• (Greek amphibios - leading a dual lifestyle) car capable of traveling by land and water
• amphibian animal or plant
• both a crocodile and a frog
• vertebrate, breathing at an early age gills, and in the adult lungs
• vehicle by land and water
• aircraft with a wheeled landing gear adapted for take-off and landing from land and water
• combat vehicle for movement by land and water
• amphibious status of Ichthyander
• car pretending to be a ship
• same as amphibian
• aircraft for take-off and landing on water
• all-terrain vehicle on land and water
• car pretending to be a ship
• aircraft capable of taking off from the water
• frog like amphibian
• aircraft capable of landing on water
• cars for land and water
• toad like amphibian
• and toad, and frog, and newt
• waterfowl or frog
• Living a double life
• g. Greek a bipedal or amphibian animal, a reptile, their four departments: frogs, turtles, lizards and snakes. Amphibiology part of zoology, the science of reptiles. Amphibole m. Fossil, close to the amiant, consists of silicic lime and bitter earth. Amphibrach. M. Poetic foot, of two short and one long syllable in the middle of them:
Description and Features
The appearance of the toads varies significantly, as amphibian species number about three hundred. But there are common features characteristic of tailless amphibians - a large head, short extremities placed on the sides, and a pinned shape of an overweight body.
The toad's body length varies from miniature individuals of 20 mm to giants in its family of 270 mm. Weight, respectively, from 50 grams to one kilogram. Females are superior in size to males, regardless of species.
A male can be recognized by small tubercles on the forelegs, which are called corns. The main function of the leathery protrusions is to capture the female during breeding.
The language of the amphibians is narrow, long. Upper jaw without teeth. A well-developed hearing aid. A feature of male amphibians is the presence of a rudimentary ovary. Due to this, under certain conditions, the toads are unique in their appearance, when a male can turn into a female.
The color of amphibians in inconspicuous colors, allowing to merge with the environment. Brown, gray-black, dirty-green skin tones with a pattern of spots of different geometries characterize the toad outfit. The exception is the inhabitants of tropical countries, whose color of bright colors as if warns about the toxicity of the essence of amphibians.
Amphibians have no ribs. Remarkable skin with protruding warts of different sizes, dry to the touch. Parotid seals present in most species are called parotids. With their help, toads secrete a special secret that protects the skin from drying out.
The second feature lies in the protective mechanism - the isolated mucus is toxic in many species, it contains alkaloid poison. Under stress toad ready in this way to defend themselves from enemies.
Mucus has a burning taste, emetic effect. Biting amphibian animals receive poisoning. For humans, toad secretions are safe, but contact of the secret with the mucous membranes can cause inflammation.
Perhaps this feature became the basis of the myth of the appearance of warts after touching the toad. Studies by scientists have shown that there is no connection between amphibians and warts. All toads, except for the species of aga, a tropical species, are safe.
As a defense, amphibians in front of the enemy inflate the body, rise on their legs, increasing in size. A threatening pose makes it difficult to capture. Sometimes she even frantically jumps towards the enemy.
Toads are ubiquitous across continents. There are no amphibians only in the Arctic, Antarctic, Greenland. In Australia, where there were no amphibians before, the population of the most poisonous toad aga was artificially created.
The natural enemies of amphibians are birds of prey, reptiles, individual forest inhabitants. Toads can not resist many enemies - storks, herons, ibises, hedgehogs, snakes. High fertility saves them from extinction.
Food addiction to insects of all types allows the use of toads to "protect" crops from annoying pests. In some countries, amphibians are specifically cultivated for these purposes. Wild toad relocated to the summer cottage, in the presence of constant feed, takes root in one place, serves as the local "guard" of the crop.
Numerous species of toads settled everywhere. In Eurasia, about a third of the varieties of amphibians live. In Russia, you can find six species of toads.
Common toad (gray). Large amphibian, body length up to 13 cm, widespread, more known than other species. The color is predominantly gray-brown from above, with variations of dark spots. Below are yellowish shades, often with a darker marble pattern. The eyes with horizontal pupils are bright orange.
Toad is found in forests of all kinds, steppe zones, inhabits dry areas at an altitude of 3000 m. Often appears on recently plowed fields, in parks, in garden areas. Neighborhood with a man does not frighten a toad; she inhabits old buildings as shelters. In addition to Russia, ordinary toad inhabits in Europe, northwestern regions of Africa.
Green toad. The camouflage color is as if created by the artist - large dark olive spots with a black stripe bordering are scattered on a gray background. In addition, small reddish specks are scattered throughout the tuberous body. Body length is 5-8 cm.
Due to undeveloped hind limbs, the amphibian rarely jumps, more often it moves with slow walking. For habitat selects open areas of fields, meadows, river floodplains. It is found at altitudes of up to 4500 m. The plasticity of living in different places reflects a low susceptibility to negative environmental factors.
Far Eastern toad. In Russia, amphibian lives on Sakhalin, in Transbaikalia. Unlike many relatives, it settles in biotopes with high humidity - in flood meadows, river floodplains. Large tubercles on the back are equipped with small spikes.
Three wide dark longitudinal stripes adorn the outfit of the toad, at the end they are torn into separate large spots. Abdomen gray-yellow with small specks. Body length is 6-10 cm.
Caucasian toad (colchic). Among the species living in Russia, the largest amphibian is a body length of up to 15 cm. It is found only in the regions of the Western Caucasus. Prefers to settle in mountain forests, foothills.
The color of the upper part is from gray to dark brown, spots are weakly expressed. The abdomen is much lighter. The abundance is significantly affected by the preservation of the habitat, the spread of the main enemy - the raccoon-raccoon.
Reed toad (smelly). Color varies in gray-greenish scale. A strip of yellowish tint passes through the back. It features a developed throat resonator. There are no spines on the tubercles. The size is quite large - up to 8-9 cm. It is more often found along the banks of water bodies, marshy lowlands, in places with wet bushes.
