Currently, the number of people who wish to keep feathered predators at home is constantly increasing. Mostly small owls, small falcons with hawks. When purchasing such a bird, you need to know: owls, falcons and hawks do not belong to poultry, and keeping them at home poses a significant risk to your health. A very important factor in the maintenance of such a bird at home is a normal diet, the use of beef or poultry meat as food does not create conditions for normal feeding to your pet. If we consider the physiological needs, then for the proper functioning of the digestive system of birds of prey, such components as wool, feather, small bones are important. These “offal” are non-digestible components in the stomach of a bird, from which dense lumps are formed - “riddles”. Under good conditions, the bird belches riddles as they arise. In the absence of proper nutrition, if, in the predator, no clues are formed (i.e., food is completely absorbed), the spitting mechanism is violated. Subsequently, this affects the peristalsis (contraction) of the entire intestinal tract. Loss of riddles can provoke a violation of absorption of vitamins and minerals from the lumen of the intestinal tract. The absorption of calcium and magnesium plays a special role for predators; when they are deficient, this leads to a general systemic disease of the bird.
You need to know one of the main aspects for finding birds of prey at home, this is due to the fact that the litter spreads in the form of a jet and covers a distance of two, three meters. Be prepared for the fact that the room where you keep the bird will be damaged, in addition it is a bad smell from the remnants of parts of the feed.
The biggest problem is that, birds of prey are not fully tamed and constantly remain wild, it is very difficult for them to overcome the fear of humans. When you try, take off more closely to communicate, they always take a defensive position, and they are always ready to use their claws and beak. You can grow a predator chick, but they remain half-wild.
It often happens that birds of prey are found in the wild. If you find a bird, you need to conduct an external examination. When inspecting, always compare paired parts of the body. The bird has two wings, two varnishes, two eyes, two ears, etc. Rarely, both wings or legs are injured. Look at the presence of injuries of the bones of the legs and wings, the integrity of the plumage, to exclude ectoparasites, the integrity of the skin, the presence of hematomas and wounds, etc. If the wing is injured, it is always not symmetrical with respect to the body of the bird. As a rule, it hangs below the shoulder joint. If the foot is injured, then the bird holds it in weight, cannot stand on it, and protects it. The most important thing is to see a doctor as soon as possible in order to make a complete clinical examination of the bird and provide it with timely assistance. You will also have to collect and take tests for infections, as the bird you find can be a carrier of diseases dangerous to humans.
When analyzing litter, it is most often revealed that birds are infected with intestinal or pulmonary helminths. Under natural conditions, for wild birds, these helminths are not a serious threat, provided that the immune system of the bird works perfectly. Getting into captivity, the predator is subjected to a huge amount of stress, which has an adverse effect on the immune system. Also, immunity is reduced due to improper nutrition and maintenance. All this stimulates and contributes to the emergence of infectious and parasitic diseases. As practice shows, even with negative results of analysis of litter for helminth eggs, a predator still makes sense to treat from helminths and sometimes antibiotics can be used prophylactically.
If you decide to buy a bird of prey or pick up a sick predator, you should definitely remember the responsibility that you assume and be aware of its further fate. The best option is to equip an aviary or use a cage, but it is very important that the volume of the cage allows the bird to spread its wings without any problems, this will save the wings and feathers of the bird. It is strongly not recommended to keep a wild bird at home without a cage, the first thing that awaits you is repair, the second - possible bad situations and injuries to the bird. She should walk around the apartment only under your control, and take food and sleep only in a cage or aviary.
A convenient option for a small owl or small kestrel is a spacious cage from large parrots. Alternatively, you can build a cell with your own hands. Approximate cell parameters should be: 100x100x150 cm (for owls). It is recommended to place one perch inside the cage as a perch. The diameter of the pole should be such that the bird’s claws dig into the pole, and not hang down, clutching it. A bird sitting on a perch should be able to freely flap its wings, without touching the floor and walls of the cage. In the center of the cell put a small stump (chock), it will be a table. It is necessary to install poles and pull on them a plastic mat (artificial grass). It is also recommended to lay a rug on a stump. This is necessary so that birds do not have subdermatitis (naminas). It is recommended to place the cage in a well-lit place, at the level of your chest, not higher and not lower. There should always be fresh water in the cage, since the bird can bathe in it; for owls, it is recommended to hang a small house outside so as not to reduce the internal volume of the cage.
