The state of the pond ecosystem largely depends on the configuration of the pit for the reservoir. Therefore, you need to create a plan for future deepening in accordance with established standards. The foundation pit should be divided into zones. Each of them will have a different depth. This is necessary so that aquatic vegetation and fish feel good.
The planning procedure is carried out in several stages:
- Choosing a place on the site for the pit under the pond. Nearby should not be laid underground utilities, other large facilities.
- Determination of the type of pond. It can be decorative or for fish farming.
- Drawing on the scheme of the configuration and dimensions (to scale) of the pit. It is being worked out both from a top view, and in longitudinal and transverse sections.
- The study of each area of the pit, its purpose and design.
- The choice of the type of artificial reservoir. You can install a plastic container, cover the foundation pit with special waterproofing, or fill the base with concrete mortar.
The size of the pit for the pond is chosen in accordance with the dimensions of the infield. The larger it is, the more spacious the pond can be.
Stages of construction work
After creating a plan for the pit under the pond, you can begin to dig. They are performed sequentially in several stages:
- Selection and preparation of the site for the reservoir.
- Land marking.
- Actually, land work.
- Preparation of the pit.
- Completion of construction work.
The overall result of the work depends on the correctness of each stage.
Preparation for construction
Given the features of the pond, indicated in the plan, they purchase the necessary materials and tools.
It is recommended to dig a pit under a pond on a site that is illuminated by the sun for at least four hours a day. There should not be trees nearby (at a distance of 2.5-3 m).
Site preparation involves the removal of shrubs, plant roots and stones from the surface. The surface should be flat, without a slope (checked using a bubble level).
Marking is carried out according to the plan created earlier. With the help of sand or a flexible hose, the boundaries of the reservoir are indicated. Sod is removed from the surface inside the contour. After you need to re-mark the site. Now hose or sand indicate the functional areas:
If you plan to breed fish in a pond, you need to create a site for wintering. Its depth should be at least 1.5 m.
You can dig a pit according to the created markup manually or using an excavator. The position of the shelves of the recess is monitored. They should be clearly horizontal. The slope between each subsequent tier should be 45-60 °.
It is important to consider further use of the soil. It can be taken out of the site or used to create an alpine hill, waterfall, stream or other relief objects.
The walls are densely tamped. A layer of sand (5-10 cm) is poured onto the bottom. It is carefully rammed with a shovel. Sand will subsequently serve as a shock absorber.
After that, you can install a plastic mold, line the waterproofing layer from a special film or fill the foundation pit with cement mortar.
Why is it better to turn to professionals
The construction of the pit is best entrusted to a team of experienced specialists. This will save you time and money. Each stage of the construction of the pit is distinguished by a number of nuances that the beginning master cannot take into account. Our experienced qualified staff will be able to properly develop the configuration of the pit for the pond. They will also do the work in accordance with existing building codes.
Wanting to create a foundation pit yourself, you will need to purchase special equipment. This leads to additional costs, increasing the cost of work. Our employees have in their arsenal all the necessary tools and special equipment.
Creating a pond with your own hands, you can make mistakes at different stages of preparation and construction. As a result, the pond will not fulfill the functions assigned to it. The work will need to be redone, which will lead to additional costs.
Turning to our experts, you can be sure that:
- the construction of the pit will be carried out in accordance with generally accepted rules,
- the process does not take much time
- the cost of work will be acceptable,
- The pond will be durable and beautiful.
We will create a pond on the plot in the shortest possible time. It will become the main decoration of landscape design. Nearby you can arrange a place to relax. Thanks to this, the time spent in a country house or cottage will be unforgettable.
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Pond in the country
Creating a pit for a reservoir
Types of fish ponds
There are many varieties of ponds where you can raise fish. They are classified according to various criteria:
- purpose of the pond - for spawning, feeding, wintering, outgrowing,
- pond water supply - key (fills the natural key), brook (natural creek), digging (ground, rain, flood waters),
- the bottom of the pond is artificial or natural.