Mongolian toad. The warty skin of females does not have spikes; males are armed with prickly growths. The color is quite spectacular - spots of saturated brown color of different geometries are located on a gray-beige background of the upper body. A bright band passes through the middle part. Mongolian toads live on the coast of Lake Baikal, in Buryatia. Outside Russia, it is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, the foothills of Tibet.
In a variety of species of toads, unique amphibians are found, which are on the verge of extinction. Representatives of rare amphibians can sometimes be seen on the territory of individual geographical zones or in zoos.
Kihanxi squirrel toad. The habitat of the smallest toad was along the Kihansi River in Tanzania. The construction of the dam destroyed the amphibian natural habitat. Conservation of the species is supported only in the territories of zoos. Toad in the photo striking miniature - the size does not exceed a coin of 5 rubles. Color yellow, sunny hue.
Conish toad. The species is preserved only in the southeastern United States. A characteristic feature, reflected in the name, is manifested in the presence of large swelling behind the eyes of an amphibian. Individuals up to 11 cm long, color varies from brown, green to gray-yellow tones. Warts are usually one tone darker than the main background. Toad settles on sandstones, semi-desert places.
Cricket toad. It differs in a modest size, body length of only 3-3.5 cm. Brown-black tubercles on the skin of juicy green color. The abdomen is creamy. The view is preserved in Mexico.
Blomberg Toad. The length of the adult reaches 25 cm. A rare species on the verge of extinction. Small individuals are found in the tropics of Colombia.
Lifestyle & Habitat
Toad - Amphibian a creature that lives mainly on land - from swampy shores to arid semi-deserts. Ponds attract most amphibians during breeding, for laying eggs. Some species, for example, ansonia, are semi-aquatic, and there are tree toads living on trees.
They prefer solitary existence, gather in groups with an abundance of food, in the mating season. Amphibian activity is manifested at night, during the day the toads hide in secluded places - among stones, animal burrows, earthen depressions among the roots of plants.
In cloudy weather, toads can be found during the day. Proximity to humans does not bother them, they can climb into buildings, basements. In dark areas illuminated by electricity at night, toads gather for hunting - to catch insects.
Winter wild toad conducts in hibernation, into which it immerses at lower temperatures, 6-8 ° C. Duration is approximately 150 days. The nooks of the toad find different, depending on climatic conditions - under fallen leaves, deep burrows, voids, cracked rocks, abandoned buildings. They hibernate singly or in groups. Awakening occurs when air is warmed up to 8-10 ° C, water 3-5 ° C.
Hunts and eats a toad on the ground. Most of the diet consists of insects, soil animals - larvae, spiders, worms, millipedes, slugs. Variety in the diet is made by mollusks, fish fry, small rodents, lizards.
Various garden pests, including Colorado beetles, are objects of toad hunting. Amphibians respond to the movement of victims, attack from an ambush. For gardeners, gardeners, toads become wonderful helpers, biological protection for plants.
Reproduction and longevity
The methods of propagation of toads of different species are different. The vast majority of amphibians inherent in external fertilization. Males with the help of a special resonator reproduce invocation sounds. Different types of voice bags are located behind the ears or on the throat of amphibians. Females appear at the calls of males at ponds. Amphibians spawn in still or running water.
The arms of males are so illegible that besides females they sometimes capture chips and fish. After fertilization, the female lays thousands of eggs, from 1,500 to 7,000 eggs, connected into long cords of mucus. They braid underwater plants, spread along the bottom of the reservoir. The length of the cords is 8-10 meters. After complete spawning, the toads return to shore.
Embryonic development lasts up to 5 to 20 days, sometimes up to 2 months, depending on the temperature of the reservoir. Then larvae appear, the development of which lasts about a month and a half. Outwardly, they look like fish fry, as they do not have limbs.
Each larva gradually turns into a tadpole, the size of which is up to 40% of the adult amphibian. Then a young tailless toad. After completion of the metamorphosis, juveniles leave the pond and get out to land. The movement of toads along the coast occurs day and night, so they can often be seen at this stage of life. Amphibians become sexually mature at the age of 2-4 years.
In Europe, there are species of toads, where the care of the offspring is assigned to the male. His mission is to sit in a hole with ribbons of eggs on the legs for the time being until the tadpoles hatch. In Africa, there is a rare viviparous toad, which bears offspring for about 9 months.
Content toad at home
Unpretentious amphibians have become popular for home maintenance in terrariums. Horizontal amphibian aquariums are placed in shaded places, away from loud sounds. Expanded clay, gravel are used as soil, a shelter, a small pool from a water tank are installed.
The appetite of toads is always excellent. In captivity, slugs, cockroaches, crickets, and special food from a pet store usually become their food. The factor of movement of prey is important for the inhabitants of the terrarium, therefore large toads prefer mice, young rats, chicks, and frogs. Amphibians catch insects with a sticky tongue, and larger objects with jaws.
Some pets are so tamed that they take food from the hands of the owner. Toad at home with proper maintenance, lives long, pleases the owners for several decades. Depending on the species, 25-30 years is not the limit for amphibians. The record holder among the centenarians was a 40-year-old toad.
How is a toad different from a frog?
The outward resemblance, the general characteristics of cold-blooded creatures are the reasons why frogs and toads are confused. Differences between them are observed in the structure of the body, habits, habitat. The reproductive ability of frogs is much higher.
Frogs, unlike toads, jumping creatures, are good at swimming. The short legs of the toads do not allow you to develop speed, so they are quiet pedestrians. The skin of frogs without tubercles inherent in toads is smooth.
It does not require hydration, in contrast to the dry and keratinized surface of the body of toads. Frogs can always be seen at a reservoir, toads - earthly inhabitants. Many frogs and toads cause dislike. But the study of their populations opens up many positive points for the preservation of a normal ecosystem.
About the authors
Natalia Borisovna Ananyeva - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Herpetology and Deputy Director of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg). His research interests are biogeography, ecology, morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, the evolution of amphibians and reptiles of Eurasia.
Nikolay Lyutsianovich Orlov - Candidate of Biological Sciences, senior researcher of the same department. He is engaged in the study of biodiversity, ecology, systematics, phylogeny and the protection of the fauna of amphibians and reptiles of the Palearctic and Southeast Asia.
