In addition to anemia, hyperemia and swelling, birds often have subopo- and subendocardial hemorrhages, which are of diagnostic value in infectious diseases and malnutrition.
Acute parenchymal myocarditis in birds is often a concomitant sign of infection and poisoning. With the infectious nature of the disease, streptococci, staphylococci, pasteurell are isolated. Heart tumors (fibromas, myxomas, rhabdosarcomas, myosarcomas) are found.
Blood vessel ruptures
Symptoms. The dark blue color of the little pigmented part of the beak and legs of parrot birds is a sign of acute and heart failure, and vice versa - blanching of the beak indicates blood loss. Vascular disease during the life of birds is difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs depend on damage to the central nervous system. In birds, due to bruises without violating the integrity of the skin, the blood enters the subcutaneous tissue with the formation of an extensive hematoma. Hematomas develop as a result of head bruises and blows to the cell, glass, etc. Small subcutaneous hematomas resolve without consequences. A fresh hematoma incision should not be made to remove the clot, as this can lead to bleeding and rapid death of the bird.
Pathological changes. At autopsy, serous, gray-fibrinous pericarditis is found, partial deposition of uric acid salts on the heart membrane, atherosclerotic changes are determined on the vessels of parrots.
Diagnosis. Suspected cardiac failure in birds is associated with severe shortness of breath.
Differential diagnosis. Diseases of the respiratory system, thyroid gland, esophagus, brain, intraperitoneal tumors.
Etiology. Infections and intoxications, disorders of the liver and kidneys.
Treatment. For heart failure, oral administration of glucose and weak digitalis solutions is recommended.
Anemia can occur due to an attack of blood-sucking parasites, liver and bone marrow diseases, with hemorrhages as a result of injuries, after bleeding associated with an infection or intoxication. To date, no blood parasites have been found in parrots, however, a case has been described where an ehiptoanelous blood invasion was detected in a macaw in a parrot with hens.
In chronic intoxication with herbicides, insecticides and medications, infectious diseases of bacterial and viral etiology (salmonellosis, streptococcosis, tuberculosis, psittacosis, Newcastle disease, poliomyelitis), severe anemia develops. Chronic macrocytic anemia can be caused by a deficiency of the complex of vitamin B, especially B1 and E, tumors, circulatory disorders, compression of the jagularis vein. An enlarged thyroid gland can lead to stagnation of blood in the brain and a severe convulsive state.
The transmission of the disease sometimes passed through ticks. In some cases, in large parrots, a malarial pathogen was detected in the blood.
Treatment. For all disorders of the central nervous system, accompanied by convulsions, sedative treatment is used. Depending on the etiology of the disease, antibiotics, vitamins, cortisones, glucose and calcium are used. Often, after a visible cure, relapse occurs. If anemia is suspected, the bird should be given vitamins and iron supplements. Calcium chloride, a combination of amino acids and trace elements, is added to drinking water.
The liver - one of the most important organs of metabolism and the neutralization of toxins - is affected in many diseases.
Acute or chronic hepatitis is a difficult to diagnose disease, as the clinical symptoms are nonspecific.
Most birds have a gall bladder, but doves, guinea fowls, parrots, ostriches, and some other species do not. Concentrated bile contains 20-22% solids. By antiperistaltic movements of the wall of the duodenum, bile can be thrown into the stomach and stain its contents green. This symptom cannot be considered pathognomic for hepatitis.
Symptoms. Hepatitis occurs with clinical signs of diarrhea. The litter is brown. As a result of a large increase in the liver, ascites and expansion of the abdomen volume occur. In addition, plumage deterioration, skin irritation and dermatitis (especially in the neck and under the wings) are possible. Acute hepatitis sometimes occurs without symptoms, causing rapid death of birds.
Pathological and histological changes. At autopsy, puffiness, lesions of the lobes of the liver and a specific color of the tissues (yellow, brown-yellow, gray, red-blue, green, gray-green) are found, the liver changes its structure (dense, greasy or, on the contrary, loose, flabby). In some cases, overlays are noted on the liver that deeply grow into the parenchymal tissue. On the site of point hemorrhages, whitish-yellow foci of necrosis are formed. Especially often necrotic foci are found in infectious diseases. If merging nodules are detected, pseudotuberculosis is suspected. In histological studies in the acute stage, necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration are found. With hepatitis, fatty degeneration and heterophilic infiltration often occur. Chronic hepatitis is accompanied by mononuclear and heterophilic connective tissue infiltration.