You can independently organize a pond using various technologies:
- without concreting (without facing) - the borders of a dug pond are covered with clay and turf,
- concrete - practicality and durability, the organization of such a reservoir is rather laborious,
- with PVC film - a simple option, but with a limited service life,
- plastic - limited size, suitable for breeding small and ornamental fish.
Choosing a site to create a reservoir
To organize an artificial pond, you need to choose the right site. The following factors are important:
- Elevation. The place for the pond should in no case be lower than the level of the rest of the site, otherwise all dirt and rainwater will fall into the pond. If the site is flat, then the elevation can be created artificially.
- The lack of trees, shrubs. They should not be near the pond, as the fallen leaves will fall into the pond, rot there, and this negatively affects the inhabitants of the pond. If it is impossible to alienate the reservoir from such vegetation, you will have to regularly clean it.
- The right lighting. Sunlight should be exposed to water for a maximum of 7 hours per day. Shadow can be created using artificial fencing - this option is most effective. The complete absence of light is also undesirable, since the flora in the pond will grow slowly, and the fish will lag behind in development.
- Soil features. A clay sole is well suited for organizing a pond. It is better to choose a site for a reservoir so that there are no stones in the ground.
- The correct calculation of the area of the reservoir. It is necessary to consider for this the amount of fish that is planned to be raised. Overpopulation of the pond should not be allowed. This is fraught with increased feed consumption, a large number of fish waste products - as a result, water will bloom.
The difference between the pond and the pool
When thinking about how to make a pond in the country, you need to clearly understand the difference between the pond and the pool. A pool is a body of water in which the presence of any biological component is highly undesirable, a pond cannot do without it, water is purified in the pool by a complex system of filters, a biocenosis is created in the pond to clean the water, the pool is filled with “dead” water, in the pond and face the frog.
Ways to fill a pond with water
The main thing that needs to be determined before starting work is how the pond made with your own hands will be filled with water. It’s great if a small rivulet or at least a stream flows through or near your site, in which case the construction of a pond at the dacha is greatly facilitated. If there is no river or stream, your personal body of water will have to be filled with water from a well or a well, and in the most extreme case, due to precipitation.
Calculation and digging of a pit for a pond
Do-it-yourself construction of a pond in a summer house or in a personal plot of a cottage begins with digging a foundation pit. It is good if there is already a depression on the terrain that can be turned into a pond, but this does not always happen. Therefore, it is worth determining in advance how much soil will have to be extracted, what part of it should be removed, and which should be distributed on the site. To calculate the volume of excavation, with a certain degree of approximation, a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated cone can be used.
V = 1 3 * πh (R 2 + R * r + r 2), where R and r are the radii of the bases of the cone (pond), h is the height of the cone
The grounds for our pond will be respectively the bottom and the water surface, more precisely - the area of the pond spot, if we look at it from above.
If the shape of the base of our reservoir is significantly different from the circumference, you can apply the formula:
V = (h (S + √ (S * s) + s)) 3, where S and s are the areas of the base of the cone (pond), h is the height of the cone
You can make calculations here, a very convenient site.
When digging a pit for a pond with your own hands, it is advisable to preserve the upper, fertile layer of soil. If you have nowhere to use it on your own site, there will always be a place where they will take black soil with joy, and even pay, at least for delivery.
Digging a hole under the pond in the country, with the involvement of earthmoving equipment, will not be a particular problem. You can, of course, tinker with and work with a shovel, but this is hardly advisable. If you decide to dig a pond at the dacha manually, then it is worth considering that the minimum volume of excavation required for a pond with a width of 7 - 10 and a depth of 2 - 2.5 m will be about one hundred cubic meters, that is, you dig from dawn to dawn, you spend a month only on rough earthwork. Hiring an excavator and a dump truck in this case is much more reasonable.
