Urolithiasis in cats is a fairly common dangerous pathology, often leading to the death of an animal. With the early detection of symptoms of the disease and the timely adoption of therapeutic measures, one can hope for a favorable outcome. In advanced cases, hospitalization of the animal and surgical intervention are required, which do not always end with a positive result. In this regard, each owner of such a pet should know what are the signs of urolithiasis in cats, and when they appear immediately take appropriate measures.
What is urolithiasis?
Urolithiasis (it is also called "urolithiasis") is a disease that is manifested by the appearance of calculi (stones) in the organs responsible for the formation, accumulation and excretion of urine (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra). The stones in the organs of the urinary system can take the form of fine and coarse-grained, powdery urinary sand, as well as stones of various sizes.
Representatives of the cat family, as a rule, form such types of calculi as struvites and oxalates. The former have a solid structure and are formed in an alkaline medium, the latter, which are characterized by pointed edges and a loose structure, arise under conditions of increased acidity.
How does urolithiasis manifest in cats?
The danger of this disease lies in the fact that in the early stages it is asymptomatic. Meanwhile, the animal from the first moments of the formation of stones or sand in the bladder begins to experience unpleasant sensations of varying intensity. Initially, the symptoms of pathology are general in nature and are manifested by a decrease in appetite and lethargy of the pet. However, not every cat owner pays attention to these signs, attributing them to a short-term indisposition of a four-legged pet, thereby missing precious time and allowing the disease to go too far.
You can understand that a cat has urolithiasis by the following signs:
- ignoring the tray for animals - sick pets begin to go to the toilet in the wrong places,
- poor urine output, which may contain small grains of sand and blood,
- frequent false urges to empty the bladder, while the cat can make a plaintive meow, take a characteristic pose to facilitate the outflow of urine, show strong anxiety, often approach the tray,
- genital licking - this is how the pet tries to relieve pain and irritation,
- an increase in body temperature to 40–41 degrees,
- complete rejection of food,
- reduction of motor activity to a minimum and lack of response to external stimuli - a sick pet lies almost blank all day.
The following clinical symptoms are considered critical in the appearance of which the score is counted for minutes:
- tightening and strong abdominal enlargement,
- signs of intoxication on the background of stagnation of urine in the bladder,
- immobility - in this state the animal can no longer move on its own,
- the release of foam from the mouth,
- a sharp decrease in body temperature,
What you need to know about ICD in cats
Urolithiasis can also occur in cats and cats. Most often occurs in cats due to the structure of the urethra (narrow and curved in the form of the letter "S").
- overweight animals
- neutered cats
- long-haired breeds,
- unsterilized cats.
Sterilized cats get sick less often, unsterilized cats and those in which estrus does not end in pregnancy.In males, on the contrary, urolithiasis is more common in castrated cats than in uncastrated cats. It is believed that early castration changes the hormonal background, and this serves as a provoking factor in metabolic changes, and leads to a narrowing of the urethra.
The average age of the ICD is 6-7 years.
A disease is diagnosed when kidney stones in a cat or bladder have already formed. In cats, the disease begins to show redness of the urine (from the blood) and then problems with urination. The diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound.
There is no single cause for the disease. The main factor in the development of ICD is a high concentration of salts in the urine. The release of salts, in turn, is affected by feeding and metabolic processes in the body.
The causes of the development of the disease are very diverse, they can be divided into several groups:
- Species. Urolithiasis is quite rare in dogs, usually this disease can be found in cats. Due to evolutionary development, cats have more concentrated urine than dogs. This is due to their history, and lifestyle, and with many other factors. In concentrated urine, sand and stones form more easily.
- Anatomical Urolithiasis often affects cats than cats. The fact is that cats have a very narrow and winding urethra. Sand from the bladder cannot be completely washed out in the early stages of the disease, accumulates there and causes the formation of larger stones, which can clog the urethra and lead to serious complications. In cats, the urethra is shorter and wider.
- Feeding. There is a very widespread belief that feeding dry food leads to stones in the bladder. Fortunately, this is not a true statement. The appearance of urocrements is facilitated not by feeding dry food, but by limiting watering. That is, if your pet eats dry food, you must always provide him with fresh, clean drinking water in unlimited quantities. And in many dry food for cats added special components that prevent the occurrence of urolithiasis. A small amount of meat products in the diet, feeding from the table or low-quality products can lead to alkalization of urine and the formation of stones. Conversely, feeding the animal only meat helps increase the concentration of urea in the urine, which can also lead to urolithiasis.
- Watering. Water for drinking a pet must be of high quality. The high content of minerals in the water - phosphates, calcium and magnesium salts, can become another factor in the development of urolithiasis.
- Other diseases The urinary system is very well protected by immunity and specific anatomy from many problems. Breaking this delicate balance is not so easy. But hypothermia, stress, poor hygiene of the external genital organs can lead to various diseases of the urinary system. In this case, it is absolutely necessary to treat the pet on time and with high quality. An untreated disease can go into the chronic stage, and as a result become a favorable factor for the development of urolithiasis.
- Iodine deficiency. Lack of iodine in the body can lead to many diseases, including urolithiasis. This is especially important for the Chelyabinsk region, as the soil and water are poor in iodine. It is recommended to give iodine preparations to pets in courses, and take them yourself.
- Patience. Many cats will not go to the dirty tray, and most dogs refuse to spoil the house. And those and others often have to endure the whole day before the arrival of the owner. The longer and more often your pet has to endure, the more likely the development of urolithiasis and many other diseases of the urinary system.
- Obesity. Now you can often find fat dogs, and plump cats flooded the entire Internet. Obesity leads to so many serious health problems.Among others, it can indirectly cause urolithiasis. With obesity, the weight of the pet increases significantly and the need for water increases. But often a dog or cat simply cannot drink as much water as they require. A small amount of water leads to an increase in urine concentration, which in turn serves as a factor for the development of urolithiasis.
- Decreased immunity, stress, metabolic disorders, hypovitaminosis and much more can become a predisposing factor in the development of urolithiasis.
An impressive list, isn't it? Almost every pet falls into the risk zone - for some, the dog has to wait for the owner from work for more than 8 hours, for the other the cat does not like to drink water, and for the third, the cat, and this is enough to begin the prevention of urolithiasis.
What types of stones do cats have with ICD?
Basically, urinary stones in cats are represented by two types:
It is these two species that play the main role in the development of ICD in cats. Now their prevalence is the same.
It was noted that urolithiasis in cats is more common in struvite type, while in cats, oxalates are determined in 70%.
There are more and more cases when, with neutral acidity of the urine, struvite and oxalates are formed simultaneously. It is much more difficult to cure a mixed type of disease.
There are other types of uroliths:
- pyrophosphates of potassium and magnesium.
Diagnosis and treatment of these species are the same as with struvite and oxalate.
Causes of struvite in a cat
Phosphorus salts are involved in the formation of struvites or phosphates. Struvite stones usually have the form of a circle, oval or tetrahedron. Mostly localized in the bladder.
The main predisposing factors for calculus formation:
- Feeding. A diet dominated by foods with high levels of magnesium and low in protein and fat contributes to the formation of uroliths. Supplements that alkalize urine, low calorie feed, and low moisture content increase the risk of getting sick.
