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Ferret Disease: Anemia, Plague, Rabies, Flu

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Signs of a healthy ferret: cold and wet nose, shiny coat, not brittle vibrissa, clear eyes, lively look, healthy activity, good appetite. A healthy animal is moderately well-fed, but not fat, but rather thin, the ribs are palpated, but not bulge, the abdominal cavity is relaxed. The chair is well-designed, brown in color (highly dependent on what you feed the animal), without a strong odor. The ears of a healthy ferret are pink, with a small amount of brown wax-like substance, which is necessary to protect the ear epithelium from pathogens. The sclera is white, with interspersed blood vessels. The conjunctiva (located under the eyelid) is dark pink. The tongue and gums are pink, breathing is clean, without an unpleasant odor.

1.Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi, in ferrets it is usually combined with rhinitis.
Signs of the disease: frequent sneezing, mucous discharge from the nose, hoarse breathing, refusal to feed, lethargy.
It is necessary to immediately eliminate the causes of the disease: eliminate drafts, increase the temperature in the room to the optimum.
2.Pneumonia is an acute or chronic pneumonia, usually as a complication after rhinitis or bronchitis.
Hoarse breathing, fever, decreased appetite. The diagnosis puts a vet. the doctor and the treatment of pneumonia are only under his supervision.
3.Tularemia is a dangerous infectious disease transmitted by rodents and blood-sucking insects.
The main symptoms of the disease are lethargy of animals, fever, serous-mucous discharge from the nose. After some time, ferrets have lung damage accompanied by a muffled cough, gastrointestinal upset. The lymph nodes enlarge and become inflamed. The disease lasts 4-15 days, with a chronic disease 60-80 days. In almost all cases, ferrets die.
4.Helminthiasis (worms) - 5 types of tape, round and flat worms. Flat worms are localized in the liver and intestines. Tape - in the subcutaneous tissue, liver, lungs and intestines.
Round - in the intestines, stomach, esophagus.
Symptoms of helminthiases are an oppressed state, an exhausted appearance, a violation of appetite, growth retardation, and gastrointestinal disorders.
5.Colibacteriosis is an infectious disease manifested by diarrhea, signs of severe intoxication and dehydration.
The causative agent of the disease is pathogenic E. coli.
Most often, young ferrets from 1 to 4 days old are sick, less often at 5-10 days of age.
Symptoms There is a decrease in appetite, puppies become restless, squeak. Feces are mushy, liquid, yellow. Then the diarrhea intensifies, and the feces become gray-white or dark gray in color with an admixture of mucus, fetid, sometimes with foam and an admixture of blood. Wool in the anus, on the tail and hind limbs is dirty or glued with stool. The temperature rises to 40-41? C, and with a severe form and severe dehydration, it may decrease below normal.
Puppies show rapid emaciation, fur is tousled, loses its luster, hind limbs tremble. Sometimes there is meningitis, encephalitis, impaired coordination of movement, paresis and paralysis, cramps of the extremities develop.
Pregnant females may have abortions, decreased appetite, and the general state of depression.
6. Salmonellosis (paratyphoid) - a zooanthroponic bacterial disease of various types of agricultural, small domestic, including dogs and cats, is characterized mainly by symptoms of acute gastroenteritis and bronchopneumonia.
Pathogen. Bacteria from the genus Salmonella, included in a large group of enterobacteria, have more than 2000 serological variants.
Salmonella for a long time stored in the environment, in soil, manure and water for up to 9-12 months.
Epizootological data. Mostly young animals of domestic, wild and other animals are susceptible to salmonellosis. Among ferrets, salmonellosis is most often observed in puppies aged 1-6 months. In adult ferrets, the disease usually proceeds in a latent form, and such animals are often salmonella carriers.
Predisposing factors for salmonellosis disease are unsanitary conditions of feeding, maintenance.
Infection. Animals become infected mainly by alimentary feeding when they feed various feeds, milk and water (meat waste, dairy products, fish, meat and bone meal, etc.) that have not undergone heat treatment, as well as when ferrets eat small rodents - salmonella carriers.
The incubation period for ferret salmonellosis is 3–6 days and depends on the virulence and the dose of the pathogen.
Symptoms Depending on external and internal factors, salmonellosis in ferrets can occur in acute, subacute, chronic and latent forms.
The acute course of the disease is noted mainly in puppies and adult ferrets with a weakened immune system. In this case, animals observe hyperthermia up to 40-40.5 ° C, general depression, refusal to feed, vomiting, diarrhea with blood. In an unfavorable course of the disease, the death of animals often occurs on the 2nd to 4th day as a result of intoxication.
The subacute course of the disease is characterized by similar, as in the acute course, clinical signs, but they are less pronounced, develop gradually, within 5-15 days, various diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract (acute bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, pneumonia, etc.) are additionally manifested. . In addition, there are violations of the central nervous system, yellowness of the mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities (with severe liver damage), as well as miscarriages and the birth of dead puppies.
7. Pasteurellosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, an infectious disease of animals and humans, characterized by septicemia and inflammatory processes of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and intestines, as well as pneumonia, edema. The causative agent is pasteurella bacteria. The source of the pathogen is sick and ill animals.
In the occurrence of pasteurellosis, weakening of the body's resistance under the influence of adverse environmental factors is of great importance. Infection occurs by the aerogenic and alimentary route.