If the bird is not kept at home, it is recommended to build an aviary, its size should be much larger than the size of the home cage, about three to four times. The poles should be the same as in the cage. So that the bird could bear the weather in the aviary, the walls forming the corner are solid, the roof must be completely closed. Other sides are covered with a grid or net. It is necessary 2 times a year to organize treatment for helminths and 1 time per year to conduct an examination with an ornithologist.
Feeding birds of prey
At home, birds need to be fed with food as natural as possible. Wild birds at home can be given to mice and rats.
If a predator in the wild fed on birds, they can be replaced by chickens and quails.
They can be freely purchased at the market and specialized pet stores. Predators can be fed not fatty meat (chicken neck, head, beef tenderloin without veins and fat), but this is not enough, since this meat does not contain the necessary composition of vitamins, minerals and trace elements that contains the whole carcass of the feed object.
You can’t feed a bird of prey caught in the wild animals: field mice, and other rodents or birds: sparrows, tits, pigeons, jackdaws. With such feeding, there is a high risk of contracting helminthic invasion, since most helminths use the bird as an intermediate host. Helminths can penetrate all tissues and organs.
During feeding, you should try to feed the whole carcasses to the birds along with feathers, wool, and bones. This is very important because in a bird in the gastrointestinal tract, non-digestible food residues form ridges, this is necessary for the normal digestion of the bird. Normally, when feeding, the predator secretes a hysteria from undigested wool and bones. This is a normal physiological component for a bird of prey. Do not forget the predator must be fed carcasses of animals and birds, and very rarely, only in extreme cases, meat and nothing else. Adult birds are given food once a day, chicks 3-6 times a day, the number of feeds depends on age. Adult predators need to have a hungry day once every seven days, but there should be fresh water. Be sure to feed half the ration once a week, and do not forget about fresh water. This is useful and will be a good prophylaxis against obesity in birds, physiologically it is similar to the natural conditions of predator's living in nature. In the wild, a predator can not always catch prey normally. Therefore, he does not always have food in the diet.
As a rule, birds of prey in good and moderate weather do not drink. And during the heat, they drink a lot of water and love to swim.
There are the following feeding standards for predators: for an eared or marsh owl, kestrel, chaglok, pereyatlika hawk, the norm of food per day is 2-3 mice or chicken, for gray owl, goshawk 2-3 mice or chicken, or one quail.
When feeding a sick bird, food should be served with a wooden stick about 10 cm long. For forced feeding of hawks and owls, the meat should be placed on the tip of the stick and lean tightly against the bird's beak. The bird will open the beak, and it is necessary to carefully push the meat into the beak and turn the stick. The meat falling into the beak can be slightly pushed, thereby we will provoke a swallowing reflex in the bird. This is done carefully so as not to scratch the back wall of the pharyngeal mucosa. In this process, you can not use metal objects, you can injure the beak of a bird.
When the bird is in good condition, food should be put on a clean board or stump and allowed to eat on its own. If the bird has injuries, then the food should be perched behind it.
When feeding kestrels, crickets and grasshoppers can additionally be used. Osprey is a fish-eating bird, but sometimes it can be fed with beef, it is recommended to use it only in extreme cases. For her, it is necessary to have a large tank with water, this is necessary for swimming.
If you have little owls, and you want to teach them how to hunt on their own, then you need to place the lamp near the cage and turn it on in the evening. Insects flying to the light will be good prey for owls and goats.
A little about owls.
You need to know that almost all owls are very curious and mischievous creatures, when they become pets, then you take full responsibility for the life and safety of the owl. For the most part, owls are conservatives, they quickly get used to a new habitat and love that all surrounding objects and furnishings are in place, and nothing changes. Japanese quail is the normal food for owls. This bird can be purchased at large grocery supermarkets. The quail carcass is cut into small pieces along with the bones, the bones are crushed as little as possible. Large and sharp bones are removed. When you feed an average owl, then pieces of food are cut into small sizes of about 1 cm by 1 cm. In addition to quails, you can also eat mice and day-old chickens chopped into pieces.
In cases where it is not possible to quickly find normal food, you can feed the owlet for 1-2 days with chicken hearts or pieces of beef heart. And in the shortest possible time you need to find normal and wholesome food.
You can not feed an owlet pork, beef and sausage.