- Infectious diseases. Struvitis caused by infection is rare and more common in kittens (up to 1 year old) and older animals (over 10 years old).
- Age, gender, breed. Feline breeds with long hair such as Persian, Himalayan, oriental, ragdolls are predisposed to urolithiasis. And vice versa, in Russian blue, Siamese, Abyssinian, Burmese cats, struvite-type MKB is much less common.
- Lifestyle. At risk are animals with extra pounds, castrates, leading a sedentary lifestyle, consuming little fluid. It is noted that cats with constant access to the street are less likely to suffer from ICD.
By average, struvites in the urine of a cat are formed at the age of 2-6 years.
Conditions of occurrence
In order for struvites to form, 3 conditions must correspond:
- The main reason is a high level of concentration in the urine of the components that make up the stones (magnesium, phosphate, ammonium). The higher the level, the faster the formation of urolite.
- Struvites in urine are formed if there is a base (core) around which sand and crystals accumulate. According to a number of observations, desquamated epithelial cells, bacteria, threads from the suture (in case of surgery) can serve as such a basis.
- Urine acidity. Struvites are more often formed in an alkaline environment (pH is greater than 7). The risk of stone formation at a pH of less than 6.4 is reduced. Such acidity contributes to the dissolution of existing stones. However, crystals or stones are found in a neutral environment. Therefore, bringing urine to a neutral or acidic level may not be the only way to cure urolithiasis.
The process of formation of uroliths in the ICD, if it started, is very fast. Otherwise, the crystals would be washed out with urine and did not have time to turn into stones.
Causes of oxalates in a cat
Oxalate stones are composed of calcium salts and have an irregular shape with sharp edges. The formation of oxalates occurs with acidic urine and high calcium. The latter is associated with endocrine diseases or calcium supplementation. The risk of occurrence increases if the pet consumes foods with low levels of potassium and sodium and low quality industrial feed.
There is a predisposition to the oxalate type of urolithiasis in cats of the following breeds:
- British Shorthair,
- Scottish lop-eared,
More often, oxalate stones are diagnosed after the age of 7 years.
Symptoms of kidney stones
Kidney stone is located in the kidneys and / or ureters (nephrolithiasis). In cats, this type of disease occurs in 5% of cases, is asymptomatic or is manifested by the following symptoms:
- soreness when palpating in the kidneys,
- blood in the urine
- wilted condition
- loss of appetite,
- the cat may lick excessively in the kidney area.
However, these signs are not characteristic only for the ICD. The animal may experience rapid and difficult urination, unquenchable thirst, weight loss, vomiting, and salivation. Therefore, to make a diagnosis, you need to do an x-ray of the kidneys.
If there is a blockage of the ureter of one kidney, then the damage to the second kidney is also characteristic of cats - renal failure develops.
Symptoms of bladder stones
If the stones in the cat’s bladder do not clog the urethra and do not have sharp edges, then for a long time they do not make themselves felt. Very often, formations are detected by chance in the diagnosis of another disease. This is especially true for struvites having a smooth surface. So a smooth urolite with a diameter of 2 cm may not manifest itself and not disturb the pet. Oxalates have an uneven surface, rub against the mucosa, which leads to its irritation and inflammation.
If the symptoms of urolithiasis manifest themselves, then often the owner does not notice them, since cats prefer to go to the litter box in solitude.
The first signs by which you can understand that the cat has problems:
- visits to the toilet became more frequent
- began to urinate in the wrong place,
- urine is stained due to blood,
- discomfort in the animal during urination is noticeable,
- cats begin to lick their genitals more actively to facilitate going to the toilet.
Signs of urolithiasis in cats can periodically appear and disappear. However, without treatment, they will not disappear for good.
Reasons to consult a veterinarian:
- The frequency of going to the toilet increases, and the portion of urine is small, only drop by drop can be released. The cat practically does not leave the toilet. Accepts unnatural poses, is hunched over.
- Urging to urinate causes pain.
- Blood in urine is clearly visible.
- Strong, unnatural thirst.
- Sharp weight loss.
- Depressed state.
In severe IBD, a complete blockage of the urethra (urethra) occurs. A calculus or cork, consisting of many crystals, block the channel, the cat cannot go small.
Cats do not have complete urethral obstruction, only cats.
Due to stagnation of urine and damage to the bladder mucosa with stones, inflammation and the spread of infection to the kidneys can occur. Vomiting begins, a thick, viscous saliva appears in the corners of the mouth, kidney failure, dehydration, poisoning of the body develop, convulsions can occur and a coma can develop.
If no measures are taken within the first 2 days, obstruction of the urethra in 80% of cases leads to the death of the cat.
- Violation of feeding conditions. When cats eat improperly or lack water, their metabolism is disrupted, urine concentration increases and its pH changes. Against this background, sand begins to form and urinary stones of various nature form.
- Climate and geochemical conditions.An increased ambient temperature enhances diuresis, and urine becomes much more concentrated than under normal conditions. If the water that cats drink is saturated with various salts, then the deposition of stones in the urine will not take long.
- Lack of Vitamin A. This vitamin favorably affects the cells that are lined with the mucous membrane of the bladder. With hypovitaminosis A, the condition of the mucosa worsens, which provokes the ICD.
- Disorders in the hormonal background, from which mineral metabolism in the body can be disturbed with the formation of stones.
- Congenital features of the anatomy of the urinary tract.
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the acid-base balance is lost and sand and stones appear in the bladder.
- Infections Viruses and bacteria with their life activity can provoke the development of the disease.
- Genetic predisposition. It is proved that in cats, ICD can be inherited. More precisely, the predisposition to the disease is inherited, and any unfavorable conditions provoke pathology.
- Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle.
- Various diseases of the genitourinary sphere provoke signs of inflammation in the bladder, and then cystitis is complicated by stones.
How to determine if a cat is sick
If there are stones in the bladder that do not clog the ureter, and sand, the disease can be asymptomatic for a long time. When stones are already forming, the symptoms of urolithiasis in cats manifest themselves quite distinctly. The intensity of the manifestation of signs of MKD in cats can be conditionally divided into 3 degrees - the first (initial or mild) signs, symptoms are severe and critical.
- Initial symptoms:
- the cat very often goes to the toilet for a long time, and can begin to do this in completely inappropriate places (just its tray begins to be associated with pain and discomfort),
- there is a posture of stress when urinating,
- licks herself under the tail for a long time,
- urine takes on a slightly pinkish tint,
- sometimes when urinating, the cat can meow, and it’s at the end of the process,
- the animal looks worried.
- Severe signs:
- urination to become more frequent and always painful,
- urinary incontinence can be observed (the animal leaves wet traces where it was lying / sleeping, long-haired cats on the crotch may have droplets of urine with blood),
- the abdomen in the perineal bladder becomes painful,
- blood is clearly visible in the urine or it is allocated dropwise and is very dark in color,
- urine has a sharp concentrated odor,
- the cat becomes depressed, lethargic, loses weight, loses appetite, is not played.