Differential diagnosis. Enteritis, kidney disease, tumors of internal organs.
Etiology. Hepatitis can be a consequence of salmonellosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, streptococcosis, colibacteriosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis, psittacosis. Hepatitis is often associated with improper use of medications, for example, after taking toxic salts or insecticides applied to the feather cover, as well as skin damage due to severe burns, poisoning with toxic endoparasite products and metabolic products, and malignant tumors.
Treatment. For the treatment of birds with liver disease, the veterinarian has a large arsenal of medicines (antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, as well as glucose, vitamins B and C).
Fatty liver degeneration
Fatty liver degeneration and obesity are especially common in budgies, canaries, finches, carduelis.
Symptoms. Under the plumage in the chest and abdomen, subcutaneous fat deposition can be easily detected. Sometimes the abdomen is enlarged due to the large liver and the formation of lipomas. The pectoral muscles are tan. A fattened bird completely or partially loses its ability to fly, at the slightest exertion it breathes faster with an open beak. Due to obesity, diarrhea develops.
Pathological changes. At autopsy, an enlarged yellow-brown liver is found. Liver tissue is brittle, with hemorrhages. The heart muscles are also penetrated by yellow-brown fatty layers. Between the loops of the intestine, the fatty layer is deposited.
Etiology. Excessive energy-rich diets in the absence of vitamins and lack of movement. Fatty degeneration may also be due to intoxication, hypothyroidism, and a congenital predisposition to obesity.
Treatment. If fat deposits are suspected, the amount of feed is reduced, including more fruits and vegetables in the diet, and vitamins are added to drinking water.
Clinical symptoms are almost no different from chronic hepatitis. As with all intraperitoneal painful processes, the bird sits oppressed, disheveled, with its tail down. The feather in the abdomen falls out. Most tumors are malignant, forming metastases.
Differential diagnosis. Hepatitis, enteritis, diseases and tumors of the kidneys.
Treatment ineffective, with heavy processes the patient should be euthanized.
The liver lies deep and protected by the chest. Liver rupture is a relatively rare disease, with the exception of cases of fatty degeneration and the formation of tumors. In these cases, even slight pressure can lead to rupture of the liver.
Treatment useless, the bird dies from intra-abdominal bleeding. Beak, cornea acquire a pale yellow color.
Jade (inflammation of the kidneys)
Symptoms: in acute inflammation of the kidneys, the clinical signs are not very specific. There is diarrhea, profound general disturbances and a quick fatal outcome. In chronic nephritis, bowel disorders, apathy and loss of appetite are periodically noted. Litter consists partly of normal contents, to which urine, painted in white, is mixed. According to the consistency, the color of the litter, we can conclude about the condition of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. Often, with inflammation of the kidneys, shortness of breath, weight loss, dermatitis are recorded.
The main symptom of the disease is increased thirst.
We observed gout in the lovebird as a result of improper feeding. His favorite food was sausage, to which the parrot was accustomed. The disease proceeded without pronounced clinical symptoms. No local changes were found. After his death, an autopsy revealed a severe degree of gouty changes in the kidneys. In appearance, the kidneys resembled raspberries, enlarged in volume, crystals of uric acid salts were visible under the epithelium. At autopsy, puffiness of the kidneys is also found, they are pale in color, the renal tissue is penetrated by hemorrhages.
Diagnosis. Very often, kidney disease in birds is determined only at autopsy. Clinical symptoms resemble gout. The veterinarian does not have reliable methods in the production environment to examine blood and droppings. Taking blood from small birds in sufficient quantities for analysis is difficult. Examination of litter can only indicate kidney damage without differentiating the process. In decorative birds, the normal content of uric acids has not yet been studied.
Differential diagnosis. Tumors of the kidneys and genitals, swelling of the liver, hepatitis, enteritis.