Roger Bour - Doctor of Science (DSc), employee of the laboratory of amphibians and reptiles of the Department of Systematics and Evolution of the National Museum of Natural History (Paris, France). Specialist in the field of taxonomy, evolution, genetics and the protection of the fauna of reptiles, in particular turtles.
Traveling through the vast Asian territories of Russia and neighboring countries, N. M. Przhevalsky, V. I. Roborovsky, P. K. Kozlov, G. N. Potanin, N. A.Zarudny and many of our compatriots have gained worldwide fame for outstanding geographical, botanical and zoological research. Many species of plants and animals, mountain peaks and other geographical objects were named in their honor. For example, the name of Przhevalsky is a cave near the city of Nakhodka, a rock mass in the Partizanskaya river basin, a ridge in Tibet, a glacier in Altai, as well as animal species (horse, pestle, foot and mouth disease, etc.) and plants (rhododendron, buzulnik, thyme, conifer and etc.).
Another Russian traveler, Nikolai Alekseevich Zarudny, also enjoys deserved respect among zoologists. Of all his many expeditions, he brought animals (birds, amphibians, reptiles, etc.), most of which replenished the collections of the Zoological Museum in St. Petersburg, some of which became typical specimens of species new to science, the name of which uses the name collector. The recognition of Zarudny's merits (along with F. de Filippi and W. T. Blanford) is reflected in the book of the famous American herpetologist S.K. Anderson, in which a photograph of Nikolai Alekseevich adorns a page dedicated to the three field zoologists who laid the foundation for scientific research of the herpetofauna of Iran.
Although historically our country, unlike the European colonial powers (Great Britain, France, Germany), did not organize large-scale trips to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia, Russian scientists of the past century made a significant contribution to the study of the biological diversity of these regions, and in particular Vietnam 2, 3 With that, with great interest we will recognize Russian names in the names of amphibians described in the middle of the 20th century. one of the most famous and competent experts in the study of the Indochina fauna is the Frenchman Rene Bure and the fauna of India is the Englishman Malcolm Smith.
It is well known that the names are given by the authors of descriptions either on a geographical basis, or in honor of researchers, travelers and collectors of materials, or using a Latin or Greek translation of the names of the most characteristic features of the described species. There are many examples related to each of the three categories in the names of frogs in Southeast Asia. Among their enormous diversity, we came across two names associated with Russian surnames, the origin of which we tried to find out.
In 1941, Bure described a new species of frog, calling it Rana toumanoffi in honor of Konstantin Alexandrovich Tumanov - a French doctor and biologist of Russian origin. He was born on August 10, 1903 in St. Petersburg, and then lived in the Irkutsk province (Eastern Siberia), where his father served as a lawyer in a court of cassation. During the October Revolution, Konstantin Tumanov was a gymnasium student, and during the Civil War he was a student of the medical faculty of Irkutsk University. At that time, professor Vladimir Timofeevich Shevyakov, an outstanding Russian zoologist, corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences (later RAS and USSR Academy of Sciences) taught (taught laboratory classes in medical zoology and parasitology). As far back as 1888, he was awarded the gold medal of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Heidelberg (Germany) for the competitive work on the structure of the organs of vision of jellyfish performed in Naples, and in 1889 the highest degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the same university. At home in Russia, from 1894 Shevyakov was a privat-docent, in 1896 received a doctorate in zoology for his dissertation "Morphology and Systematics Infusoria Aspirotricha”And was immediately appointed extraordinary, and in 1899 an ordinary professor of zoology at St. Petersburg University and until 1911 he headed the zootomy cabinet, which he completely reorganized. His students became famous scientists - V. A. Dogel, M. N. Rimsky-Korsakov, S. V. Averintsev, V. N. Beklemishev, Yu. A. Filipchenko, etc. Since 1911, Vladimir Timofeevich held a high position ( Comrade Minister) at the Ministry of Education and played a large role in the development of higher education in Russia. He was one of the founders of the Imperial Women's Pedagogical Institute (now Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen), where until 1917 he taught zoology, as well as the first higher educational institution in the Urals - Perm University. In 1918, on business matters, he went to the Urals, where he was caught by the Civil War. Vladimir Timofeevich has not returned to Petrograd. With parts of the retreating army of A.V. Kolchak, he ended up in Irkutsk, and from 1919 until the end of his life he held the position of professor at Irkutsk University *, among whose students was Tumanov.
The cover of the journal and the personal list of personnel of the medical faculty of the Irkutsk University for 1922. Number 130 is the name of K. Tumanov
In the years 1922-1923. persecution of students of “non-proletarian” origin began in the country, and together with a stream of emigrants, the Mists left for Manchuria, where he entered the School of Medicine in Harbin. However, he soon decided to go to France, and the fate of the Irkutsk student Shevyakov was forever connected with the famous Paris Institute. Pasteur. From its founding in 1887 to the present, it is one of the world leaders in the study of infectious diseases, including tropical ones, and in the development of vaccines. In the years 1923-1926. Tumanov worked in the medical service of Professor F. Mesni, whose scientific path began in 1892 in the laboratory of another of our compatriots, I. I. Mechnikov, Nobel Prize in Biology and Medicine in 1908. Tumanov took the post of assistant S.I. Metalnikov, and in this, probably, the previous professional contacts of Metalnikov played a role. He studied at the natural sciences department of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University and, as a zoologist, specialized in the zootomy room under Professor N. P. Wagner, and since the fall of 1894, V. V. Shevyakov, who, recall, was Head of Tumanov at Irkutsk University. In 1919, Metalnikov with his family was forced to leave Russia from Crimea along the traditional route of emigrants, through Constantinople to Paris. The director of the Pasteur Institute, Emil Roux, knowing about the scientific merits of Metalnikov, suggested that he lead one of the laboratories. The first scientific work of Tumanov was devoted to the problems of immunity and diseases of insects, in particular bees. In those same years, he completed his education at the University of Paris, received a bachelor's degree. Scholarships from the University and the Rockefeller Foundation made it possible to work at the world famous zoological station in Naples. In 1933, Konstantin Alexandrovich received French citizenship. In 1930–1946 He headed the Laboratory of Medical Entomology and the Indochina Department of the Pasteur Institute. In the years 1932-1933. Tumanov participated in organizing the fight against malaria and delivered a lecture course on disease-transmitting insects at the Medical School in Hanoi. In 1938–1939 in the same city, he taught beekeeping at the Higher Agricultural School. Tumanov also gave lectures on methods for controlling malaria vectors in China and the Philippines. In 1936, Tumanov defended a dissertation at the Sorbonne for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences on malaria mosquitoes of the Far East. After the end of World War II, at the invitation of the Rockefeller Foundation, he visited the United States to master modern pest control methods. In 1953, Tumanov headed the Medical Entomology and Insect Pathology Service, devoting many years to the development of biological control methods for harmful insects and the study of their diseases, and also studied fish diseases. In 1956–1958 Tumanov created missions to fight malaria and filariasis in French Guinea. In 1967, Constantine died in Paris at the age of 64.