- Critical situation:
- the cat / cat generally stops going to the toilet for a little (there are urges and they are obviously painful, attempts are made to urinate, but urine is not excreted),
- the animal is constantly trembling
- saliva becomes viscous, foamy, accumulates in the corners of the mouth,
- the abdomen in the perineum becomes painful due to the tension of the bladder, from which urine was not excreted for several days,
- vomiting from general intoxication of the body may be observed (reverse absorption of slag products from urine already begins after 24-36 hours in the absence of urination),
- with intoxication, body temperature may drop below 37 ° C,
- the animal loses consciousness, there may be cramps, the urinary can burst.
With critical symptoms, time is running out for the time to save the animal's life by delivering it to a specialist.
If the main signs of urolithiasis have been noticed, then you should not delay the visit to the veterinarian - with a certain course, the cat / cat can die in 2-4 days. The only thing the owner can help right away is to eliminate spastic pain with the help of injections to the cat no-shpa or papaverine (the dosage is the same: 1-2 mg / kg in tablets or injections). Sometimes there is no time for this.
In the clinic, the doctor first of all tries to empty the bladder. Next, painkillers are introduced, and a scheme is developed how to treat urolithiasis in a cat in this particular case. The full therapeutic course of eliminating urolithiasis in cats lasts 1-2 weeks without surgery and can last up to 3-4 weeks during surgery.
Surgery for urolithiasis is carried out according to strict indications when it does not seem to remove the stones using a catheter or using conservative treatment, as well as when there is no access to laser therapy.
The algorithm for the treatment of ICD by specialists:
- no-shpa, papaverine - the dosage is the same: 1-2 mg / kg in tablets or intramuscular injections (moreover, giving no-shpa only inside, intramuscularly is not recommended),
- baralginum - 0.05 mg / kg intramuscularly (can provoke internal bleeding, so you can not abuse it).
- the appointment of alpha-adrenergic blockers for long courses after restoring patency of the urethra (drugs to relax the bladder and internal sphincter of the bladder and improve the outflow of urine without a catheter):
- prazosin, phenoxybenzamine - inside 0.25-0.5 mg / animal 1-2 times a day,
- terazosin - inside 0.2-0.5 mg / animal from 5-7 days to long-term use of the lowest therapeutic doses.
- restoration of urine outflow from the bladder, removal of stones:
- catheterization under local or general anesthesia,
- retrograde washing, when the stones from the urethra are washed into the cavity of the bladder, and the urine at the same time freely descends,
- surgical method (removal of stones through surgical intervention - when the stones are large and their removal in a natural way is impossible),
- a conservative method (dissolving stones and removing sand using dietary correction, special diets for cats and increasing urine output, while using only antispasmodics and painkillers - is used when urine outflow is not difficult),
- laser lithotripsy - a laser operation involves the crushing of stones that are amenable to this process, and their removal in a natural way.
- infusion therapy (increase urine output (strictly after restoration of the act of urination), relieve intoxication due to stagnation of urine, restore the animal against dehydration):
- glutargin 4% + glucose 5% - 10 ml + 5 ml twice a day for 3-5 days,
- glucose 40% + Ringer-Locke solution: 5 ml + 50 ml dropwise.
- vetavit - dissolve ½ sachet in warm water, milk or mix with food, give twice a day for 1-2 weeks.
- antibiotic therapy (at elevated temperature and obvious signs of bacterial infection):
- nitroxoline - 1 / 4-1 / 2 tab. three times a day for 5-7 days,
- furadonin - the daily dose is 5-10 g / kg, which is divided into several doses per day (2-4 times) in a course of 7-10 days.
- enrofloxacin - orally or subcutaneously at the rate of 5 mg / kg once a day for 3-7 days.
- hemostatic therapy (in acute form, when blood is detected in the urine):
- ethamzilate (dicinone) - 10 mg / kg intramuscularly once every 6 hours, until the blood no longer appears in the urine (usually a day or two).
- Vikasol - intramuscularly 1-2 mg / kg.
elimination of signs of the inflammatory process, treatment of urolithiasis directly (throughout the course of treatment of any of these drugs, it is important to drink enough water for a cat):
- Stop cystitis (100-165 rub / unitary enterprise.): Inside twice a day on 2 ml / 1 tab. (if the animal weighs up to 5 kg) or 3 ml / 2 tab. (weight more than 5 kg) within one week. Further in the same dosage, but only once a day for 5-7 days.
- Uro-ursi (about 150-180 rubles / 14 caps.): 1 caps. Daily for 2 weeks (1 pack per course).
- Urotropin (about 30 rubles / fl.): 1.5-4 ml orally with water twice a day for 7-10 days.
- Tsistokur forte (about 1000 rubles / unitary enterprise.30 g): twice a day, 1 scoop of the drug mixed with wet food for 2-4 weeks, depending on the severity of the pathology.
- Furinayd (up to 1800 rubles / bottle): inside with any food, two presses of the dispenser (2.5 ml) once a day for 2 weeks, then 1 press (1.25 ml) for the next 2 weeks.
- Ipakitine (1200-1500 rubles / fl.): In the morning and in the evening, 1 scoop of powder (1 g) for every 5 kg of weight inside with food or water for at least 3 months - a maximum of 6 months.
- Kantaren (150-185 rubles / 10 ml or 50 tablets): inside, 1 tablet. or 0.5-2 ml per muscle or subcutaneously once a day for 3-4 weeks, but not longer than 1 month. In severe conditions, the multiplicity can be increased up to 3 times a day.
- Kotervin (70-100 rub./fl. 10 ml): twice a day, orally, 2-4 ml for a week, then once a day in the same dosage. You can repeat the course after 3 months.
- Nephrocat (about 250 rubles / 15 tablets): twice a day, 1 tablet / 10 kg of weight for 2 weeks. Once a quarter, the treatment course can be repeated.
- Renal Advance (up to 1250 rubles / fl. 40 g): 1 measured portion for every 2.5 kg of cat's body weight once a day inside with food for 1 month.
- HIMALAYA Cyston (up to 300 rubles / bottle 60 tablets): inside ½ or ¼ tablets twice a day at the same time for 4-6 months.
- Urolex (180-260 rubles / fl. 20 ml): 3 times a day, 3 drops / kg of weight immediately to the root of the tongue or slightly diluted with water. The duration of admission should not exceed 1 month.
- Phytoelitis “Healthy kidneys” (about 100 rubles / pack): the first 2 days, 1 tablet every 2 hours, then three times a day, 1 tablet until the symptoms disappear + another 5-7 days.
- Urological phytomines (up to 150 rubles): usually used in combination with any therapeutic drug from the ICD. 2 tablets twice a day for 10 days, depending on the severity of the disease. If necessary, the course is repeated after 7-14 days.
- Urinari Tract Support (up to 800 rubles / pack. 60 tablets): 2 tablets / day - immediately or 1 tablet. morning and evening with food or any favorite pet treat. The course is 1-2 weeks or until the symptoms of the disease are permanently eliminated.
Yes, there are a number of feeds of industrial production related to the category of medical and preventive. It is important to remember that dry feed in most cases is not suitable, because they always have a high salt content.
If the disease is caused by oxalates, feeds are suitable:
- Hills Prescription Diet Feline X / D,
- Eukanuba Oxalate Urinary Formula,
- Royal Cannin Urinary S / O LP34.
- Ural urolithiasis:
- Hill's PD Feline K / D.