Etiology. Viral and bacterial infections (psittacosis, salmonellosis, poisoning with chemicals and medicines, such as aureomycin, sulfonamide drugs). Especially severe nephritis occurs in birds with salt poisoning, after the introduction of large doses of streptomycin and penicillin.
Treatment. Severe cases of poisoning are usually incurable, as irreversible processes occur in the kidney tissue. Jade is very difficult to treat, because the patient often comes to the veterinarian late. If kidney inflammation is suspected, vitamins A, C, infrared radiation are used for treatment, a diet poor in protein is prescribed.
Tumors of the kidney compared with other intraperitoneal neoplasms are often found in budgerigars.
Symptoms. Since the buds of parrots lie quite deeply, they cannot be palpated, sometimes in the presence of a pronounced tumor and careful palpation through the abdominal cavity, it can be installed. Suspicion of a kidney tumor is a chronic bowel disorder, exhaustion or bilateral paralysis, which occurs from compression of the nerve plexuses.
Pathological changes. At autopsy, the tumors turn out to be dense or, conversely, softened, sometimes in consistency they resemble cartilaginous tissue, rounded with a wide base, have necrotic foci penetrated by uric acid salts. Cystic tumors are filled with a clear or cloudy liquid of gray or red color. Most kidney tumors are malignant, primarily adenocarcinomas. They are found even in very young parrots, for example, at the age of one year, while they form metastases in neighboring organs.
Diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis is made only with pathological autopsy.
Treatment. Renal tumors are not treatable. The introduction of vitamins for. maintaining the body's defenses and drugs that regulate metabolism, can give a visible improvement in the processes. When cysts are detected, a puncture of the contents is done, which in some cases leads to recovery.
Gout often affects parrots older than 10 years old, in exceptional cases, young birds. Distinguish between articular and visceral gout.
Symptoms. The articular part of gout is easier to diagnose than visceral, flowing with specific signs. On the joints of the toes, less often the joints of the wings, yellow nodules of various sizes are formed, surrounded by a red edematous zone. An affected toe cannot properly perch, so the bird does not sit properly. When both legs are affected, the bird lies on the floor of the cage. In addition to severe changes in the joints, there is apathy, diarrhea, emaciation, weakness. At times there is increased thirst.
Pathological changes. The kidneys are swollen, often have a light gray color. In the renal tissue, in the ureters, serous membranes, air sacs, the deposition of uric acid salts is noticeable.
Differential diagnosis. With the articular form, it is necessary to exclude staphylococci, mycoplasmosis. With the visceral form, it is necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis of nephritis, kidney tumors, enteritis, and hepatitis.
Etiology so far not fully clarified. However, according to the latest scientific data, birds accumulate metabolic products, uric acid salts, which are formed partly in the liver and kidneys from purine bases, and are synthesized in the form of uric acid salts and ammonium salts. Excessive accumulation of these products in the blood and tissue leads to gout. One of the causes of gout may be impaired renal function, when they are not able to remove excess levels of uric acid salts in the blood. These urates are deposited in the renal tissue, ureters and joints, as well as in the serous membranes of the body. Nephritis occurs with intoxication, infections, vitamin A deficiency, keeping birds in damp and cold rooms, and the formation of tumors. When kept in captivity, birds of prey often encounter gout of the kidneys, due to unilateral feeding of a meat diet in the absence of vitamin A, which plays a large role in the regeneration of the renal epithelium. In the absence of provitamin A in the diet, the foot and horn cover of the beak are painted in a gray-dirty color.
Treatment. When a bird enters a doctor with a chronic process, treatment is usually useless. In the initial stage of the disease, the following drugs were successfully tested: colchicine, atofan, salicylic acid, hexamethylene, tetran, 2% soda solution. If gout was suspected, good results were obtained after the use of the drug urotropin, which has a disinfecting effect. It is added to drinking water. Local treatment of nodules is unsafe, as severe bleeding is possible. In addition, new foci form quickly.
Where does oncology come from parrots?