Creating a natural pond in the country, as already mentioned, is not difficult if there is a stream or a river, but even in this case, digging a large hole and filling it with water is far from all. It is necessary to take measures that prevent the drainage of water from your pond, otherwise, you risk not getting a small pond at the cottage, but a big swamp instead of a cottage! To prevent this from happening, you must correctly execute the bottom of your pond. Immediately specify that the bottom of the reservoir is the entire surface that is under water. The bottom is a multilayer structure, not complicated, but requiring certain efforts and costs for its construction.
As already mentioned, the construction of a pond in the country with your own hands begins with excavation, more precisely with the preparation of the pit. The pit under the pond should not have steep banks, it is a “dent” in the ground, resembling the most ordinary basin, with its wide part (mirror) facing up. The slope of the bottom of the pond from the coast to the center should not exceed 40 degrees, and it is desirable to be 30 or less degrees. The scheme of the pond is shown in the figure.
Do-it-yourself waterproofing and pond bottom preparation
If the soils on the site are sandy, sandy loam, or other, easily passing water, on the bottom of the foundation pit you first need to waterproof the clay layer or at least loam with a thickness of at least 300 mm, carefully tamping it. The upper layer of clay is compacted with a layer of crushed stone. To do this, use crushed stone fractions of 10-40 mm., Pouring it with a layer of about 50 mm. and ramming into a soil foundation using manual ramming.
On top of the soil compacted with crushed stone, pour 3-5 cm of a leveling sand layer, which serves as the basis for a plastic film. Before laying the film, we compact the sand by rolling it with a hand roller, or simply trample it well.
We lay the film with an overlap of at least 400 mm and gently fill it with a layer of sand with a thickness of at least 50 mm. On top of the sand with a layer of at least 80 mm, medium-sized (fractions of 10-20) gravel is poured, performing a protective function. The pond is almost ready, it remains to fill it with water. If a do-it-yourself pond in the country house is also used for swimming, gravel, for greater convenience, can be covered with a ten-centimeter layer of river sand, it is even better to use fine river or sea pebbles instead of gravel.
Silt at the bottom of the pond
Immediately make a reservation that in a few years the bottom will be covered with a layer of bottom silt, which will become thicker over time. This is a natural and inevitable process. It is impossible to prevent it, and it is not necessary. The muddy bottom of the pond is one of the components of the natural functioning of the reservoir biocenosis. Nevertheless, so that the pond does not turn into a swamp, every three to four years, the water from the pond must be drained or pumped out, and the bottom cleaned of sludge. By the way, bottom sludge is a good fertilizer.
Filling the pond with water
One of the prerequisites under which there will be a natural pond in the country is running water. If the pond is made on a stream, then everything is simple, but if there is no running water, you will have to use a pump.
The source of water in this case is a well, or a well. Excess water is discharged along the natural slope of the terrain, used to irrigate the cottage, etc.
For servicing a summer pond, a small submersible pump with a productivity of 3–4 m 3 / h is enough, such as Aquarius or Brook.
In this case, a system seems to be a good option, in which grooves are dug from the pond to the beds and trees. In this case, refreshing the water in the pond, you simultaneously water your plants.
DIY pond building tips
This article gives only general principles for creating your own pond, so if you decide to make a pond in your own country house, ask for advice in the comments below, because making a pond in your own country house is something that is not shameful to brag about among friends. By the way, in Japan, small ponds are arranged everywhere. They not only admirably decorate parks and courtyards of houses, but are also successfully used for growing carps for the festive table. Also on the site there is information on how to make a fountain. Ask questions in the comments or by mail. Send your works, photos, we will publish them on the site. Order work for specialists! Support the project! Good luck to you, good to your home!
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To create a pond with PVC film, you first need to choose the material. It should be quite dense - 2-3 mm. Black film will cost cheaper. The size of the material also matters - it must be one large or several large pieces that need to be joined. It’s good to use large banners as the material, but first you need to check the material for integrity.
- special soldering iron or glue (sealant) for joining the seams of the film,
- stapler with staples,
- two flat boards
- strip of polyethylene 10-15 cm.