Very rarely, it is possible to feed chicken or turkey fillet, rabbit meat, or hammered chicken necks. Additionally, you can use chicken liver, but owls can peck it reluctantly and do not need to give a lot.
Food in the form of small pieces should be given an owl right in its beak, especially when it asks to eat, opening its beak. Since on his own he is not yet able to eat.
An average owl should consume about 50 grams of food per day.
We should never forget that a bird of prey, caught in nature, always remains a predator.
© Vladimir Chuguevsky, Veterinary Ornithologist
Moscow city veterinary care
Calling a doctor at home: (495) 995-06-32, (495) 747-77-05.
Raising birds of prey at home
Almost any falcon or hawk, correctly hand-fed from a small chick, having reached puberty (approximately three to four years), will show "tender feelings" to its master, and even to all people (most often similar to the owner).
It should immediately be clarified that, having a little space, only imprinted birds (which perceive a person as a partner) can be raised. Of course, it is necessary to master the skills of artificial insemination, to have an incubator or brood hens.
Be sure to ensure high-quality feeding of adult birds and chicks. And during the breeding season to have enough free time. Preparation for breeding begins with feeding the chick.
The qualities your prey bird needs to breed
- The falcon or hawk is not afraid of you, it makes contact with you (it can beware of strangers, especially the hawk), willingly takes food from your hands, being in a well-fed state (outside training for hunting).
- He behaves calmly on a leash or in an aviary.
- Having reached puberty, he systematically welcomes your appearance with characteristic postures and vocalization. In the pre-nesting and nesting period spends a lot of time (especially the female) on the nesting platform.
Captive birds of prey feeding
You should always remember about high-quality feeding, on which greed, speed, working weight of a bird, etc. depend. Only high-quality, fresh food can increase the hormonal level in the body, on which the desire for reproduction depends.
Many European falconers, who receive offspring from their hunting birds, notice a direct connection between the passion for hunting and the desire for reproduction (especially in males).
Make it a rule to feed your pet, if possible, with fresh carcasses of pigeons, ravens, quails, small laboratory animals, sometimes daily chickens. When keeping one or more birds it is not difficult. For the eagle and golden eagle, rabbits are an excellent food.
Domestic breeders, who know everything about raising birds of prey at home, and regularly receive offspring from golden eagles, argue that without feeding rabbits it is difficult to stimulate eagles to breed. German breeders, in turn, consider it unlikely the reproduction of derbniks and shahin without the presence of sparrows in the diet of mature birds.
From the middle of winter, day-old chickens and chicken heads are gradually replaced with quail carcasses (goshawk, peregrine falcon) and laboratory rats and hamsters (gyrfalcon, balaban).
So, to transfer the bird to almost completely fresh (or fresh-frozen) carcasses of small and medium-sized feed animals before the laying of eggs (March-April). Use artificial vitamins should be very careful. Excess of them can cause premature molting, and the bird will not bear in this season.
It is more convenient for a falcon or hawk to build a small aviary, for example, for small falcons and peregrine falcons, a room with an area of 3x4 m and a height of 1.5-2 m is sufficient, for a gyrfalcon 4-5. a specially equipped balcony (preferably glazed) may also be suitable.
There are cases when adult hunting females incubated directly on a leash, on the ground in an artificial nest near their barn.
Fertilization of birds of prey at home
In order to get fertilized eggs of a falcon or hawk from an imprinted female, artificial insemination should be performed. Get acquainted with the devices for artificial insemination, order or make yourself dilators, capillaries, diluents for sperm, etc.
Be sure to work out the scheme on domestic chickens, they are similar in size to most hunting birds. They get sperm and artificially fertilize in two ways: voluntary and forced.
With the voluntary method, sperm quality is much higher.Lack of stress in birds will not make you worry that the bird will break the nesting cycle. However, sperm, which is introduced voluntarily into the cloaca, and not into the oviduct, must be in sufficient quantity and active.
To check the quality of sperm, you need to have a microscope. Using it, you can determine the degree of sperm activity.
With the forced method of fertilization, the main plus is that you can get sperm from an unprinted (manual) male or fertilize an unprinted female. This method makes it possible to introduce a capillary with sperm directly into the oviduct, which increases the degree of fertilization.
The big disadvantage of this method is that the bird from stress can stop spermatogenesis or clutch. This method is usually used by experienced breeders, as there is a high risk of breakdown.