Oncological diseases of parrots is still a little-studied area of modern oncology. All work in this area is associated with productive birds, for which cases of mass epidemics associated with oncogenic viruses, which usually cause leukemia, have been described. These are acute infections that quickly lead to the death of diseased birds.However, it is doubtful that the experience of such scientific developments will be useful to the veterinarian of such a large city as Moscow. The domestic content of birds is very different from that in poultry farms, and the experience of anti-epizootic measures (which, by the way, includes mass eutunasia of sick birds) is not acceptable here. Owners of birds, as well as owners of other pets, are strongly attached to their pets and sincerely want to provide them with the most qualified medical care. The total number of birds kept in the population of Moscow is quite significant and, according to our estimates, can reach half a million or more.
The role of viruses and tumor diseases of parrots
For some drugs that are absolutely safe for mammals, they give out “paradoxical” reactions that are atypical for these drugs. The lower and less rigid cell differentiation, which is characteristic of lower animals, is found, in our opinion, in birds. In this case, we mean the spontaneous regression of some tumor-like formations in birds against the background of the treatment that we had to observe. Whereas regression of mammalian tumors on the background of conservative treatment is an unlikely event.
At what age do parrots have tumor diseases?
Tumor diseases of parrots are in second place in the incidence rate after avian cholera (pasteurellosis), which is 14.9%. The age-related dependence of tumor-like diseases in parrots is observed at different periods and depends on their life expectancy. The longer a particular bird species lives, the later the development of tumors is observed .. So, oncological diseases in budgerigars are observed in the interval from 2.4 to 9 years, with a maximum of 4 to 7 years. In Amazons, these intervals are respectively equal - from 6 to 35 years, and the peak of tumor diseases in Amazons occurs at 30 years of age. There is also a rather interesting sexual distribution of bird tumor incidence. Most often, males get sick. In this, oncological diseases of birds are similar to human tumor diseases, where men are also almost twice as likely to get sick as women. For budgies, this ratio (females: males) is 1: 3. Such a sexual distribution of oncological diseases cannot be clearly explained, but it cannot be ruled out that in the future birds will help to understand the nature of this phenomenon in humans. Interestingly, almost 80% of birds with tumor-like diseases were able to talk. This fact can be interpreted in two ways:
Oncology often affects intelligent parrots
That birds with higher intellectual abilities are more prone to tumor diseases. The owner of the talking bird is more attentive to his pet and often consults a doctor. The first assumption is supported by the fact that among birds with common infectious diseases, speakers did not meet so often - 40%.
Tumor and cones: the main differences
Fortunately, tumors in feathered pets happen infrequently, even less often they are malignant. Sometimes they are confused with cones, although there are several fundamental differences:
- The cones usually last for several days; a long period does not pass into the tumor.
- Tumors grow rapidly, passing to other organs or tissues, the cones are localized.
- As a result of tumors, the parrot's state of health worsens: appetite disappears, little movement, intense thirst and lethargy.
Lumps may appear as a result of a bruise, for example. The location depends on the circumstances of the fall, a bump may even appear on the stomach. Therefore, a pet is still better to show a specialist.
In which areas may occur
Statistics claim that male parrots suffer from tumors more often than females. But the location of the appearance of neoplasms can be any, determined individually. If the bird has unusual coordination problems, it is likely that a tumor has developed in the head. The location of the neoplasm in the chest is accompanied by shortness of breath and shortness of breath.
A tumor in a parrot on the stomach negatively affects the work of internal organs. Growing, she presses them, causing severe pain. If neoplasms appear on the genitals, this is especially dangerous - limb paralysis can occur. Another pronounced symptom is drowsiness throughout the day, lethargy. If during palpation of the tail, wings and neck, the parrot expresses discomfort, there may be a tumor.
This benign neoplasm can be with a parrot all his life, without greatly affecting his health. It has a detrimental effect on the quality of his life - constant discomfort reduces his activity and sleep quality. If the cone has a bump under the wing, it could very well be a lipoma. It also occurs on the lower abdomen, neck or tail. Among the main external signs:
- Rounded shape and uniform surface, located under the skin,
- The color may be light or dark brown, often mustard.
- It can move under the skin, not attached to adjacent tissues.
There are rare cases of the transformation of a lipoma into a malignant tumor - a liposarcoma, which has a much more dangerous picture: it grows on neighboring tissues, causes severe pain, and blood vessels become visible.