With struvite stones:
- Hills Prescription Diet Feline S / D,
- Hill’s Prescription Diet C / D,
- Royal Canin Urinary S / O High Dilution UMC34,
- Eukanuba Struvite Urinary Formula,
- Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR.
For the prevention of urolithiasis feed:
- Hill's PD Feline C / D,
- Royal Cannin Urinary S / O,
- Club 4 paws Ph control,
- Royal Cannin Urinary S / O Feline,
- Cat Chow Special Care Urinary Tract Health,
- Brekis Exel Cat Urinary Care,
- Pet Time Feline Perfection.
In general, you should exclude feeds related to the economy class, and use only premium (Natural Cheese, Hills, Brit, Bozita, Happy Cat, Belkando, Gabby, Royal Canin,) and super premium (Profine edalt cat, Bosch Sanabel, Purina Vann , Arden Grunge, Kimiamo, PRO Holistic).
If it is not possible to feed a cat with ready-made feed for industrial production, you will have to monitor the diet yourself. In many ways, the nutrition of a cat with ICD will depend on what stones it has been identified.
- It is important to limit / eliminate the use of foods containing calcium and its compounds - eggs and dairy products.
- The basis of the diet are meat products with a minimum of vegetables, in which there is little or no calcium and alkali - Brussels sprouts, pumpkin.
- It is forbidden to mix ready-made industrial feed with ordinary natural food, both dry and wet.
- It is necessary to avoid monotony in natural food - do not give the same food for a long time.
- If oxalate stones are found in the diet, the liver, kidneys and other offal containing oxalic acid should be excluded.
- It is necessary to stimulate the pet's thirst state so that he drank a lot (to stimulate diuresis). The water in the bowl should constantly change to fresh, put it better away from the cup with food, organize a fountain at home (if your home).
- Any diet can be composed of boiled beef, lamb, veal and chicken, oatmeal and rice, legumes, cauliflower, carrots and beets, low-fat fish with white meat.
- If urates have been discovered, strong meat broths, offal, sausages (especially liver sausage), cheap dry food are removed from the diet.
Important: if there is a history of urolithiasis, the diet for the cat becomes its lifelong companion! Even after the condition is exacerbated, the pathology remains and can manifest itself at any time if preventive measures are not followed!
At home, treating the ICD is very risky! With the wrong approach and the presence of large stones, blockage of the ureter can occur, which will significantly worsen the condition of the animal. The maximum safe help for the pet owner can only be in pain relief. After as soon as possible you need to take the cat / cat to the veterinarian.
To prevent the appearance of stones in the bladder, it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
- a cat should always have access to fresh, clean water,
- monitor body weight to prevent obesity,
- monitor the balance of the diet, depending on the sex of the animal, age, physiological condition,
- eliminate hypothermia,
- if there is a history of ICD, transfer the cat to a diet, depending on which stones have been identified, or begin to feed with ready-made feed.
It is impossible to completely cure an ICD in a cat / cat only with folk recipes. Moreover, there is a risk with improper selection of herbal preparations that the existing stones begin to move and get stuck in the narrow passages of the urethra or the genitals of the cat, which will lead to serious consequences. Moreover, based on the main treatment with herbal preparations, it is good to stimulate diuresis.
- Mix 5 g of the following dry herbs: spike lavender, birch leaves, black currant leaves, hop cones, daisies, red rose petals, plantain leaves. Add 20 g of rose hips and horsetail shoots. Take 5-7 g of the mixture and pour 380 ml of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes in a water bath, strain and cool. Give 5-15 ml (depending on the size of the animal) of the resulting broth after each emptying of the bladder or attempt to do this (but at least 5 times a day). After removing the signs of exacerbation, the concentration of the decoction is reduced to 2.5 g of the mixture per 250 ml and given up to 3 times a day for a month.
- With sudden renal colic or pain in the bladder, you can try to give juice of fresh parsley - ¼ tsp. diluted with warm water and is given up to 4 times a day.
- You can give juices of strawberries, strawberries or carrots - on an empty stomach for 1 tsp. 30 minutes before feeding (urine acidity changes).
- You can help your pet with a herbal bath by adding a decoction of oregano, birch, chamomile, sage, dried cinnamon and lime to the water (take 1 g each, add 500 ml of boiling water, wrap and simmer for 2.5-3 hours and pour into a container, where the cat will plunge).
It is enough to remember 3 main manifestations of pathology:
- rapid, painful urination or its complete absence,
- the cat relieves the need for the wrong place,
- urine contains blood or its symptoms.
Does your pet have difficulty urinating?
Noticed that the pet is having difficulty urinating? Does the cat sit in the tray for a long time, and as a result, only a few drops of urine remain in the filler? This problem is familiar to many cat owners. There are several reasons for difficulty painful urination. In this article we will talk about the most common of them.
The cat may have urolithiasis
Urolithiasis (ICD) in a cat is a chronic disease in which the formation of sand and stones in the kidneys, bladder and urinary ducts. When moving, urinary stones and sand are trapped in the ureters or urethra, which leads to blockage of the lumen and interferes with the normal urination of the pet. If you don’t help the animal in time, it will die.
At the first sign of poor health in your pet, contact your veterinarian immediately. Only he can choose the right treatment and diet for the pet.
Causes of urolithiasis in cats
The main reason for the development of ICD in cats is a metabolic disorder. This leads to the formation of insoluble salts in the urine, from which urinary sand and stones are formed.
We single out the main predisposing factors for the development of urolithiasis in cats:
- Excess in the diet of minerals,
- Vitamin A deficiency in the diet
- Poor quality water
- Lack of fluid
- Physical inactivity,
- Hereditary predisposition
- Hormonal disorders
- Inflammatory processes and neoplasms in the genitourinary organs.
The insidiousness of urolithiasis is that at the initial stage its symptoms are hardly noticeable to the owner of the animal. The cat can not complain of malaise. Therefore, you should always be careful about your pet and watch for changes in its behavior.
Why do cats suffer from urolithiasis?
Among the causes of urolithiasis (another name for urolithiasis) in cats are:
- errors in the diet (the prevalence of any substances in food),
- lack of water or its excessive saturation with salts,
- the presence of chronic diseases, foci of inflammation, metabolic disorders in the animal’s body,
- congenital or acquired anatomy features,
- hereditary factor.
How is the pathology manifested?
To find out that a pet has an urolithiasis at the beginning of its development will not work: he cannot complain of discomfort or problems with urination, so the owners will learn about the presence of a dangerous pathology when it has gone too far. You need to run to the clinic if the following symptoms of the ICD appear:
- the cat doesn’t go to the toilet to the usual place, but anywhere,
- little urine is released, grains of sand, blood,
- urge to urinate, on the contrary, becomes frequent,
- pain and urinary tract irritation with sand cause the cat to lick the urethra.
Gradually, the pet's body temperature rises (up to 40 ° C), he refuses food, moves little. When urine cannot pass along the paths, the cat becomes very anxious, meows, assumes a characteristic posture to facilitate outflow.
It is especially important to catch a veterinarian with a critically dangerous cat, which is characterized by the following symptoms of urolithiasis:
- the stomach becomes denser, its volume becomes noticeably larger,
- since the urine can no longer exit, it stagnates in the bladder, causing severe intoxication of the tissues,
- the cat hardly moves
- foamy saliva stands out from the mouth
- the animal’s temperature drops, the pet trembles,
- vomiting is possible.