In order to master the forced insemination and breeding of birds of prey at home, you need to work out all the techniques on domestic chickens.
Sometimes forced fertilization is also used for pair breeding, when the birds do not mate (this often happens in captive birds) or when the male sperm in the pair is not active enough.
Often in nurseries they prepare the so-called social imprints (when the chick is fed by a person in a group with their own kind, or partially by a person, or partially by a tame adult bird).
Such birds are very good for hunting, because they are not afraid of humans, but they are not very screaming and are able to breed in pairs. Full imprints are usually perceived as a sexual object of a person and ignore their own kind.
Both birds, from which it is planned to obtain offspring, must simultaneously become sexually active. This can be achieved by having knowledge of the time of mating in nature of birds of a certain species and preparing them for reproduction under similar conditions and with similar feeding.
In the event of an error, the female will demolish before the male begins spermatogenesis, and vice versa.
We give approximate periods of spermatogenesis and the beginning of oviposition of some birds.
- Balaban - the third decade of February, the first, sometimes the second decade of March (for northern subspecies). Caucasian and European Peregrine Falcon - the third decade of March, the first decade of April, the tundra - the first and second decades of May.
- Shahin (Berber Falcon) - the second decade of March.
- Gyrfalcon - end of March, beginning of April.
- Goshawk - the first decade of May.
- Kamchatka Goshawk - the first decade of May.
Duration of oviposition and spermatogenesis can be accelerated artificially by lengthening daylight hours.
This is especially necessary to obtain interspecific hybrids, for example, gyrfalcon and peregrine falcon, peregrine falcon and balaban, gyrfalcon and balaban. Today, peregrine falcon and hybrids hybrids are popular in Europe, which have excellent flying qualities, hybrids of gyrfalcon and Chinese black shahin or taitafalcon (Indian shahin). Hybrids of gyrfalcon and balaban are losing their popularity.
With interspecific hybridization, it is believed that the chick inherits more traits from the mother, although hybrids from the same parents occur that are not similar to each other. The hybrids of gyrfalcon and balaban are mostly fertile, the rest are usually sterile.
Balaban is easier to tame among birds of prey and is well bred. He easily makes contact even with a stranger. Tame female balaban can feed even hawk chicks. Balaban is the most prolific among hunting birds (up to twenty eggs). Puberty occurs in three to four years, while retaining in captivity the ability to breed up to thirty years.
In a gyrfalcon, puberty occurs in four to six years. It has weak immunity, therefore, lives in captivity for up to ten years. Imprints are good breadwinners who are loyal to strangers and have low fecundity (up to eight eggs).
In a peregrine falcon, puberty occurs in three to four years. Incredulous to strangers, aggressive and nervous. This creates additional difficulties when changing staff. Fertility - up to fourteen eggs. Duration of reproduction is up to twenty years.
The goshawk matures in two to four years. One of the birds, which itself is difficult to breed because it is poorly tamed. Sometimes when paired, the female can injure, or even kill the male. Very distrustful of strangers. With artificial reproduction from a female, up to fourteen eggs (usually five to eight) can be obtained per season.
The imprint egg collection system boils down to the removal of newly laid eggs. In this case, the female must be artificially fertilized immediately within 2 hours after the laying of eggs. In any tea, no later than 16 hours.
In this case, the first egg serves as a signal for fertilization and remains unfertilized. Fertilize voluntarily after the demolition of each egg, forcibly through one egg. One fertilization is usually enough for two to three eggs.
As a rule, a bird of prey lays eggs with an interval of two days. After the fourth or sixth egg is laid, the laying usually stops temporarily (in falcons and hawks) and is restored after two to three weeks.
Incubation of birds of prey
The process is no less complicated than artificial insemination. Breeding birds of prey at home and incubating eggs of birds of prey requires certain knowledge and skills.
Incubators that are available for poultry are of little use. In Europe and America, specialized incubators for predators and parrots are produced, which have sensitive and accurate equipment.
It’s nice to use brood hens. Chicks are usually fed artificially for up to ten days. Then they are planted with an imprinted female.
To get good hunting birds, you need to keep the chicks while growing up in special cages in the presence of people and hunting dogs, but transfer them to the enclosure with tame birds for feeding.