Lipoma can be successfully treated after the veterinarian makes an accurate diagnosis, this is done after a biopsy. In the initial stage of the disease, 10% Carnitine is prescribed, which is aimed at improving lipid metabolism and reducing adipose tissue. Such an integrated approach reduces the size of the tumor.
If the disease is in a state of neglect, you have to resort to surgical intervention. Lipoic acid, Carsil, Lipomin or Legalog are also used. In parallel, you need to select funds to support immunity.
A parrot xanthoma can occur for two reasons: too high a concentration of vitamins in the feed or old injuries. It is a benign neoplasm that looks like a yellow fat layer. It can cover a lipoma - a case of a lipoma-xanthoma tumor. Xanthoma can occur on any part of the body, while it has a constant color. On the surface, it is easy to notice a vascular pattern.
A quick examination will not help distinguish xanthoma or lipomas; histological examination is needed. The treatment method is surgical removal of the tumor by incision of the affected area. The surrounding tissue is captured.
After the next egg laying, the body of the female parrot is exhausted, which affects the appearance of diseases. A tumor in a parrot on the stomach can be a hernia, especially if the offspring appears frequently. A hernia is not life threatening, but causes a lot of discomfort. In fact, it is a bulging patch of skin with thin walls. You can get rid of it only surgically, by sewing patches to the peritoneum.
Such an operation is carried out only by parrots of large breeds due to the complexity of execution. For budgies, a veterinarian consultation is required.
The color of the wax is a kind of indicator of the health of budgies. During pregnancy, for example, it becomes a brownish tint (the cause is the release of estrogen). In normal condition, it should have bluish hues: bright blue or blue in the male and heavenly in the females. If the brown color appeared in the male or female not during the egg laying period, there is a chance of a tumor on the genitals or hormonal failure.
The danger of this type of tumor in the vast majority of inoperable cases is a high risk of complications. At the same time, less dangerous squamous cell carcinoma, which affects the oral cavity, may turn out to be hypertrophy of the wax. The reason for unhealthy diet is an excess of eating fatty seeds. Removing this oncology is really possible with the help of an operation. But without a strict rehabilitation diet can not do.
How to detect a problem in the early stages
Tumors have pronounced symptoms even in the early stages - you only need to pay attention to the health of the pet. The first alarming sign is digestive problems. A subcutaneous tumor under the tail or on the stomach compresses the organs, thereby interfering with their normal functioning. You can notice changes in the frequency and types of bowel movements.
A tumor on the head will immediately affect the coordination - the parrot will move poorly or ineptly. With all types of neoplasms, birds lose their appetite, acquiring strong thirst in return, and resistance to external irritants also decreases. You need to regularly inspect your pet, if during palpation it shows pain, it is time to consult a doctor.
How to avoid neoplasms?
Not a single pet is safe from oncology even in good conditions. In other cases, a person needs to take care of a parrot:
- Provide a balanced diet and fresh water.
- Do not limit mobility, ensure regular flights.
- During egg laying, adjust the diet of the female.
- Maintain the temperature in the room and the light mode.
- Keep the cage clean and disinfect regularly.
In order for the feathered pet to lead a happy and active life, the breeder will always have to pay attention to this. You need to make bird care a habit, and not do it at will.
Tumors in parrots are quite rare, so a rare breeder understands their symptoms and differences. At the same time, attentiveness and speed of detection of a neoplasm can save the life of a parrot. It is dangerous to treat birds on their own, you can confuse the diagnosis and only worsen his health. The best way to eliminate the appearance of tumors is prevention and gentle care of your pet.
The most common diseases of the genital organs are found in budgerigars, the most common of which is ovarian involution, usually associated with infectious diseases (infectious bronchitis, respiratory mycoplasmosis).
Ovarian and salpingitis (inflammation of the ovary and oviduct). These diseases are observed in severe metabolic disorders, they are due to many factors associated with impaired feeding and maintenance.
Symptoms At the beginning of the disease, the temperature rises, blueness of the beak, claws, weakness, depression, outflow from the cloaca occur. Often, inflammation occurs chronically, the bird ceases to rush and dies after a few weeks.