In the absence of timely assistance, the animal dies.
Important: intoxication occurs already a day after the urination stops!
Is it possible to diagnose urolithiasis in a cat
ICD in a cat can be diagnosed in the initial stages of the development of the disease, if you regularly conduct tests. Identify the disease or differentiate it from other pathologies (tumors, cystitis, and others) help methods such as:
- urine tests (general and microscopic polarized),
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.
During the diagnosis, the veterinarian will certainly ask the owner about the conditions of the cat, its physical characteristics, illnesses and other nuances. It is important to tell when you noticed the first signs of the disease, how often they appear and so on.
Features of drug therapy
Moustached patient for the treatment of urolithiasis can be assigned to different groups of drugs:
- painkillers (often - Papaverine, Analgin),
- antibiotics (e.g., ceparin),
- drugs that eliminate the inflammatory process (Palin, Furagin and others),
- antispasmodic drugs (Baralgin).
If necessary, supportive therapy is indicated. It can be: vitamin complexes, funds aimed at normalizing the work of the heart, drugs to restore the digestive tract. All medications are prescribed only by a veterinarian in accordance with the age and gender of the cat.
What to do after treatment
Regardless of the complexity of the treatment (even if urolithiasis was detected in the cat at an early stage), the further life of the pet should take place under constant preventive measures. The owner will be required to regularly examine the pet: take urine for analysis and do an ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system.
In addition, the cat should be immediately transferred to the appropriate diet, excluding the components that provoke the development of the disease. If necessary, the mustachioed friend will need to be given antibiotics and / or diuretics periodically.
Dry cat food with ICD: which one to choose
Most of the dry food is completely unsuitable for feeding cats with urolithiasis - they contain too many mineral salts. But there are special mixtures that can be selected depending on the type of urinary stones, for example:
- Oxalates - Royal Cannin Urinary S / O LP34, Hill's PD Feline K / D,
- Struvites - Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR, Hill’s Prescription Diet C / D.
You only need to buy feeds that belong to the premium and super-premium class.
How to feed a cat homemade food
Home feeding a cat with urolithiasis also depends on the type of stones. Since the high acidity of urine is due to calcium, you need to limit the pet in eggs and milk (and their derivatives). Vegetables rich in this element should also be excluded from the cat's diet. In addition, with oxalates, it is extremely undesirable to give the offal to a pet, since they contain a large amount of oxalic acid.
Monotony in food should be avoided. The basis of the cat's menu should be meat dishes, while it is forbidden to add industrial feeds of any kind to food.
It is important that the animal has free access to water. Since cats do not drink much, you need to try to teach your pet to regularly attend a watering place. A bowl of water should not be near the feed so that the cat does not turn his attention to food.
Important Facts About Urolithiasis in Cats
There are several important facts about IBD in cats that every owner should know.
- Cats living in hot environmental conditions are at risk, since elevated temperatures cause thickening of urine and an increase in its concentration.
- It was noted that most often urolithiasis develops in animals in the age period of 2-6 years.
- Obese cats that are overweight are also more susceptible to the development of ICD than thin or normal body weight cats.
- A predisposition to the deposition of stones in the urinary system is observed in cats of long-haired breeds.
- Due to the narrow urethra, the disease affects cats more often than cats.
- The disease is most often noted in cats after castration, as well as cats in which estrus is "wasted".
- Experts have noticed that in cats suffering from urolithiasis, relapses occur more often in the autumn period (especially at the beginning) and from the 1st to the 4th months of the year.
- The formation of struvites is more often observed in animals under 6 years of age. At the same time, the formation of oxalate stones is more typical for cats older than 6-7 years.
Urolithiasis in neutered cats: true or not
The development of urolithiasis in neutered cats is confirmed by statistics. However, there is no scientific confirmation of the direct effect of castration on the formation of stones. It turns out that both facts contradict each other.In fact, castration has an indirect effect and leads to the ICD indirectly.
In a castrated animal, a sharp hormonal failure occurs. Changes in the activity of the endocrine glands contribute to the appearance in cats of slowness, some passivity (although a young pet can be very active), calm in behavior. With age, the cat moves more slowly, reacts less to stimuli, including the opposite sex, and eats more. All together causes the appearance of excess weight, sometimes obesity.
It is known that most of the animals that are overweight sooner or later become ill with urolithiasis. Moreover, slow metabolism in castrates causes rare emptying of the bladder, which leads to congestion. And if the operation was carried out too early, then the urinary canal remains underdeveloped and narrow, which also provokes the formation of stones. It can be concluded that neutered cats are indeed at risk.
How to prevent urolithiasis in cats (cats)
Prevention of ICD in cats is as follows:
- monitor the variety of the pet’s diet, and if necessary, purchase specialized food,
- avoid the development of obesity by controlling the calorie content of food (you can consult a specialist for this),
- stimulate regular use of water, ensuring its availability and freshness,
- maintain the activity of the animal, preventing laziness from developing,
- every six months to do an ultrasound, especially if there is a predisposition to the ICD,
- regularly take urine of the cat to the clinic for the detection of salts,
- undergo a full course of treatment if sand or stones are found.
Such simple measures will provide the mustachioed pet with health for many years to come. If the cat has already been treated for urolithiasis, then they will help to avoid relapse, because you can not completely get rid of this pathology.
Who is at risk for urolithiasis?
This disease affects all members of the feline family, without exception. However, there is a group of animals in which urolithiasis is detected much more often. To protect a pet from this dangerous pathology, each owner of a cat must know the reasons that provoke its development, and the degree of predisposition of the four-legged pet to the disease. Information about this is presented in the table:
|Causes of Urolithiasis in Cats||Animals at risk for urolithiasis|
Diagnosis of urolithiasis
To determine the cause of the formation of stones, at the initial stage, the veterinarian analyzes the data obtained during a conversation with the owner of the animal. Information about the frequency of urination of the pet, the color of the urine, its behavior when the bladder is empty is important.Only after this, the doctor prescribes diagnostic procedures for the four-legged patient, the information on which is presented in the table below.
|Diagnostic Manipulation||Purpose of|
|Laboratory||Blood chemistry||Assessment of renal function by renal parameters - creatinine, nitrogen, urea.|
|Analysis of urine||Establishing the presence and types of calculi.|
|Instrumental||Ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder||Identification of large stones and sand, determination of their size, confirmation or refutation of suspicions of obstruction of the urinary ducts.|
Additionally, you may need to conduct:
- radiography to clarify the size, shape and localization of calculi,
- X-ray contrast - this procedure is indicated if sand comes out of the bladder or blood is flowing,
- polarized light microscopy,
- intravenous excretory urography for the detection of X-ray negative stones,
- computed tomography.