While working at the Higher Agricultural School in Hanoi and the Pasteur Institute in Saigon, the Mists often met with Rene Bure. On trips to Indochina, he collected amphibians and reptiles for him in the vicinity of Hanoi, in Tam Dao (Tonkin, Vinfuk, Vietnam), in the Kep and Mimo region (Cambodia), in Dalat (southern Annam) and in southern Vietnam (Kohinhin): Saigon, Chadoke, Baria and Kwan Loy. In 1944, Tumanov described a new species of tick, naming it after the French herpetologist - Aponomma bourreti.
Among the amphibians found in Past was a new species of frogs, which Bure described in honor of his colleague. In the etymology of the new name, the author of the description indicated that it was dedicated to the doctor of natural sciences Tumanov from the Pasteur Institute in Saigon. A colonial specimen was originally stored at this institute, then in the laboratory of natural sciences of the University of Hanoi, and is now among the specimens of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris.
Currently, the Tumanov frog belongs to the tailless amphibians of the Dicroglossidae family. The species was originally described as representative of the genus. Rana , and subsequently as a result of taxonomic revisions and phylogenetic studies was considered as part of childbirth Euphlyctis and then Limnonectes — L. toumanoffi. In the course of further nomenclature work and the taxonomic revision of the group, it was found that this species was previously described by M. A. Smith under the name Buret. Rana dabanus (typical territory: Daban, 200 m above sea level, Langbian plateau, South Annam, Vietnam). For this reason, the frog, the range of which covers areas of eastern Cambodia and southern Vietnam, now has a different name - Limnonectes dabanus . It lives in the Mekong and Krong rivers, and in Vietnam it is found in the provinces of Daklak, Lamdong and Binfok.
In Daklak province, we found these medium-sized frogs (males about 55 mm long, females about 53 mm) in the territories of Yokdon National Parks (300–400 m above sea level) and Chuyangsin (700–900 m above sea level) In Yokdon, in rain puddles in a forest on the banks of the Krong River and on the banks of its tributary, overgrown with high reeds, the small river Daken running at the foot of Yokdon Mountain, we met singing males and mature females in May-June. In the forest, small, swampy streams in Chuyangsin, we met vocalizing males and mating (in amplexus) individuals in April-May. But in the Binfyok province in the Buzyamap national park (about 300 m above sea level), in the swampy floodplain of a forest stream, males actively sang already in the midst of monsoon rains (in July). Vocalizing males zealously guard the selected and “tidied up” territory in a shallow area. After laying the eggs, the female leaves the spawning area, and the male guards the clutch until the tadpoles exit. Like many other species of the genus LimnonectesTumanov’s frog has a huge massive head, which is used as a ram in mating battles. Females have significantly smaller heads, without frightening outgrowths.
Typical habitat of a frog Tumanova. Male (bottom left) of this species in comparison with the female looks awesome - a huge head with outgrowths serves as a ram in mating fights. Hereinafter photo N. N. Orlova
Oleg Vladimirovich Polunin, the second Russian-born researcher to whom the species of amphibians from South Asia (Nepal) was named, is known as an English botanist, teacher and traveler. He was born on November 28, 1914 in the town of Chekendon near Reading in a family of artists. The Russian father, Vladimir Yakovlevich Polunin (1880–1957), and his English mother, Elizabeth Violet Hart (1880–1950), along with prominent artists of the World of Art, took part in the decoration of the productions of the famous Russian Diaghilev Ballet, which beginning of XX century enjoyed noisy success in France and the UK. The family had four children, three sons, Nikolai, Oleg and Ivan, became outstanding people. The eldest son, Nikolai Polunin (1909–1997) - as a botanist, polar explorer and traveler - stood at the origins of the creation of environmental science. The younger, Ivan Polunin, who survived to the present day (1920–2010), was a doctor, naturalist, and cinematographer who left an invaluable collection of documents, photographs and films about Southeast Asia in the middle and last third of the last century. In 1950-1970 He taught medicine at universities in the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia.
Oleg Polunin was a school teacher by education and main occupation. After completing his studies at St. Magdalene College in Oxford and receiving a master's degree in biology in 1938, he taught at the Charterhouse school in Godalming (Surrey in southern England) for more than 30 years. During the Second World War, Polunin served in the military intelligence of Great Britain, which was associated with travel to East Asia. A long (since 1943) and happy marriage with Laura Wenning was a solid foundation for his successful work and travels. Upon returning to the Charterhouse in 1946, Oleg Vladimirovich enthusiastically returned to his students and teaching biology. An important feature of post-war training at the Charterhouse was the organization of summer biologist camps, led by the Polunin couple. Together with the children, Ivan and Natasha, they conducted classes in various counties of Great Britain, which allowed deep immersion in the study of the natural history of these places. Observations led to a floristic inventory and mapping of many plant species. Polunin's professional reputation and his collaboration with renowned British botanists prompted George Taylor (deputy curator of the Department of Botany of the British Museum) to invite Polunin as a botanist on the expedition of Major G.W. Tilman to Nepal in 1949. Three years later, Oleg Vladimirovich visited this country again. as part of an expedition organized by the British Museum and the Royal Horticultural Society. Subsequently, he traveled to Turkey (1954, 1956), Kashmir (1956), Iraq (1958), Lebanon (1959) and Karakoram (1960, with the Anglo-American expedition), collecting herbarium materials, living plants and their seeds. Polunin received an interesting opportunity for further travels when he took up scientific tourism. In particular, he, along with Anthony Huxley, conducted botanical excursions for tourists visiting numerous archaeological sites in Greece. Such tours took place in the eastern Mediterranean, especially the Greek islands, as well as in Kashmir and Nepal in the Himalayas.