Pathological signs. The serous membrane of the oviduct is reddened or with hemorrhage, covered with serous-fibrinous exudate, sometimes the serous membrane is glued. Inflammation of the peritoneum is often noted, in the abdominal cavity contains vitelline mass. The oviduct is enlarged in volume.
The mucous membrane is usually in the caudal part, less often in the cranial part, reddened and covered with exudate. The oviduct contains inflammatory products mixed with protein and yolk. The wall of the oviduct is stretched. In the cranial part of the oviduct is the contents, which is a mucous mass. This symptom is most typical for salpingitis.
Treatment not developed enough. You can apply vitamins and solder a 1% solution of calcium chloride.
Prevention consists in a variety of complete nutrition.
Neoplasms of the ovaries and testes. In budgerigars, neoplasms of the testes are often recorded.
Symptoms The first signs are a discoloration of the nasal horn and a slight difficulty in flight. Occasionally, chronic diarrhea and uncoordinated limb movements occur. In the further stage of the disease, an increase in the volume of the abdomen, unilateral or bilateral paresis and paralysis of the nerves of the legs are noted. Common disorders include apathy, weakness, and refusal to feed. Abdominal tumors often cause shortness of breath and improper staging of the body. This is due to the fact that the chest and abdominal cavities in birds are not separated by the diaphragm and the organs of the abdominal and chest cavity are closely interconnected. Liver tumors can have a negative effect on the kidneys and genitals, in turn, testicular tumors lead to a change in the function of the liver and lungs. As a result of mechanical compression, edema, inflammation of the organs occurs. Fluid accumulating in the abdominal cavity can enhance the adverse effect of abdominal tumors and cause especially severe changes in the lungs. Partially, cysts may form, with suction, the liquid from them has a cloudy, gray-red or yellow color. Gradually, the emaciation of the bird occurs. There are also cases in which tumors primarily affect the general condition and fatness of the bird.
Pathological changes. At autopsy, one or both testes is significantly enlarged and volume, the tissue is partially soft, greasy, cystic, containing blood and pierced by necrotic foci, the vessels supplying the testes are greatly enlarged and densified. Tumors are round or lobed. In the process of bird growth, depending on its weight, they can reach a large size (for example, 1/3 of live weight or more). The mucous membrane of the peritoneum and integumentary epithelium of the lungs are also partially affected, the intestines are overflowing with contents. Very often, changes are simultaneously determined in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. A cloudy, red or brown liquid builds up in the abdominal cavity.
Diagnosis. When diagnosed, tumors of the liver and kidneys are differentiated.
Etiology not studied.
Treatment. With the help of preparations of Prolan C, Prolan A, estradiol in some cases, it is possible to slightly improve the general condition of the bird, however, if irreversible paralysis has not occurred. Parrots begin to take food again and give the impression of being healthy, the development of the tumor stops for a certain period, but it is not possible to achieve full recovery. The positive effect of the drug Prolan is due to the fact that it contains follicle-stimulating hormone and, affecting the formation of the pituitary gonadotropin, can lead to the reverse development of the tumor. Experiments on the operation on the testes in most cases gave negative results, the bird practically does not tolerate this operation.
Symptoms A bird that suffers from delayed oviposition often emits blood droppings, constantly strains the abdominal wall for excretion, clogs into the corner of the cage, and makes weak squeaking sounds. With normal egg development by palpating the abdomen, it is easy to detect in the cloaca, if the delay in oviposition continues for a long time, then serious disturbances in the general condition (loss of appetite, thirst, apathy, shortness of breath) occur. Paralysis of yogis is possible as a result of squeezing the egg of nerve endings.
Differential diagnosis. The formation of tumors, inflammation of the oviduct, hernia.