If the course of the disease is not burdened by complications, it can be cured by conservative methods. First of all, a cat is prescribed a diet, taking into account the type of stones. Proper nutrition can reduce the acidity of urine and dissolve stones. However, one diet is not enough, and four-legged patients are prescribed medications (diuretics, antibiotics, rehydrates), the details of which are presented in the table:
|Medications used to treat urolithiasis in cats||Mode of application|
|Antibiotics||Lincomycin, Kefzol, Zeporin||Give an antibiotic to a pet 0.2 g twice a day for 5–7 days.|
|Uroseptics||5-NOC, Palin, Furagin||Use 1/4 tablet 2-3 times a day for 7 days.|
|Rehydrating||Regidron, Rieger||Pour into the pet’s mouth in small portions. With severe dehydration, it is recommended to do this every 30 minutes.|
|Homeopathic||Kantaren||Injections do 2-3 times a day subcutaneously or intramuscularly, using 1-2 ml of the drug. The course of injections is 1–1.5 weeks.|
|Saluretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory||Coterwin||Give the cat 2-3 ml of medicine twice a day. Drops must be used until the pet has fully recovered.|
Procedures and Surgery
If the cat is not able to empty the bladder on its own, resort to catheterization. In this procedure, a catheter tube is inserted into the urinary tract to drain urine. In the presence of large calculi or severe swelling of the urethra, the device is installed for 2-3 days, after which a dropper is placed to eliminate the effects of intoxication of the body of the four-legged patient.
In a number of situations where it is pointless to treat the disease with conservative methods, they resort to surgical intervention. The operation is shown if:
- large stones that are not able to go outside after washing,
- insoluble stones and oxalates,
- urethral obstruction.
Surgical treatment of urolithiasis in felines is carried out in one of the following ways:
- Urethrostomy, the essence of which is to make holes in the urethra to remove stones through it. Its overgrowth is prevented until the condition of the four-legged patient is stabilized.
- Cystotomyused in difficult situations and consists in opening the bladder and removing stones. This method is resorted to only in cases where the stones cannot be removed in other ways.
Before using any medicinal plant to alleviate the condition of the pet, you need to consult a veterinarian. Self-administration of herbs can aggravate the situation. To stop the symptoms of this disease, therapeutic decoctions of lingonberry, plantain, bearberry, infusion of heather are used.
The preparation of the drug includes the following steps:
- A handful of dried grass pour 700-750 ml of water.
- Bring the mixture to a boil and simmer it for 10 minutes. To prepare a decoction based on heather, it is recommended to pour it in the amount of 1 tbsp. l in a thermos, pour 500 ml of boiling water into a container and insist for 8-10 hours.
- Cool the liquid, strain through 3-4 layers of clean gauze and give the pet a few drops 2-3 times a day until complete recovery.
Care and Feeding
Caring for a sick pet involves:
- Creating a welcoming atmosphere in the house. The success of the recovery largely depends on the emotional state of the cat.
- The cat is placed in a room with a comfortable air temperature. It is impossible to prevent hypothermia of the pet.
- Providing the necessary drinking regime. A cat should drink a sufficient amount of water per day (30-50 ml per kilogram of a pet’s weight).
- Strict adherence to veterinarian appointments.
Cat nutrition depends on the type of calculus. In the presence of oxalates, it is necessary to control the intake of oxalic acid in her body. This means that you need to reduce the amount of offal and calcium-containing foods in your cat's diet. When feeding a cat with ready-made feeds, it is recommended to give preference to such brands as “Hill’s Prescription Diet Feline X / D” and “Eukanuba Oxalate Urinary Formula”.
With struvites, it is necessary to change the alkaline reaction of urine, making it acidic. In this regard, chicken yolk, cheese, cottage cheese, milk should be excluded from the pet's diet. The emphasis should be on egg white, oatmeal and rice porridge, liver, beef, veal. From ready-made feeds, it is recommended to use the following brands: "Hill’s Prescription Diet C / D", "Eukanuba Struvite Urinary Formula". In case of a mixed type of disease, Royal Canin Urinary S / O Feline food is indicated.
ICD in the cat. Symptoms of the disease
At the initial stage of the disease, the animal becomes lethargic, inactive, his appetite decreases. The cat is uncomfortable when going to the toilet. Because of this, puddles may appear in the wrong places. In this way, the pet is trying to get rid of the pain and indicate to the owner that there is cause for concern. At this stage of the disease, an accurate diagnosis of the ICD can be made only after a laboratory study of urine.
Gradually, the problem is growing. The size and number of stones increases; when moving, they can partially or completely block the urinary ducts. This causes pain in the pet. Signs of urolithiasis in a cat become apparent:
- Pain when going to the toilet (the animal meows while sitting on the tray),
- Frequent urination
- Blood in the urine
- Tight and painful belly
- Change in pet behavior (depression, fussiness, attempts to attract the attention of the owner).
To confirm the disease, the veterinarian is guided not only by its external manifestations. Urolithiasis in a cat is diagnosed using ultrasound, x-ray, laboratory analysis of urine sediment. After confirming the diagnosis, the veterinarian prescribes the appropriate treatment.
How to treat urolithiasis in cats
Treatment for each animal is selected individually. It is mainly aimed at alleviating the patient's condition. To do this, urinary tract patency is restored using catheterization under local anesthesia or surgical methods under general anesthesia. Using a catheter, sand and small stones are removed from the ureters. If there are large stones, the doctor will prescribe a more complex operation.
Then the animal is treated with symptomatic therapy using diuretics, anti-inflammatory, painkillers and antibiotics.
It is urgent to treat urolithiasis in cats. In severe cases of the disease, urinary stones can completely block the urinary canals.The cat cannot be emptied, because of the long urine retention in the body, irreversible changes occur, and the animal in most cases dies.
After the stabilization of the pet’s condition, the doctor will prescribe him a special diet.
Therapeutic nutrition of a sick cat
When drawing up a diet for a sick animal, the composition of the formed stones and the type of violation in salt metabolism are taken into account. A properly selected diet helps to normalize metabolism and eliminates the return of the disease in the pet.
Calcium-rich foods (milk, cottage cheese, eggs) are excluded from the pet's menu. The basis of the diet should be meat products, you can give a small amount of fresh and boiled vegetables. Also, you can not combine the pet feeding industrial feed and homemade food.
Castrated cats at risk
Cats suffer from urolithiasis more often than cats. This is due to the structure of the urethra. In males, it is smaller in diameter than in females, and has a bend in which salt crystals are retained.
At risk for MKD are castrated pets. The fact is that after the operation to remove the testes in the animal, the hormonal background changes, respectively, the metabolism slows down. The cat becomes calmer, eats more, moves less, gradually gets fat. Such a pet has a metabolic disorder, which is a direct way to the development of urolithiasis.
Castrated cats urinate less often, their urine is very concentrated. Because of this, salt crystals settle on the walls of the ureters, which leads to their blockage.
Castrated cats require more care than their non-neutered cats, a certain type of food and constant monitoring.
The best method to avoid pet castration
The main reason for castration of cats is the difficulty of keeping the animal after it reaches puberty. At about 7-8 months, the first signs of sexual hunting begin to appear in the pet:
- Loud meow
- Bad smell marks left all over the apartment,
- Aggressive behavior towards the host and other animals,
- The desire to break out into the street through an open door or window.
However, it should be remembered that castration surgery does not always solve the pet’s behavioral problems. It is possible that after the operation the pet will not get rid of bad habits.
There is a humane way to solve all the problems associated with sexual hunting of a pet, and not subject the pet to surgery. This will help the use of the drug to regulate sexual hunting Gestrenol.
Gestrenol is chosen by experienced breeders and cat owners who do not want to jeopardize the health of their pets.