Patients with ferrets have a fever, lack of appetite, severe oppression, increased heart rate and respiration, with a predominant lesion of the respiratory system - mucopurulent discharge from the nose, conjunctivitis, shortness of breath, cough. The intestinal form is manifested by progressive diarrhea, weakness (with an over-acute course of the disease, animals quickly die without visible symptoms). Prevention: the creation of good conditions, full feeding, the implementation of veterinary and sanitary measures, vaccines are used for active prevention.
8. Coccidiosis, an animal disease, rarely a human being, which occurs when parasitic unicellular animals penetrate into the intestinal epithelial cells - coccidia. Infection occurs when oocysts are excreted with food and water, excreted in the feces of patients with coccidiosis and mature within 2-5 days in the soil. Each mature oocyst contains 8 sporozoites. Most types of coccidia are localized in the mucous membrane of different parts of the intestine, causing disturbances in its activity. The most characteristic signs of Coccidiosis in ferrets are: oppression, loss of appetite, rapid and severe emaciation, diarrhea. Often paralysis, convulsions of certain muscle groups develop. Sick animals isolate. For therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, various coccidiostatic preparations are used, and feeding and keeping animals are improved. The complex of preventive measures includes the destruction of oocysts in the external environment, the separate keeping of adult animals and young animals, strict observance of veterinary-sanitary and zoohygienic rules
9. Letospirosis (infectious jaundice) is an infectious disease, both people and animals get sick. It proceeds in different forms:
Acute form (rare, fast):
- loss of appetite,
- body temperature 40-41.5C,
- cramps, excessive salivation.
Subacute form:
- mucous membranes turn yellow, ulcers appear on the oral cavity,
- conjunctivitis occurs,
- there is no appetite, the ferret is losing weight,
- lymph nodes increase (in the cervical region and inguinal),
- paresis (partial paralysis) of the hind legs.
Light form::
- pale mucous membranes, jaundice may not occur,
- the temperature is either within normal limits or lower,
- bowel disorder, bowel movements yellowish,
- loss of appetite, the animal is losing weight.
Sick animals are isolated from healthy, healthy vaccinated. The incubation period can last from 3-5 days, up to 14-20. The cause of death in leptospirosis can be severe kidney damage (uremia) or heart failure.
Prevention: try not to let your ferret splash around and drink water in non-drying puddles, ponds, swamps. Damp soil with a neutral or slightly alkaline environment is a hazard. Infection occurs through rodents, through damaged skin, mucous membranes and the gastrointestinal tract.
10. Plague of carnivores, or plague - one of the most serious and deadly infectious diseases, widespread in cities. In addition to ferrets, dogs, other species of mustelids, foxes, arctic foxes, etc. can get sick with the plague of carnivores.