The results of distant wanderings and floristic studies resulted in the preparation and publication of the famous series of field identifiers “Flowers of the Mediterranean” (1965, co-authored with E. Huxley), “Flowers of Europe” (1969), “Flowers of the South-West of Europe” (1973, co-authored with B. Smithy), “Flowers of Greece and the Balkans” (1980), “Flowers of the Himalayas” (1984, co-authored with A. Stanton). His book has become a classic guide not only for specialists, but also for numerous amateur nerds, schoolchildren and travelers. According to the memoirs of J. R. Ekeyroyd, a student of Polunin, Oleg Vladimirovich inherited artistic talent from his parents and showed himself not only as a natural scientist, but also as an artist passionately passionate about the aesthetics of the plant world. Remarkable tables of figures and color photographs in the identifiers, made mainly by the author himself, set a new high standard for publications of this type.
Frog Polunin - an inhabitant of high mountain forest streams
In Great Britain, Polunin's achievements in both botany and scientific photography were awarded medals and prizes, including from the Royal Horticultural Society (1962) and the London Linnaeus Society (1983). Plant species are named after the scientist (for example, Saxifraga poluninii and Primula poluninii), and also a frog found by him in 1949 during an expedition to Nepal - Rana poluninidescribed in 1951 by M.A. Smith. In this expedition, mainly botanical and ornithological collections were collected, as well as small but very interesting herpetological materials, which Smith was analyzing. In addition to a new species of frogs, in the studied territory in Langtang Himal and Ganesh Himal on the border with Tibet were found and collected Bufo (duttaphrynus) himalayanus, Scutiger sikkimensis, Rana (Amolops) formosa, R. (Nanorana) liebigii, Calotes versicolor, Japalura tricarinata, Agama (laudakia) tuberculata, Mabuya (Eutropis) sp., Leiolepisma (Asymblepharus) sikkimense, Natrix (Amphiesma) platyceps, Oligodon erythrogaster, Trimeresurus albolabris. Type Series Rana polunini, represented by two males (holotype and paratype), is stored in the British Museum of Natural History in London.
The frog Polunin - medium-sized (about 51 mm in length) amphibian - is distributed in the border areas of Nepal, southern Tibet (China) and, possibly, in Kashmir (India) at altitudes of 2100-3990 m above sea level. m. After Smith's description, the species was assigned to the genus Paa, currently - to the genus Nanorana (family Dicroglossidae).
In the XXI century. the names of Russian researchers reappeared in the names of Asian amphibians, for example, Vietnamese copepod frogs from the family Rhacophor> **. In Vietnam, there are more than 50 species that belong to 10 genera. They occupy different ecological niches and achieve maximum diversity in tropical monsoon mountain and lowland forests at altitudes from sea level to more than 2500 m above sea level. m. These amphibians are perfectly adapted to the arboreal lifestyle. Among copepods, there are flying (more precisely, planning) forms in which well-defined membranes are developed between the fingers of the front and hind limbs. At the time of the jump, the frog spreads its fingers, inflates the body and easily plans, sometimes at distances of up to 10–12 m. Almost all species constantly (or mainly) live on trees, occupying various heights - from coastal thickets of forest ponds and streams to the upper tier of the forest. Some species (or forms) leave trees or shrubs only for propagation or wintering, others never leave their usual habitats, finding places for laying eggs here (as a rule, these are species with direct development, i.e., without the water stage of the tadpole) .
Planning flight of a copepod frog R. dennysi
Birth frogs Chiromantis, Ghatixalus, Rhacophorus and Polypedates they build nests at different heights above the surface of the water: on trees and shrubs, grassy vegetation, on soil or on rocks along the banks of water bodies. In these nests, tadpoles develop from eggs, which then fall into the body of water, where they live up to metamorphosis. Some frogs (Rhacophorus kio, R. reinwardti, R. maximus, R. annamensis, R. exechopygus, R. rhodopus, R. robertingeri, R. bipunctatus, R. dulitensis, R. prominatus, R. dennysiias well as types of complex Polypedates leucomystax) build nests near the coastline of the reservoir, where they should be washed off by showers. If this does not happen, the clutch dries and dies, but the frogs continue to build new nests and lay eggs in them until they wait for heavy rains. The death of a large number of such nests is a payment for procreation, for the potential superiority of tadpoles getting into water bodies and, accordingly, a potential development advantage.
Most frogs give birth Feihyla, Kurixalus, Liuixalus, Philautus lay large white-yellow eggs on the leaves of trees, shrubs or herbaceous plants (aroid, ginger) hanging over the water, and sometimes on leaf litter, tree bark, sand or stones near a water edge. Only frogs with direct development are not needed ponds; completely formed frogs immediately appear from their eggs. Representatives of the genus Gracixalus (partially, Philautus) hang several large eggs in the form of clusters of flowing gelatinous drops on the edges of the leaves or their back side above the pond. In this case, the larvae fall directly into the water and continue development in the pond.