Gestrenol - especially for cats. Take good care of your pet’s health
- A Great Way to Avoid Castration
The use of the drug Gestrenol helps to correct the behavior of the cat during sexual hunting, minimizes the risk of urolithiasis, which may occur after castration of the pet. Drug safety
Gestrenol is a bi-hormonal drug that contains two hormones. Due to this, the concentration of active substances in the drug is reduced tenfold compared with monohormonal drugs. It gently corrects the hormonal background of the animal. This ensures the safety of Gestrenol in your pet.
- Designed specifically for cats
Gestrenol is designed specifically for cats, taking into account their species and gender characteristics. This is the only contraceptive that contains catnip. The optimal combination of active substances ensures the high efficiency of the drug, and the presence of catnip in the composition facilitates its use for cats. Reproductive Recovery
If necessary, three months after the drug is discontinued, the cat will again be able to have healthy offspring.
How to prevent urolithiasis?
Unfortunately, there is no one way that will give you a 100% guarantee that your pet will not have urolithiasis. But the likelihood of its development can be significantly reduced if you follow a few simple rules.
As mentioned above, cats are more susceptible to this disease. This is due to the increased concentration of urine in these animals. Therefore, cats must drink enough water, on average, 20-50 ml per kilogram of weight, depending on feeding, humidity and ambient temperature. If your cat doesn’t really like to drink water, you can feed it with wet food - canned food or spiders. Currently, a lot of wet food for cats is being produced, so you can easily choose the one that your pet will like.
Dry feed, obesity increases the animal's need for water. Checking if your pet is drinking enough water is easy - monitor the color of urine after your cat or dog goes to the toilet. The color should be straw yellow, not too bright, without shades of red or orange.
Drinking a pet is recommended only with clean water, boiled, filtered or bottled. Water from the tap, from natural reservoirs or columns may contain a significant amount of minerals that contribute to the development of urolithiasis. Therefore, water for the pet must be boiled and defended, then most of the harmful substances will remain in the kettle and at the bottom in the form of sediment.
You can also increase the attractiveness of water for your pet. Ideal for this is Viyo Reinforces prebiotic drink. Its composition includes many delicious ingredients, manufacturers have achieved a very high level of prebiotic eatability - 85-95%! At the moment, this prebiotic is considered the most delicious dietary supplement. You can simply pour the drink into a bowl of water and the cat will drink from there with great pleasure than before. A nice bonus is that Viyo is not only a tasty drink, it also contains prebiotics, which helps to improve digestion and increase the immunity of your pet.
Dry feed can prevent urolithiasis. Natural feeding is very difficult to balance. And if your pet is choosy and does not want to eat everything that you put in his bowl, then it is impossible to balance the feeding at all. Ready-made feeds for our pets are immediately balanced in all necessary parameters, and it is impossible to choose only tasty and not healthy, because each feed pellet contains almost the same content of all components withered on the package. Many foods, especially for cats, have also added components that reduce the likelihood of developing urolithiasis.
Cystophan Protexin was developed specifically for cats. This drug is used for cats with idiopathic cystitis, which can often accompany urolithiasis. Cystophan helps to restore the bladder mucosa, reduces its inflammation. This drug has no contraindications, can be used for cats and cats of any age, is allowed for kittens and pregnant cats. It is difficult to overestimate its importance in the prevention of urolithiasis - Cystophan restores the mucous membrane of the bladder and urethra, which makes it harder to fix urethra on the walls of the bladder and the sand is washed out with urine almost completely. To increase eatability, chicken flavor was added to this preparation, due to which cats prefer capsules. Refusal to use is necessary only with individual sensitivity to the components.
You also need to avoid stress and help your pet easier to bear it. You can gradually accustom your pet to something new, give treats and toys, and matababy helps well reduce stress for many cats.Matatabi is a plant that causes the “intoxicating” effect in cats, but is not addictive. Unlike catnip, this plant does not cause increased nervous system excitement or drowsiness. If the cat is unhappy with something or is afraid, you can give her a toy sprinkled with matabi. The cat will be distracted from the problem, will play happily with her, and then calmly go to bed, wash or go to eat, already forgetting what frightened her.
Be sure to give your pet the opportunity to regularly empty the bladder. Perhaps it will be convenient for you to walk the dog only twice a day, and of course, your dog will sooner or later get used to this schedule, because it has no choice. But still, such a schedule will bring her significant discomfort and accelerate the development of many diseases of the urinary system, including urolithiasis. If you have the opportunity, take your dog out for a walk more often, put down a tray, lay a diaper, or hire a dog walker.
It would seem that cats go to the toilet only in the house, most often in the tray, and they should not have problems with the frequency of urination. But many cats simply refuse to go to the dirty tray and endure until the owner comes home from work all day. If your cat is so clean, you can put a second tray for it. Then she will be able to go to the toilet at least twice a day, and it will be easier for her to wait for you from work. And you can teach your cat to the toilet and even teach you to flush. For accustoming to the toilet, there is even a special tray! Then your cat will become completely independent, and it can be left alone for a very long time.
Timely and proper treatment of diseases is the most important point in the prevention of urolithiasis. It is necessary to treat the pet on time, because any disease can become chronic and lead to many other diseases, including urolithiasis. In order to recognize the onset of the development of diseases of the urinary system in time, you can use the express test for cats. Most diseases start asymptomatically, so identifying them in the early stages and curing them can be problematic. This rapid test allows you to identify diseases by the composition of urine. You need to pour the required amount of powder on the filler and wait until the pet goes to the toilet. If the color of the granules has changed, it is urgent to go to the veterinarian and examine the animal. Any disease is easier to cure at the very beginning, then the treatment will not take much of your time and energy, and your pet will not experience pain and suffering.
For your convenience, we have prepared a tablet with factors for the occurrence of urolithiasis and ways to prevent them.
|ICD development factor||Prevention|
|Type of animal, more common in cats||It is necessary to monitor the condition of the animal, monitor urine and the amount of water consumed|
|Cats urethra anatomy||It is necessary to pay special attention to cats, since most often the disease affects them|
|Feeding||Feed your pet with wet food, dry food for the prevention of ICD, give only high-quality and fresh products, properly balance natural feeding, if you stayed on it|
|Watering||Water for drinking should be boiled and settled, you can not pour water from the tap, unverified sources|
|Other diseases||Tests for the ICD will help in timely diagnosis, it is necessary to quickly and correctly treat the pet|
|Iodine deficiency||Monitor the level of iodine in the diet, give vitamins containing iodine in courses|
|Patience||Often take the dog out for a walk, regularly clean the tray, you can put a second tray or accustom the cat to the toilet|
|Obesity||Keep your pet in good condition or at least make you drink more water|
|Stress||Help your pet cope with stressful situations with toys, treats, matabi for cats|
As mentioned above, there is no one way to prevent urolithiasis, which will help with a 100% result. But compliance with all the rules listed above will help to remove your pet from the risk group and significantly reduce the likelihood of many diseases, including urolithiasis.