First you need to dig a pit for the future pond and give it the desired shape. The advantage of the film is that this material is very flexible, so any design idea can be realized.
When giving the future body of water the necessary shape, excessive bends should be avoided. Angles sharper than 130 degrees are not recommended.
At the bottom of the pit, you need to make a sand pillow. A 10-cm layer of sand is enough. The walls of the reservoir should be leveled - sharp stones should not stick out of them, the roots - the film may break due to this.
The next stage is the main one. It involves the connection of individual pieces of film. If you use a soldering iron for this, then just press the edges of the material for 3-5 seconds.Additionally, a second seam can be made.
When using glue (sealant) to join the seams, it is important to first degrease the surface. To do this, you can use acetone, gasoline and other liquids with similar properties. After degreasing, the treated surface must be wiped dry and left in the sun for drying - the material for gluing must be absolutely dry.
The next step is surface cleaning. For this, sandpaper is used - the grain size should be minimal.
Glue pieces of the film with an overlap of 10-15 cm. Effectively use boards for this - they must be perfectly even. A piece of film must be attached to the board with a stapler, as well as prepare the second part of the material. Use a strip of polyethylene as a layer. It must be thoroughly greased with glue on both sides, and put on pieces of film only on those sides that will be in contact. Then you need to connect all the parts and put on top the load - a heavy board. The drying time of the adhesive is indicated on the packaging, but it is recommended to wait at least 24 hours.
The film must be carefully spread. She should protrude beyond the edge of the reservoir. The ends of the film must be dug up, and on top lay stones or bricks. You can lay the whole pond with stones, but you need to do this very carefully so as not to damage the film.
The video below shows an example of creating a pond with PVC film:
This option can be used if the soil is waterlogged and groundwater is high. To organize an artificial reservoir, you will need the following materials and tools:
- mixing spatula,
- branch pipes.
First you need to outline the boundaries of the future reservoir and dig a pit of the desired depth. The pond can be organized on the site of a natural gully on the site - it needs to be expanded and deepened, an earthen dam should be organized. Pour it over the entire length in layers of 15-20 cm and carefully tamp. The dam should be half a meter above the water level in the pond. The end of the dam should go around the ditch, which will divert the flood.
After preparing the pit, proceed according to the following algorithm:
- Make holes for the tubes and install them.
- It is necessary to cover the walls and bottom of the reservoir with diluted clay - the layer thickness should be 10-15 cm. Then, the walls should be uniformly overlaid with turf.
- There is another option - mix the clay evenly with turf and dilute the mixture with water. The consistency should be so thick that the composition does not spread. They need to evenly process the walls and bottom of the pit.
- Fill the pond with water. It is not yet possible to launch fish - the pond must stand for at least a month. This is done so that the bottom of the pond is covered with silt and it is possible to plant plants that successfully take root.
- After the set time, the water must be drained and filled again. After organizing the necessary conditions (suitability of the aquatic environment), you can start the fish.
With the organization of supply and bypass ditches, concrete gutters can be made. If a natural gully was used to create a pond, then a coastline is carried out on the crest of the dam. To do this, pour sand with a thickness of 10-15 cm. The width of the coastline can reach a meter.
This version of the artificial reservoir is attractive due to its long service life, but its implementation will require a lot of time and effort. To create a pond with a concrete base, the following materials and tools are required:
- crushed stone
- components for concrete coating: cement, sand, water,
- reinforcing mesh
- putty knife,
- waterproofing film,
- tubes (drain, a set of water).
Mixing for concreting is best done independently. Delivery from the machine is appropriate when organizing large bodies of water, as there will be a lot of concrete.
The creation of an artificial pond with concreting is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- Border marking. You can choose any form of the future reservoir, but taking into account the features of the forthcoming work, it will be extremely difficult to execute sharp bends.
- Dig a pit. At this stage, it should be borne in mind that the concrete layer will take a certain place, so the capacity of the reservoir will be less. It is important to observe the angle of inclination of the side surfaces - it should be 20 degrees.