In honor of the St. Petersburg zoologists (employees of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ZIN), for many years studying the herpetofauna of Vietnam, two species of the genus were named Rhacophorus, which includes more than 80 species, striking a variety of sizes, shapes and colors. One of them was described in 2001 by German herpetologists T. Ziegler and J. Koehler and named R. orlovi (named after the second authors of these lines, who began his Indo-Chinese studies with I.S. Darevsky in the 80s of the last century). Typical Territory R. orlovi - low humid forest reserve Ke Guo at an altitude of 350 m above sea level. m. in the province of Hachin in the south of North Vietnam. This interesting species, related to a complex taxonomically complex species "Hoanglienensis - orlovi", inhabits the northern and central regions of the country to the province of Daklak in the south and adjacent areas of Laos. This small size (body length of males up to 38 mm, females up to 50 mm), the frog is quite rare in the north of the range - in the provinces of Tonkin and in the south of the range - in the provinces of Daklak, Zyalai and Kwangnam, is known from single finds. Type Series R. orlovi (holotype and 23 paratypes) is stored in museums in Germany and the USA: Zoological Institute and A. Koenig Museum in Bonn, Endangered Species Breeding Center, San Diego Zoo, Museum of Natural History in Dresden and Zoological Museum of A. Humboldt University in Berlin.
After several years of research, Rakoforus Orlova turned out to be a model species in the development of herpetoculture, for which laboratory breeding methods have been successfully developed, the procedure for the structure of foam nests and the development of larvae has been described. In the mountain forests of the Annam Range (the provinces of Kwangchi, Kwangbin, Ngean, Khatin, Thanh Hoa and Ninbin), the species is quite common and forms very dense populations in the valleys of fast streams at heights of 200–1700 m. It is especially numerous in forest valleys of karst streams where reproduction is noted in April-June. In the mating season, singing males occupy positions on shrub branches and rocks 1–20 m from the water stream. Up to 15 males and three females sometimes gather on the coastline 100 m long. Frogs build foam nests on rocks and vegetation overhanging water.
Copepod frogs: pair Rhacophorus exechopygus in the amplexus (left) and the female R. kiobusy building a nest
Copepod frog nest
Recall that usually in copepod frogs of this genus, pairs, being in the amplexus, go down, select a site for the nest and begin to build it. The nest is mounted either on the soil at the water's edge, or on the rocky walls of the canyon near the water edge, or on the branches or trunk of a tree above the water. The male does not take part in the construction of the nest; the female does this work. She whips a horny limb with a foam lump from a secret secreted by special skin glands and simultaneously lays 200-300 eggs, which are immediately fertilized by a male sitting on her back. The nest of large species is 18–20 cm in diameter. Larvae hatch from the eggs for 4–7 days, the nest gradually breaks up, and the tadpoles fall into the water, where they are to develop. In rainy weather, the process of decay of the nest and leaching of larvae occur faster. Sometimes nests are built over temporary forest puddles, which dry up when there is not enough rain, and tadpoles die long before metamorphosis.
Second kind of genus Rhacophorus described last year and named for the employee of the herpetology department Larisa Johansen - R. larissae . This forest species was found at an altitude of 1400 m above sea level. m. on the steep hillsides, and also probably found in the adjacent Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. Data on his biology is still insufficient. A typical copy is stored in ZIN.
In 2004, another species of copepods was described and named Chirixalus ananjevae (by the name of the first author of the article, for the past 19 years coordinating tropical herpetological studies of the institute's employees) The holotype of the species (adult male) is stored at the University of Kyoto (Japan), and the paratype (adult female) is stored in ZIN. Ch. ananjevae - medium-sized (body length of males 32.5 mm, females 43.4 mm) copepod arboreal frogs were found in the south of North Vietnam, in the Wu Kwang reserve, in the Khao Kua region and Hachin province, so far there is nothing about their other habitats is unknown. This species has recently been attributed to the genus. Aquixalus or Kurixalus . Typical specimens (a pair in the amplexus) were found in June during a night excursion on a wide leaf of a plant at a considerable distance from water bodies. The female was filled with light unpigmented eggs with a diameter of 1.3–1.5 mm. Three more males were later found in Ngean province on Mount Fulailang, 1600 m above sea level. m
The genus Rhacophorinae also belongs to the subfamily Theloderma - one of the most amazing taxa of arboreal amphibians of the Old World. The fantastic shapes and colors can only be compared with tailless amphibians of Asian genera. Rhacophorus and Nyctixalus, as well as with some species of woody neotropical groups such as Hemiphractus, Anotheca, Tiprion and Phyllomedusa. In frogs of the genus Theloderma flattened body, most often covered with numerous tubercles and ridges. In addition, these frogs are characterized by very specific forms of reproductive and protective-demonstrative behavior. They choose unusual places for portion laying of large eggs - most often hollow trees and sometimes small caves in porous karst rock. Currently to kind Theloderma include 15–16 species distributed in the countries of Indochina, in southern China, in eastern India, in Sumatra and Borneo (Indonesia). All teloderms are characterized by great secrecy in nature, which makes them an extremely rare prey for researchers, and many species are still known in museum collections around the world literally in single copies. So, only since 1995, in various regions of Indochina, researchers, including the authors of this article, began to collect serial material for species known at that time (T. gordoni, T. stellatum, T. corticale, T. bicolor, T. horridum, T. leporosa), but so far about some species (T. phrynoderma, T. moloch, T. ryabovi, T. nagalandense) can be judged only by very few, usually only typical specimens 4, 15.
Ryabov's teloderm, or giant Contum teloderm (T. ryabovi), described in 2006 in honor of a herpetologist, an employee of the Moscow Zoo S. Ryabov. This large teloderm (body length of males - 43.84–54.89 mm, females - 58.97–64.58 mm) was found at an altitude of 1210 m above sea level. m. in Con Doo, in the Vietnamese village of Mang Kan (Konplong County, Kontum Province), where are the finds of many other new species. Holotype T. ryabovi stored in ZIN.
Teloderma Ryabova and her masonry
At an altitude of 1210 m in a multi-dominant rain forest, at a distance of about 100 m from the nearest permanent reservoir (forest cascade stream), on a gentle mountain slope there is a group of huge trees of the Fagaceae family. On these trees, we found teloderm in two hollows at an altitude of 8–9 m, in each of them there were harems T. ryabovi (adult male and two females). In 11 clutches obtained from these two groups of teloderms, we counted from 3 to 9 eggs, which were placed on a tree bark above water.