With this cultivation, falcons or hawks will grow calm to humans, but not imprinted, which sometimes complicates the training of hunting birds.
When the three-week-old birds begin to cover themselves with feathers and eat themselves, you can sometimes give them food from their hands again so that they do not break the habit of contact with humans.
We talked about raising birds of prey at home, this is a difficult job and requires experience, but everything should work out.
Species diversity of birds of prey (hawks, falcons, African vultures). Characterization of the conditions of their maintenance in the zoo: the presence of fresh air, the absence of drafts at the place of spending the night, the principles of plumage conservation, especially feeding and diet analysis.
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Captivity of birds of prey
Akhmedov Vladislav Ruslanovich
Vasilyeva Natalia Alexandrovna,
1. The theoretical part
2. The practical part
2.1 Conditions of captive birds of prey
2.2 the study of the species composition of birds of prey in the zoo Sosnovy Bor Tyumen
Goal: to study the rules of keeping captive birds of prey.
1) To study the species composition of birds of prey in the zoo Sosnovy Bor, Tyumen.
2) Write a brief description of the birds of prey.
3) To analyze the conditions for the maintenance of birds of prey in captivity.
Hypothesis - perhaps due to improper conditions in 20 years, all birds of prey will die, the food chain will be disrupted, which will lead to an environmental disaster.
Relevance - The main drawbacks of most Russian menageries are terrible cramped conditions and a completely alien environment for animals. The bare walls and concrete floor are the ascetic atmosphere of the bear. The complete absence of any trees in a crypt is for an orangutan. No ponds for lovers of swimming and splashing tigers, bears. All this makes the life of pets dull and monotonous. And this invariably leads to physical ailments and mental illness. When creating a modern zoo, it is necessary to rely on international standards for the maintenance of wild animals in captivity, which specify the optimal conditions for keeping for a variety of species. The conditions of the animals should ensure their physical and mental well-being. Hypothesis: if animals in the zoo create optimal conditions for keeping, then they grow up healthy and do not suffer from life in captivity.
Object of study: birds of prey of the Sosnovy Bor zoo
Subject of study: Zoo "Sosnovy Bor"
1. The theoretical part
Predator birds - birds that hunt in flight. They have good eyesight, large claws and a beak adapted to capture or kill the victim. Birds of prey do not constitute a single taxonomic group, but represent several taxa united by common features.
Most daytime birds of prey belong to the order of falcon-like:
TO night birds of prey are representatives of the order owls, which include two families:
The shrike, the New Zealand kea parrot, the marabou stork, the corvidae (raven, gray crow, magpie, jackdaw) and skuas also lead a predatory lifestyle.
Zoological Park (Zoo) - an institution for keeping animals in captivity, with the purpose of their demonstration, conservation, reproduction and study, including scientific. It differs from a zoo by a larger territory and a large number of animals.
2. The practical part
On Sunday, 04/13/14, I went with my parents to the Sosnovy Bor zoo and found out the conditions for the birds of prey and noticed something myself.
2.1Captivity of birds of prey
1. The presence of fresh air. The increased metabolism in birds compared with mammals determines, accordingly, more intense energy processes in the body. Humidity and heat are detrimental to the health of birds of prey. In the United Arab Emirates (in the conditions of unbearable heat), our gyrfalcons and other species of falcons are kept only with conditioners.
2. The absence of drafts at the place of spending the night of a bird of prey. In forest areas, birds hide from the wind at night, sitting on the leeward side of a tree trunk. Birds of prey living in the tundra, in the wind - lie in the grass, or are located in the hollows. Therefore, it is advisable to keep at least a shield in the path of constant air currents when keeping birds on the vines, and of course, it is good to place a roof over the head of the predator: everything was fenced, there could be no through
3. Conditions for maintaining the plumage of hunting birds. The question of preserving the plumage of a hunting bird is facing the falconer acute. He is obliged to ensure the safety of plumage with the help of appropriate additives and cages, in which the bird can not damage it. It is necessary to follow this rule: when kept on an additive, the bird should not touch the walls, floor, ceiling, branches, etc. with the fly and tail feathers: this point was partially observed. There were no prisons or cages at all, but the cages were spacious.
Proper feeding of birds of prey is one of the main, if not the most important conditions for their successful rearing. All birds of prey in natural conditions eat fresh and rather diverse food, consisting of various animals (only eagles eat carrion at times). Providing them in captivity the same variety of food as in the wild is very difficult for reasons of an economic order (expensive!).