- Remove all trash, tree roots.
- Make holes so that you can collect water and drain it into the pond. Install tubes in these holes.
- Tamp the soil. You can do this with your feet, but it’s much faster and more efficient to use a special device.
- To organize a pond in soft soil, it is first necessary to pour crushed stone with a thin layer, and then arrange a sand cushion - 1 cm thick is enough. Soil compaction should begin only after such a preparatory stage.
- Arrange waterproofing. To do this, take the film, spread it at the bottom and push it to the walls. To fasten the edges at the top, use sharp pegs or stones.
- Prepare the concrete mix. For one part of concrete, you need to take three times as much filler (crushed stone, sand). Add so much water that the mixture is quite thick.
- Run the first layer of concrete and wait for it to solidify. Manipulations must be repeated several times to get a 10-centimeter concrete layer.
- Without waiting for the concrete layer to dry, lay the reinforcing mesh on the walls of the reservoir - just attach it to the desired area and slightly press down. This stage is optional, but allows you to organize a good support.
- An additional layer of concrete must be applied on top of the reinforcement - a thickness of 5 cm is sufficient.
- Align irregularities with a spatula using the same concrete mix.
- Wait until all layers of material have solidified. If the weather is sunny, too hot or dry, then it is necessary to line the concrete with grass or cover it with wet burlap. In the heat, concrete can be sprayed with ordinary water - this will prevent the appearance of cracks in the material, which is extremely undesirable.
In the next video, the author of the video shares his experience in building a concrete pond:
This option for organizing an artificial fish pond is simple. Difficulties lie only in finding a container of a suitable size. Usually it’s small capacity for fish farming. You can choose any color and shape. To order, you can make a design of any design. Plastic is required strong enough.
In addition to a plastic container, you will need a shovel and pipes to create an artificial pond. It is necessary to outline on the selected section of the border and dig a pit of suitable shape and size. It is recommended to make an allowance of 5 cm on each side.
In the dug pit, holes for the pipes must be made. You need to insert them after installing the frame. The free space between the plastic container and the soil must be densely covered with earth.
If the soil is soft enough, then after preparing a suitable pit, it is recommended to ram it. Gaps between the frame and the soil must be filled up tightly so that the plastic does not deform when the container is completely filled with water.
Conditions for fish breeding in an artificial pond
It is important not only to choose the technology for creating an artificial pond for fish farming and put it into practice, but also to create the necessary conditions for life for the inhabitants of the reservoir. Otherwise, their growth and reproduction may slow down, there is a risk of death.
The following conditions are important for fish breeding in an artificially created reservoir:
- Oxygen. If it is not in the water, then the fish in the pond will simply die. The source of oxygen is various aquatic plants. Water lilies, water hyacinth, water nut are preferred. Buy flora useful for an artificial pond should be in a specialized store. If you take plants from a natural reservoir, then the risk of their death in unusual conditions is high.
- If you plan to populate the pond with plants, then you need to select them in accordance with the depth of the reservoir. For a shallow pond, it is good to use a grouse, a ditty, and a birdhead. Ponds of medium depth are well populated with a water lily or pond. If a deep pond is organized, then to fill it you can use a basilicum, Siberian chistyak, and loosestrife.
You may also be interested in reading about fertilizer for ponds and their proper use.
It is recommended to launch fish in an artificial pond in stages. You need to start with just a few individuals - for this, 4-5 fish are enough. They need to be carefully monitored - this allows you to make sure that you have all the necessary conditions for aquatic inhabitants. If the fish feel good, then you can run the rest of the individuals.
The rest of the rules of keeping depend on the specific species of fish bred. Each of them has its own characteristics - it is recommended to study all the necessary information in advance.
Creating an artificial pond for breeding fish with your own hands is not difficult. It is important to choose the right site for the pond, prepare the necessary materials and carry out the necessary work. A prerequisite is the creation of optimal conditions for fish - this is necessary for its successful existence and reproduction.