Finally, a description of yet another new species has just been published. It belongs to the genus Microhyla the family of Asian frogs Microhylidae, which is widely distributed in southern North America, in the northern and central parts of South America, in southern Africa and Madagascar, in subtropical and tropical mainland Asia, in the Indo-Australian archipelago, including New Guinea, and in Australia. An international team of researchers from Russia, Vietnam and Germany named a new species M. darevskii, in honor of I. S. Darevsky - an outstanding Soviet and Russian herpetologist, whose 90th anniversary we will celebrate in December this year. This species of narrow-frog was found in the vicinity of the Vietnamese village of Mang Xang (Kon Thum province) on the slope of Mount Ngok Lin (the central part of the Annam Mountains) at an altitude of about 1650 m above sea level. m. About the other habitats of this species is not yet known. Typical specimens are stored in the ZIN and Zoomuseum of Moscow State University.
The tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia are comparable to the tropics of South and Central America in terms of the biological diversity of the terrestrial fauna, but are clearly inferior in its degree of study. This is especially true of eastern Indochina. True, in the last 20 years, the scientific interest in the nature of this region (in particular, Vietnam) has increased significantly. As a result, it turned out, for example, that more than 40% of the amphibian species of mainland Southeast Asia are found in Vietnam, and the country's mountain ecosystems play a key role in preserving the biodiversity of all Southeast Asia. The mountain tropical forests of Vietnam also act as an independent faunal center with a high level of amphibian endemism (about 100 endemic species). It should be noted that these ecosystems are subject to an increasing threat of destruction. Due to the accelerating anthropogenic impact on the country's nature, the inventory and environmental ecology study of Vietnam lags far behind the rate of extinction of tropical (primarily primary) forests and their inhabitants. A significant part of narrowly endemic species disappears along with tropical forests even before their discoveries and descriptions. Rather small changes in hydrological regimes and solar insolation caused by cutting of dominant old trees in the primary forest, as the rarest and narrowly localized species irrevocably disappear. The rapid development of the country's economy and the optimization of the use and conservation of its biological resources require the study of all biota components, including the species and ecological wealth of amphibians as the most important component of rainforest primary tropical forests. An analysis of the species lists of Vietnam amphibians showed that in 1996, 82 species of amphibians were known, and in 2009, already 173. Thus, alpha diversity doubled over this time period. Over the past five years, the number of newly described forms from Southeast Asia continues to increase in an avalanche, and Russian zoologists, who have described more than 50 species of amphibians, actively participate in the study of biodiversity of fauna.
The results obtained and their analysis make an important contribution to improving knowledge of the rainforest fauna of Southeast Asia and the speciation processes of amphibians and reptiles, as well as the planning of measures to protect ecosystems of tropical forests. The results obtained by Russian researchers and their analysis have made an important contribution to improving knowledge of the rainforest fauna of Southeast Asia and speciation processes in amphibians and reptiles, as well as in planning measures for protecting tropical ecosystems in this region.
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3. Ananyeva N. B., Orlov N. L. A modern view of the biodiversity of tropical Asia: the contribution of Russian herpetologists // Vopr. herpetol. 2011. C. 7–16.
4. Orlov N.L., Ananyeva N. B. Amphibian of Southeast Asia // Tr. Zool. Institute of RAS. T. 309. SPb., 2007.
5. Bourret R. Notes herpetologiques sur l’Indochine française. XXII. Reptiles et batraciens recus au Laboratoire des Sciences naturelles de l’Universite au cours de l’annee 1941. Description d’une espece et d’une ariete nouvelles // Annex au Bulletin Général de l’Instruction Publique. Hanoi, 1941. P. 5–29.
6. Fokin S.I. Career of Professor Shevyakov. Karlsruhe - Heidelberg - St. Petersburg - Irkutsk // Russian-German relations in biology and medicine. St. Petersburg, 2001. S. 68–76.
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8. Akeroyd J. R. Obituary of Oleg Vladimirovich Polunin (1914–1985) // Watsonia. 1986. V. 16. P. 105-107.
9. Smith M. A. On a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Nepal // Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1951. Ser. 12. No. 4. P. 726–728.
10. Ziegler T., Köhler J. Rhacophorus orlovi sp. n., ein neuer Ruderfrosch aus Vietnam (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) // Sauria. 2001. V. 23. No. 3. P. 37–46.
11. Wildenhues M. J., Bagaturov M. F., Schmitz A. et al. Captive management and reproductive biology of Orlov’s Treefrog, Rhacophorus orlovi Ziegler & Köhler, 2001 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae), including larval description, color pattern variation and advertisement call // Zool. Garten N. F. 2011. V. 80. P. 287-303.
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13. Matsui M., Orlov N. L. A new species of Chirixalus from Vietnam (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with notes on the generic classification of the family // Zool. Sciences. 2004. V. 21. No. 6. P. 671–676.
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15. Orlov N. L., Ryabov S. A., Ananyeva N. B., Evsyunin A. A. Asian tree frogs of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorinae). SPb., 2010.
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* For more information about V. T. Shevyakov during his work at the University of Irkutsk, see the website "Encyclopedia-reader of the Irkutsk Region and Lake Baikal."
** Frost D. R. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. (January 9, 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
A list of girls names for the letter A
We bring to your attention a list of female names starting with the letter A and their meanings:
Ariana - Immaculate
Arieta is an honor
Arina - peace
Ariella - the lioness of God
Aria - Lioness
Arpi - the sun
Arpita - initiation
Artemis - unscathed
Aruzhan - the soul of beauty
Aryuna - Virgin
Asabi is the only one
Asami - morning beauty
Asel - Daisy
Asia - comforting
Asiyat - comforting
Asmira - the main princess
Assol - to the sun
Astra is a star
Astri is the supreme deity
Astrid is passionate
Asusena - Lily
Asyl - dear
Asya - Resurrecting
Athanasius - the immortal
Aulikki - Helpful
Aur - Gold
Outra - Dawn
Aushra - Dawn
Athena is the light
Aphrodite - foam
Atsuko is a good child
Asching is a dream
Ashkhen - heavenly
Aelita - air stone
Ayame - Iris Flower
Ayana - Charming
Ayaulym - my dear
Amphibians - These are the first vertebrate animals that were able to live on land, but also they did not part with the water element. Amphibians appeared about 350 million years ago. Their ancestors were ancient beetle fish. Amphibians are a large class of vertebrate animals. They number about 3.5 thousand species. Modern amphibians are divided into three orders:
Amphibians have many signs by which they are distinguished from other animals. These are vertebrates that have a head, trunk, limbs, and some species have a tail.