At the same time, only proper feeding guarantees their normal development and health. It is very important that the bird of prey be in the so-called "hunting" body.
A healthy bird in a field “hunting” body is recognizable by the way it behaves especially “stamo” (directly), to bring in and coolly hold its wings, in a word to be in a “string”. The plumage of a healthy bird is brilliant and in perfect order. The feathers on the crown of the head lie smoothly and do not foul.
The state of fatness of a bird is recognized by feeling the sternum. If the keel of the sternum protrudes too sharply, and the pectoral muscles are flabby, the bird is exhausted. If the keel of the sternum is poorly palpated, the bird is obese. In a bird in the field body, the keel of the sternum is well felt, but the pectoral muscles are elastic.
When setting the feed ration, it must be remembered that the captive birds of prey, compared to those living in the wild, are still less in motion and insufficiently use their muscular strength even with the best care. Therefore, when overfeeding, they greatly fatten, which is very dangerous for them, since there are often cases of poultry death from obesity, in this case they say that "it is torn by breast fat."
It is almost impossible to establish feeding standards for birds of prey that would be appropriate for each individual case. An indicator of satiety of a bird is the condition of its goiter. In a hungry bird, it does not give out at all. The bird, fed up, "in the creep" - goiter with an acute bulge in the middle. Then, if you continue to feed the bird, its goiter is rounded. When the goiter becomes evenly rounded, the bird stuck to the "full" goiter. If you let the bird peck, as they say, to the dump, then the goiter is gradually distributed to the sides, becomes somewhat flat, and then spherical. This is a sign that the bird is overfed.
A sign that the bird is full is the so-called “upsetting” of the goiter. The bird begins to bend its head and stretch and retract the neck and in this way compresses the goiter and distills part of the contents into the stomach. However, it must be borne in mind that sometimes the “upsetting” of the goiter does not indicate satiety of the bird, but only that it swallowed an uncomfortable or too large piece or bone.
bird of prey zoo feeding
2.2The study of the species composition of birds of prey in the zoo Sosnovy Bor, Tyumen
Young chicks, not yet covered with feathers, should be fed 3-5 times a day, but not until “full goiter”. When the birds fledge, they are fed less often - 2 times: at 6-7 a.m. and 5 a.m. Before feeding, you need to make sure that the previously bite food has already passed from the goiter to the stomach and the goiter is empty. Birds, even just dropped out of the nest, eat very willingly and are not afraid of humans.
Meat should be given to chicks only warmed up, warm, finely chopped and carefully cleared of fat, tendons, bones and feathers. It’s useful for them to add raw chicken eggs to the feed - one egg per kilogram of meat.
Adult birds are fed once a day, only if the state of health of the bird is unsatisfactory and it loses weight, you can feed it twice. But by spring, by the time molting approaches, the bird's nutrition should be strengthened. Starting in February, birds should be fed twice a day, and so on until the end of the molt. However, it is better to feed the gyrfalcon at any time of the year once a day.
Sparrow-hawks (and small falcons) require more food and should be fed twice a day.
In order to prevent poultry from becoming obese, in addition to a certain reduction in diet (which, however, one should be very careful about), it is good to give food soaked in water.
The ancient falconers attributed to the meat of some birds - magpies, jays, woodpeckers, ravens and other birds of prey - the property of exerting a laxative effect on the digestion of hunting birds. The same property was attributed by them to mouse meat. Feeding with such meat, as well as soaked in water in order to achieve weight loss for hunting birds, was called "to reach foul and deep water."
In order to be fed with a falcon or a large hawk, it is enough to receive one pigeon or 100 to 150 g of meat per day, a portion for a golden eagle is about a kilogram. Small hawks and falcons are enough to saturate a pair of sparrows or starling.
This calculation, however, is very approximate. The owner should carefully look and examine each of his birds to determine her normal diet. A fattened bird becomes inactive, slow, its flight loses its usual dexterity and swiftness.An emaciated bird keeps itself restless, flaps its wings and ruffles its feathers.
In essence, any meat is suitable for feeding birds of prey - horse meat, beef, chicken, lamb and mouse.
Very good meat of various domestic and wild birds. The more diverse the food, the better. But an indispensable condition - the meat must be absolutely fresh. From time to time it is necessary to feed the chicks with light meat of young animals and meat of small birds. Under no circumstances should salted birds be given to hunting birds.
