and structure of this horse corresponds to its main purpose. High agility indicators are due to a specific ratio of the sizes of individual parts of the limbs to strong, trained muscles, a perfect nervous system, a powerful heart, and developed lungs that provide smooth breathing at a high speed of movement. The exterior of the English riding horse is as follows: the height at the withers is from 155 to 170 cm. The neck of the horse is low, oblique bearing. The body is dry, sinewy, the chest is deep, the croup is powerful, the muscles are well developed. The legs are long and strong. The most common colors of the English riding horse are bay or red, sometimes it is brown, rare representatives are gray or black in color.
These positive qualities of English horses appear only in the process of testing and training. That is why in all countries of the world where breeding purebred English breeds are involved, the decisive factor in choosing a horse is the speed of their movement at the racetrack.
Oddly enough, the English thoroughbred riding horse is recognized as one of the most precocious breeds. It is distinguished by its amazing ability to quickly acclimatize and adapt to any environmental conditions. The English riding horse is the bearer of the best gene pool. In this regard, the total number of purebred horses worldwide is approximately 100,000 heads.
For the first time a thoroughbred horse breed appeared in Russia at the end of the XVIII century thanks to the zeal of the famous horse breeder Count Orlov-Chesmensky. It was on his initiative that horse races were organized.
In the forties of the XX century, the number of purebred English stallions and mares in domestic factories amounted to 577 heads. The main nurseries of English thoroughbred horses are located in the Crimea, in the North Caucasus. The largest stud farms are Strelets and Voskhod (in the North Caucasus).
On the basis of a purebred English riding horse, harnessed standard-bred horses, the famous French and Oryol trotters, the Argentine pony polo, the sports Holstein and Budyon breeds, the Anglo-Norman and Traken, the Hungarian and other half-breeds were formed.
The main area of application for purebred horses, as mentioned above, is horse racing: along the smooth paths of the hippodrome and with overcoming obstacles, the so-called barrier (steeplechases and cross-country courses can take place both in the hippodrome and in the field). Also, a thoroughbred riding horse has been successfully used in eventing. The English prey on foxes, riding saddled horses. If the English horse did not show himself in the races, then it is used as an improver for other breeds.