Fig. 1. The structure of amphibians (Source)
On the head is a pair of nostrils for breathing. There are eyes, they can be protected for centuries. There is a mouth. The skin is bare, moistened with mucus. Amphibians can breathe light as well as skin. Some species have gills.
The body temperature of these animals depends on the ambient temperature, so they are active only in warm weather. When the temperature drops, they immediately fall into a stupor. There are poisonous individuals in nature.
Amphibians reproduce, like fish, laying eggs. Eggs are not protected by shell or skin, therefore amphibians usually breed in water. A larva emerges from amphibian eggs, which looks very similar to fish. Further development takes place in water with a transformation - metamorphoses. Metamorphosis - This is a deep transformation of the structure of the body, transformation. Then future amphibians lose their gills, some individuals even their tail. Then they grow limbs and go to land in the form of an adult animal.
Amphibians eat exclusively mobile living food. They destroy a huge number of insects and their larvae. They are found everywhere, excluding only too cold or sultry zones of the Earth.
A squad of legless amphibians
Legless amphibians are the most ancient and survived to our times due to their underground lifestyle. They are in nature about 150 species. These include all tropical and many aquatic worms. These amphibians are distinguished by their unusual body structure. These amphibians have a worm-shaped cylindrical body. The skin is bare, equipped with mucous toxic glands. There are transverse rings, like earthworms. Animals have no limbs and tail. Their head is strong, small, imperceptibly passes into the body. Her worms are laying dungeons in the moist earth. In connection with the burrowing lifestyle, their eyes were under their skin. Amphibian food is sought by smell and touch. Eat snails, worms, larvae, insects. They lead a very hidden lifestyle, they do not like sunlight. The most famous is the ringed worm.
Fig. 2. Ringworm (Source)
Unlike other amphibians, they lay eggs on land. The female curls up around the egg laying and moisturizes it with her mucus, hatching.
The fish snake has small, invisible bone scales in the skin.
The Central American worm does not lay eggs, live cubs are immediately born from it.
Order of Tailed Amphibians
Science knows about 350 species caudate amphibians. These animals look like lizards, only the skin is soft and completely devoid of scales. Tailed amphibians include newts, salamanders. These animals have an elongated spindle-shaped body, which quietly passes into a long tail. Bending the tail left and right helps to move in the water. On land, amphibians move with the help of two pairs of underdeveloped limbs. Fingers may have membranes and lack claws.
Sirens have only forelimbs.
Amphibians constantly living in water breathe with gills. The tongue is in the mouth, its form is diverse. There are small teeth. Many caudate have the ability to grow a new one when they lose their tail or legs. Amphibians do not know how to chew, swallow whole food. Amphibians seize everything that moves, and do not take motionless forage quite suitable for food. Tailless amphibians feed on insects, grabbing them in motion with the help of a long sticky tongue. Tailed ones feed on worms and arthropods.
Legless amphibians find food by touch or use their sense of smell. They feed on insect larvae and worms.
Siberian coal-toothed is one of the few amphibians that is not afraid to live in permafrost.
Fig. 5. Siberian Coral Tooth (Source)
The most commonly known caudate amphibian is the newt. They look like little little dragons. Newts love to hunt at night.
Fiery salamander is famous for its bright color. It is interesting that the shape, size, pattern on the body of salamanders for each individual has its own unique.
Axolotl looks like an adult larva.
Order of tailless amphibians
In nature, there is the largest group of amphibians - these are tailless amphibians. They are about 3 thousand species. This is the most famous detachment to man. These include toads, frogs, tree frogs, toads, and garlic. Their body is short, squat. The head is wide, without a neck, passes into the body. There is no tail. Skin is bare, moisturized with secrets. There are a couple of moving eyes on the head. With the help of amphibian vision, prey is sought. There is a pair of nostrils. The forelimbs are shorter than the hind limbs. They have membranes that help swim. Amphibians jump on the ground, they lead an active lifestyle. Small teeth and sticky tongue, which develops in the mouth, help them catch prey.
The bull frog is a predator. She attacks even chickens and eats young ducklings. Her scream resembles the roar of a bull.
Surinamese pipa is famous for carrying tadpoles in cells on its back. Of these, adult frogs appear already.
Fig. 10. Suriname Pipa (Source)
The hairy frog is protected by sharp claws, like a cat's.
Fig. 11. Hairy Frog (Source)
A tiny Colombian frog fits in a teaspoon, and its poison is the strongest of animal poisons.
Fig. 12. Colombian Frog (Source)
Flying frogs deftly jump from the trees, spreading their membranes. This helps them stay in the air.
Fig. 13. Flying Frogs (Source)
Role in human life
Amphibians play a big role in human life. They destroy a huge number of insects, thereby benefiting agriculture. They also eat insects, which are carriers of diseases. Amphibians are also used in medical laboratory research. Man even breeds amphibians as a pet. In some countries, they are even eaten.
List of references
- Samkova V.A., Romanova N.I. The world around 1. - M .: Russian word.
- Pleshakov A.A., Novitskaya M.Yu. The world around 1. - M .: Education.
- Gin A.A., Fire S.A., Andrzheevskaya I.Yu. The world around 1. - M .: VITA-PRESS.
Additional recommended links to Internet resources
- Who are amphibians?
- How amphibians breed?
- What three detachments of amphibians emit? Describe each squad of amphibians.
- * Prepare a story about the most unusual and interesting, in your opinion, representative of the Amphibian class.
If you find an error or a broken link, please let us know - make your contribution to the development of the project.