The meat of shot animals or birds can also cause poisoning, more or less quickly leading to death if the bird of prey bites together with the meat of the shot. Therefore, if it is necessary to feed hunting birds with meat from shot animals, if necessary, remove all grains from it, and it is better not to give those parts of the killed animal that are severely broken by a shot and contain most of the fraction. Avoid giving carnivorous birds the meat of dead animals and birds for fear of infecting them with internal parasites and diseases such as tuberculosis, etc. Also, one should not give meat that was frozen and thawed several times.
In freedom, birds of prey peck prey with wool, feathers and bones (except for large bones). These poorly digestible parts remain in their goiter and then are thrown out through the beak at a certain time of the day, most often in the morning in the form of a so-called pogoda.
Usually a riddle is thrown off once a day, but sometimes two, even three, and the frequent throwing off of a riddle does not mean a disease in a bird. When dropping a riddle, the bird opens its beak, shakes its bowed head, and finally spits out the riddle. The latter is an oblong clump of feathers, bones, etc. Dropping a riddle is absolutely necessary for the bird's health, as it cleans its upper section of the digestive tract in this way.
If you feed the bird before it throws off the riddles with the remnants of the previous meal, then you can cause it more or less serious illness, since, apparently, a new portion of food falls into the goiter, presses on undigested residues and pushes them into the stomach, where the bird cannot remove them from. But sometimes, when the bird does not reset the riddle due to weakness or painful condition, it is even useful to give it a peck of clean meat, without bones and feathers. It happens that after the end of secondary digestion, it safely discards the puzzle.
Old bird connoisseurs, and many modern ones, consider it necessary to cause the dropping of a hiding puzzle in hunting birds. To do this, they are given either un-plucked birds and small mammals as a whole, added feathers and small bones to the meat, or, finally, roll meat in fine sand, and sometimes even give them blood-soaked and boneless feathers. However, it has not yet been established that such an artificially induced dropping of a puzzle is necessary.
It was proved by experience that birds of prey can be fed with clean meat for weeks without disturbing their digestion and health. It is unlikely that dropping riddles is an organic need for them. Probably, the habit of dropping a riddle developed in birds of prey as a result of the fact that for many generations they pecked half-plucked prey. This is indicated at least by the fact that birds of prey in natural conditions prefer to peck on plucked prey and do not swallow bones. In captivity, birds of prey, even after prolonged (for weeks) feeding with clean meat, do not peck the bones and feathers they offer without meat. Too much admixture of feathers in food is, of course, unpleasant for them.
Another thing is the feeding of chicks. For them, an admixture of bones is absolutely necessary. Without this, they become rickety and cannot stand on their fingers, but walk on their heels. To feed very young chicks to finely chopped meat should be added bone meal, crushed into a powder of bones or eggshells. It goes without saying that the greatest caution should be exercised in this and to ensure that they are not ingested with small, unshredded pieces of bones and shells that could harm them. Larger chicks, fledged, can be given meat with small bones and an admixture of feathers.
It is generally believed that the color of the resetting drop is an indicator of the bird’s health status. They say that if the riddle is light, then the bird is healthy, if it is dark, then the bird is sick. However, this is not always the case. The color of the puzzle depends not only on the state of health, but also on what it is made of. So, for example, the riddle of a falcon fed with a white dove or a white rabbit is white. If the falcon pecked a daw or a black rabbit, then his riddle will be blackish. In a healthy bird, the riddle must be moist, covered with mucus, without a bad smell. When squeezing, a light liquid should protrude from it. If the riddle is dry, has an unpleasant smell, when pressed, a dark liquid flows out of it, then the bird is sick. A solid riddle also serves as a sign of the disease state of the bird: this item was poorly observed, they fed all the birds at least once a day, but only 2-3 mice. This food is not enough for all birds.
As a result of the studies, the following conclusions were made:
1. The species composition of birds of prey of the Sosnovy Bor zoo of the city of Tyumen was studied.
2. Compiled a brief description of the birds of prey
3. The conditions for keeping birds of prey in captivity were clarified, and were analyzed in this zoo.
Not all conditions are met in this zoo, which can lead to diseases among birds or even death among them. I hope that in the future the conditions for keeping predators will change.
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