Etiology. Often the delay in oviposition is due to the fact that in young females the genitals are not fully formed and function abnormally. Improper feeding and maintenance (lack of movement, hypothermia, lack of vitamins) also lead to delayed egg laying, there are also anomalies in the formation of the egg (the formation of eggshells). These eggs, while contracting the muscles of the oviduct, move back and forth without moving towards the cloaca. The reasons for the delay in oviposition can also be in the forcing of a large egg.Changes in the oviduct, inflammation, decreased peristalsis often cause a delay in oviposition. It was found that peristalsis worsens with a decrease in calcium in the blood. This is confirmed by the fact that after laying eggs in some species of birds spastic convulsions are noted. With delayed oviposition in parrots, the administration of calcium borogluconate intravenously and intraperitoneally contributes to a significant improvement in peristalsis. Excessive egg production dramatically reduces the calcium reserves in the bird. Of the other possible causes of this disease, circulatory disorders, hormonal disorders associated with insufficient pituitary function have been identified.
Treatment. When treating a patient with a veterinarian at the onset of the disease, in most cases it is possible to remove the egg with a warm, moist bath and rinse the cloaca with olive oil or fish oil. In those cases when the mucous membrane and surrounding tissues are inflamed with layering of conditionally pathogenic microflora, often the results are adverse. At the same time, the drug kinetin (hyaluronidase) is recommended, which acts on an enzyme that improves metabolism. Sometimes it helps to massage the abdominal wall towards the cloaca until the egg or its contents is isolated. After removing the eggshell, the oviduct should be washed with a disinfectant solution.
In some cases, an egg with an unformed shell may enter the abdominal cavity. This occurs with damage to the oviduct and neoplasms. In this case, the general condition of the bird deteriorates sharply, therefore it is necessary to carry out an urgent laparotomy and remove the egg. If the egg is delayed with general disorders of the body, the prognosis should be very careful. With the surgical method of treatment, the skin and peritoneum are cut as wide as possible in order to better see the egg in the oviduct. When opening the abdominal cavity and moving the intestine to the side, the egg is clearly visible. An incision should be made in the wall of the oviduct. In order to avoid a strong rupture of the oviduct but at the corners, the incision is fixed with two clamps, after which the egg is pulled out with a small spoon. In this case, the oviduct decreases very quickly and is difficult to notice. The contents of such an egg are contaminated with bacteria. If it enters the abdominal cavity, it can cause peritonitis, so it is advisable not to destroy the egg. The contents of the egg are carefully sucked off with a syringe or needle, then the empty shell is pulled out, then the doctor sutures the oviduct. Care should be taken to ensure that there is no bleeding after surgery.
Symptoms When prolapsed, the oviduct hangs out of the cloaca and often contains an egg attached to the wall of the oviduct. If the pathological process lasted a long time, then the wall of the oviduct dries up, becomes covered with wounds and partially undergoes necrosis. In connection with the loss of blood, there is general inhibition of the bird, loss of appetite, diarrhea, etc.
Etiology. With especially large or irregularly shaped eggs, the tone of the musculature of the cloaca decreases.
Treatment. In the early stages of the disease, carefully remove the egg. If it is glued to the oviduct, then necrotic tissue contaminated with droppings, sand, grain should be removed, rinsed thoroughly with saline or entozone solution. Sometimes local anesthesia is used. The direction of the prolapsed oviduct is especially successful when using petroleum jelly. In order to avoid repeated loss with a constant reduction in the musculature of the cloaca, a suture is applied for 24 to 48 hours to bring the edges closer together. Of general strengthening measures, warming the bird is recommended. In advanced cases, you have to resort to surgery,
Before the operation, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse the oviduct and establish the border of the necrotic tissue, in some cases, massage the egg that is trapped in the oviduct. If it is not possible to isolate an egg in this way, then it is destroyed and removed in parts. The oviduct is treated with an antibiotic solution, preferably oil-based. To avoid pressure of the locking muscles of the cloaca and repeated loss of the oviduct, a purse string suture is placed on the edges of the cloaca, which is removed 48 hours after surgery. There is another way to remove the egg and the operation of the prolapsed oviduct. The purified cesspool is opened using an expander or automatic tweezers. If the egg is visible, then it is necessary to carefully insert the probe, rotate the shell wall with rotational movements and gently squeeze the remaining egg. In some cases, it is necessary to cut off the precipitated part of the oviduct by the surgical route. The upper part of the oviduct is cleaned of the rest of the shell, droppings, feed, etc. The affected area of the tissue is removed. Very often after an incision, severe bleeding occurs. Separate sutures are placed on the oviduct and cloaca. The operation is very difficult.