Prevention of urolithiasis in cats and cats
Prevention of this disease in cats is to comply with the following rules:
- feed only high quality feed
- use purified water for drinking - it is not recommended to use tap water, because it contains an excessive amount of salts,
- provide your pet with round-the-clock access to water,
- Do not overfeed the cat, especially with regard to castrates, which have reduced motor activity,
- monitor the amount of proteins in natural food - there should not be too many or too few of them in a cat’s diet,
- play with your pet as often as possible and take him out for a walk,
- do not mix prepared feeds and natural foods,
- provide the pet with a variety of food,
- monitor the air temperature in the house - it should not be too high,
- after castration or sterilization, transfer the pet to special feeds,
- regularly, at least 1 time per year, carry out preventive veterinary examinations,
- when pathologies are identified, immediately proceed to their treatment.
Diagnosis of kidney stones
With calculi, localized in the kidneys, X-ray shows high results. The determination of stones by ultrasound is less accurate, but ultrasound has an advantage - you can find other pathologies in the development of the kidneys, for example, an increase in the pelvis or expansion of the ureter. Stones in the ureter or pelvis lead to their blockage and expansion. Diagnostic accuracy is improved if both x-ray and ultrasound are done.
If these methods do not allow the recognition of uroliths, they resort to MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or ChAP (percutaneous antegrade pyelography) when a contrast agent is injected into the pelvis. It is important for the doctor to exclude diseases such as hydronephrosis (expansion of the pelvis or dropsy of the kidney) and chronic kidney disease.
Sowing and analysis of urine for the presence of crystals, x-rays suggest the type of calculi.
Definition of uroliths in the bladder
Most accurately, the presence of stones with a diameter of more than 3 mm in the bladder is determined by x-ray. Small uroliths are detected using cystography - the introduction of a special dye into the organ through a catheter. Research is needed to rule out another disease - idiopathic cystitis. This disease usually manifests itself at a younger age - 1-2 years. Therefore, with problems with emptying in an adult animal, the doctor will probably suspect stones, rather than cystitis.
If the cat is in serious condition, the doctor can use his fingers to feel the enlargement of the organ and the presence of stone in it. This can be determined even by the owner palpating the cat in the abdomen. With multiple small stones, a characteristic crisp sound may appear upon palpation.
A urine test is also being conducted. But it does not provide complete information. Analysis may show that crystals are contained in urine and determine its acidity. However, sand in the bladder does not mean that there are calculi. And most often, the discovered sand does not correspond to the type of stone. To determine what type of stones their research is required in the laboratory, but this is possible after extraction.
In addition, collecting a urine test can be difficult and the material must be examined immediately after collection. The cooled biomaterial may show a false result.
How to collect urine for analysis correctly:
- Completely clean the tray from the filler, wash thoroughly. It is advisable to collect 3, ideally 5 ml of urine.
- If the animal refuses to write in an unusual empty tray, you can use special granules or sand to collect. Granules resemble filler, but do not absorb liquid. Such a function, for example, is performed by Kit4Cat hydrophobic sand.
Drugs for the treatment of ICD in cats
Much more important is surgical drug treatment that allows you to dissolve the stones. The purpose of the drugs is to change the chemical composition of urine. Lower the level of those chemical components from which the stone is formed. With a lack of such components, sand or urolite dissolves. The most successful is the resorption of stones located in the bladder, because they are constantly in the liquid medium.
In addition to dietary feeds, there are plant-based products for acidifying urine and dissolving stones:
- cranberry-based: Uro Ursi, Urinari Tract Caliper, Cystocour forte,
- Furinide with hyaluronic acid
- Cat Erwin,
- Phytoelitis “Healthy kidneys”,
- urological phytomines (in combination with any drug for urolithiasis),
- homeopathic medicines Kantaris compositum, Kantaren.
All medicines are used only after prescribing by a doctor and strictly according to the instructions. Abuse is dangerous, despite the plant composition. So, Kotervin drops have a diuretic effect. And in the absence of urine in the cat, it is impossible to use medicine. This can lead to rupture of the bladder. An even more serious consequence is that urine is absorbed into the blood, decay products poison the body, intoxication occurs.
Drug treatment requires regular examination. As a rule, every 3 weeks (in some cases more often) is prescribed:
- blood analysis,
- Analysis of urine,
- Ultrasound or x-ray.
If the stone does not dissolve during the 2-month treatment, the animal experiences severe pain, there is bleeding, a blockage of the canal or mosquito occurs - the operation is indicated.
With struvitis caused by infection, the cause is primarily eliminated. For this, antibiotics are prescribed, but only after urine analysis and the identification of the pathogen. Most often cause infection and contribute to the formation of struvites - staphylococci and Proteus. In cats, stones with infection are rare and dissolve longer - up to 3 months.
Painkillers for cats with urolithiasis, antispasmodics, diuretics and diet are prescribed only if the outflow of urine is not difficult.
Therapeutic nutrition in the ICD
The only treatment that does not threaten the animal’s life is to dissolve the uroliths with a diet. This method is applicable only to struvites, urates and cystines and is feasible at home.
In addition, the use of medicinal feed to a certain extent reduces the risk of both struvite and oxalate.
Depending on the analysis of urine, a diet is prescribed. There are 2 types of feed in the form of canned food and dry granules for struvite and oxalate type of disease. Such brands as Hill’s (SD), Royal Canin’s (SO), Purina (UR) have a therapeutic diet.
Therapeutic feeds have the following actions:
- acidify urine (up to pH 6.0), which causes dissolution of struvites,
- increase urine excretion, which helps to remove salts.
In medicinal feeds, the proportion of magnesium, phosphorus and calcium is reduced. But they may contain salt to cause thirst. Therefore, if salt is contraindicated for a pet (heart, kidney failure, heart disease), such a diet is not acceptable.
With proper diet, struvites dissolve on average in 1 month. During the entire period of medical nutrition, control is carried out using x-rays. Therefore, when uroliths are found, but there is no information about their type, a trial specialized feed is prescribed. At the same time, any other products, food additives, goodies are excluded. If the condition is not complicated by infection, then the diet leads to improvement by 5 days already.
The animal has a chance to recover completely if in 3-4 weeks the uroliths became smaller or dissolved.
After the treatment is effectively completed, the owner must have a urinalysis done every six months, ideally once every 3 months.
Medical feed is not recommended to feed young cats (up to 1 year). If a kitten falls ill, then surgery is considered the best option.
It is impossible to dissolve oxalates with a diet. Medicinal feeds, for example, Hill’s (XD), Eucanuba Oxalat Urinary Formula, can only act as prevention.
With natural nutrition, the following recommendations should be observed:
- food should be hydrated to the maximum
- exclude overfeeding,
- give soft water to drink,
- In the menu, provide a balance of calcium, phosphorus.
If the cat is at home and cannot or does not want to eat industrial medicinal food, there are special additives that acidify urine.
The goal of any diet is to make urine acidic (pH 6.0). Only in this case unfavorable conditions are created for the activity of bacteria and the formation of stones.
After surgical treatment of the kidneys, the prognosis of how quickly the organs will recover depends on the duration of the disease and on the qualification of the veterinarian.
The prognosis for stones in the urinary is favorable, because blockage of the urethra is rare. And the problem can be solved either by diet or by removal. With struvites, their repeated formation can be prevented by specialized feed.
The risk of relapse increases with oxalates. In this case, the cat needs to be fed with special industrial feeds and accustomed to greater water consumption.