The causative agent is paramyxovirus.
The main source of infection is sick or newly ill animals (including dogs, fur-bearing predatory animals, some wild animals), as well as animals in the incubation period. Infection occurs through direct contact with sick animals, infected care items, etc. Rodents, birds, insects, and humans can also carry the virus (for example, on clothing, shoes). The infection enters the body through the respiratory tract and digestive tract. The incubation period lasts 7-10 days.
Symptoms
The first signs are loss of appetite, fever (up to 41 ° C), runny nose (rhinitis), conjunctivitis. Redness of the skin appears on the chin and further to the inguinal region, accompanied by itching, in the future, dry crusts appear on this spot. Purulent discharge from the nose and eyes is characteristic. Perhaps the development of secondary bacterial diseases. Animals usually die within 12–35 days.
Treatment
rarely effective. Mortality in ferrets reaches almost 100%.
Prevention
Mandatory annual vaccination against carnivore plague. Plague ferrets, who never go outside, can also become infected with plague, so vaccination against the plague is mandatory for all ferrets.
11. Rabies. An acute viral disease that occurs with severe damage to the nervous system. All mammals and humans are susceptible.

The causative agent is transmitted with saliva during the bites of an infected animal. The main reservoir of rabies virus are wild predatory animals and domestic animals. Currently, rabies is registered in 113 countries of the world and annually affects about 50 thousand people who have had contact with both wild and domestic animals. It is caused by a virus that enters the body through damaged skin when a patient bites a healthy animal.
Incubation period
Three to eight weeks, but can last a week or a year. This is due to the fact that, entering the body, the virus moves along nerve fibers into the brain, after which clinical signs develop. Thus, the further the bite is from the brain, the longer the incubation period lasts. After entering the brain, the virus descends into the salivary glands and excreted with saliva.
Clinical signs
At the onset of the disease, the symptoms are individual and non-specific. Animals become aggressive and irritable. Photophobia develops (fear of lit places). In most cases, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting are observed. Rabies at the stage of development of clinical signs leads to death.
Prevention
Mandatory annual vaccination. Since rabies poses an exceptional danger to both animals and humans, all owners are required to vaccinate their pets every year against this disease, as noted in the animal’s passport. At the slightest suspicion of rabies, you must immediately consult a doctor, even if the animal has been vaccinated.

An acute viral disease that occurs with severe damage to the nervous system. All mammals and humans are susceptible. The causative agent is transmitted with saliva during the bites of an infected animal. The main reservoir of rabies virus are wild predatory animals and domestic animals. Currently, rabies is registered in 113 countries of the world and annually affects about 50 thousand people who have had contact with both wild and domestic animals. It is caused by a virus that enters the body through damaged skin when a patient bites a healthy animal.
Incubation period
Three to eight weeks, but can last a week or a year. This is due to the fact that, entering the body, the virus moves along nerve fibers into the brain, after which clinical signs develop. Thus, the further the bite is from the brain, the longer the incubation period lasts. After entering the brain, the virus descends into the salivary glands and excreted with saliva.
Clinical signs
At the onset of the disease, the symptoms are individual and non-specific. Animals become aggressive and irritable. Photophobia develops (fear of lit places). In most cases, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting are observed. Rabies at the stage of development of clinical signs leads to death.
Prevention
Mandatory annual vaccination. Since rabies poses an exceptional danger to both animals and humans, all owners are required to vaccinate their pets every year against this disease, as noted in the animal’s passport. At the slightest suspicion of rabies, you must immediately consult a doctor, even if the animal has been vaccinated.
12.Flu.
Ferrets are one of the few animals that are highly susceptible to the human influenza virus. Since 1935, ferrets have been widely used as laboratory animals in the study of this virus. In some countries, such as Australia, new drug developments for the treatment of influenza often undergo final testing on ferrets.

The causative agent can be transmitted to ferrets from sick people, as well as other ferrets. Often ferrets get the flu at the same time as their owners or a little later. In countries where ferrets are most common as pets, such cases are relatively common.

Source: www. horeman.ru

A specialist in diseases of the ferrets Kravchenko Vladislav Olegovich works in our Center.

Ferret cage prices

Isolation of a sick ferret

Step 2

Take the animal to the veterinarian for a blood test.

Ferret at the vet

Step 3

If positive, euthanize the ferret.

Sick ferret cannot be saved

Step 4

At home, surface treatment with bleach.

Step 5

Burn things, litter, care products after a sick ferret.

Ferret things need to be burned

Step 6

To the owner who has contacted a sick individual to sign up for a rabies vaccination course.

Do not forget to take the rabies vaccine.

Attention!To exclude the further spread of rabies, after its confirmation, the ferret is required to euthanize other pets living with him.

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