Egg Fertility and Reduced Hatchability. Infertility of eggs and poor hatchability may be due to the high sensitivity of birds to various toxic substances. The accumulation of toxic substances occurs in fatty tissues, which leads to low fertility and hatchability.
Cysts, neoplasms of the oviduct and ovary. Neoplasms of the oviduct and cysts, as well as tumors of the oviduct, are often registered in budgerigars of lovebirds, amazons, etc.
Symptoms With a general metabolic disorder, swelling, inflammation of the skin and abdomen, shortness of breath, changes in the color of the cornea, diarrhea are formed. When examining the abdomen, you can feel the presence of cysts, often hernias form.
Pathological changes. Neoplasms in most cases are soft, saline, rounded or lobed, penetrated by hemorrhages. Oviductal cysts contain a clear or cloudy yellow liquid. Very often, inflammation of the peritoneum and liver tumors are simultaneously found. Metastases are rare. As in the oviduct, cystic changes often occur in the ovary. With inflammation of the oviduct, the ovary is greatly increased in volume and is filled with white, cream or cloudy masses. Improper egg formation leads to the accumulation of yellow or gray masses in the oviduct. In all these cases, the wall of the abdominal cavity is in a severe stage of inflammation, clouded, partially with overlays, overgrowth of the skin, the skin in the abdomen is tightened, yellow in color, very blood-filled Neoplasms of the ovary and oviduct are almost always malignant (adenomas and karyenomas).
Etiology has not yet been clarified.
Removing tumors is very difficult and often fatal.
Inflammation and abscesses of a factory bag. In various types of parrots, abscesses of the factory bag are found, which are smooth soft tumors.
Symptoms. Changes in the factory bag affect the general condition of the bird's body: first, the owner detects hemorrhages at the root of the tail, as a result of constant pecking, falling out or deformation of the tail feathers; when examined in the area of the factory bag, he reveals a densified yellow-gray mass, sometimes containing blood. Under a towering crust is soft or hard tissue. This tumor is often diagnosed as an adenoma or adenocarcinoma.
An abscess occurs after blockage of the excretory ducts of the glands. Etiology not found out.
Treatment. They cleanse the abscess from the secret, hull the tumor surgically.
Types of tumors in parrots and their treatment
The most common types of tumors in parrots are:
- Lipoma. Often it is located on the stomach or lower part of the keel, less often - on the internal organs. Benign lipoma is simply fatty deposits in the form of a ball that is not attached to the skin. Malignant liposarcoma has a pronounced vascular pattern and is connected to internal tissues, it only needs to be excised. Accurately determine the type of tumor is possible only after a biopsy. Treatment is carried out using 10% carnitine, lipoic acid, legalon, elkar, lipomin, sarcomin and other drugs. To improve the functioning of the immune system give immunofan, roncoleukin and other drugs.
- Xanthoma. It feels like a wen to the touch, can be located in different places. The tumor is bright yellow with a pronounced vascular pattern. Often, owners who failed to balance the diet are to blame for the appearance of xanthomas, because the main reason is excessively fatty foods. It is treated surgically.
- Hypertrophy of the cornea. In general, the growth of the cornea indicates the appearance of a tumor in the oral cavity or on the genitals. It is advisable to quickly show the bird to an ornithologist for a full examination. When squamous cell carcinoma is detected (and African and Australian parrots are most susceptible to it), a tumor is excised with the capture of surrounding tissues, an investment with construction and thion, a diet, immunomodulators are prescribed. Tumors on the genitals respond poorly to treatment, and surgery is often impossible because of the high risk.
- Hernia. Most often occurs in females after an ovipositor; a hernia is a protrusion of a skin flap. The peritoneum is stretched due to the heavy load, this can be eliminated only with the help of surgery. A skin flap is sutured to the abdomen, but the surgical method is available only for large parrots.
The sooner you find a problem tumor in a parrot, the greater the chance of a successful treatment. Regular examinations at the veterinarian, a complete diet, timely cleaning of the cage are the key to your pet's health!