About animals

The rules of dog hygiene: how to cut pet's claws, clean ears and eyes


For a dog to have an attractive appearance, it is necessary to regularly care for it. Nothing should slip away from the owner’s attention - neither the condition of the coat, nor the eyes, nor the claws.

Requires special attention wool, which, no matter how long, is always must be clean and well maintained, for which the dog needs to be combed out constantly. Even more attention should be paid to wool during moulting - in spring and autumn, when a dog of any breed needs to be combed daily. Of course, grooming different breeds of dogs requires a different amount of time. It’s easier to take care of dogs smooth coat (mastiffs, Doberman pinschers and the like), which can be easily cleaned once every 3-4 days with a brush, not too thick but tough enough to remove dust and dirt. This takes only 10-15 minutes. A hard brush should be used carefully so as not to scratch the skin of the animal. Dogs with medium length wool should be combed with special metal, horn or wooden combs at least 2 times a week. In this case, the dead undercoat is easily removed and the tangled wool is combed. Hair care wirecoat Dog breeds require specialist intervention. Special attention must be given to the mustache and beard of the Airedale Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers and Giant Schnauzers, which get dirty during feeding. Therefore, after each meal, the mustache and beard should be wiped with a damp cloth and combed, and washed once a day. During the walks, the dog’s coat, of course, gets dirty, so after walking in the yard, the dog must be brushed to remove adhering dirt, remove the trash attached seeds of plants, at the same time, examine the skin for integrity, irritation, the presence of sucking insects.

The ears. The outer ear consists of the auricle and the external auditory canal, covered with very thin skin and shaped like a tube that goes first vertically and then horizontally. The auditory canal ends with a thin membrane (eardrum). The main problem with the ears of many dogs is the constant accumulation of dirt and earwax. On the one hand, the secretions protect the ear canal from getting dirt, therefore it is not necessary to remove them daily, on the other hand, an excessive accumulation of secretions leads to the appearance of otitis media. Therefore, you must constantly, at least 1 time in 2 weeks, clean your dog's ears. At the same time, they carefully examine the auricle from the outside and from the inside. If you notice that the ear has turned red, it has become hot, the dog often scratches his ears, when you press on the base of the ear you can hear "squelching", an unpleasant odor has appeared - you need to see a doctor. In all other cases, the cleaning of the auricle is carried out independently. They use a wet cotton swab wrapped in bandage or a cotton pad wound around a finger. It is better to moisten the cotton wool with a special lotion for cleaning the ears or vegetable oil. Should not be used hydrogen peroxide (because it can cause irritation of delicate skin inside the ear), or with therapeutic drops with an anti-inflammatory or anti-mite effect without a doctor’s prescription.

Some dog breeds require the removal of hair growing in the ear (for example, poodles), otherwise it collects dirt and water, which causes the occurrence of otitis media.

Eyes. And in healthy dogs in the inner corners of the eyes, especially in the morning, often there is a small dirty gray discharge that should be removed. If you do not do this, soon the dog will begin to suffer from eye disease, and it will look messy. If there are few secretions and they appear only after sleep, then there is no particular reason to worry, your dog is healthy.

Particularly careful attention is required in the eyes of dogs with flattened face (Pekingese, pug, etc.): they have an indirect tear-nasal canal, and the discharge accumulates, getting into the folds near the nose, and irritates the skin in these places. An unpleasant odor may come from the dog. Such breeds require a daily toilet. At long-haired Dogs should be monitored so that the hair does not get into the eyes and does not cause irritation. Sometimes in eyes get dirty, which can lead to their inflammation. Eyes washed a cotton swab moistened with boiled water from the outer corner of the eye to the inside, capturing areas of hair near the eyes. A separate swab is used for each eye. It is advisable to use eye drops specifically designed for dogs. Wherein you need to carefully read the instructions on their application. It should be noted that the eyes hunting dogs require rinsing with water after each hunt - after all, for a dog that runs through the forest, I can get seeds of plants, pollen, etc., into my eyes, which will cause eye irritation.

If you find increased lacrimation, pay close attention to the general condition of your animal - the cause may be excessive consumption of sweets, ingestion of a foreign object or dust, blockage of the lacrimal canal, inversion of the eyelids. Excessive discharge from the eyes, especially the green color, which, after a night's sleep, covers the entire eye, can indicate plague (!). Reddened eyes may indicate overheating of your dog, pale mucous membranes of the eyelids - about anemia, and yellowness - about liver problems.

Oral cavity dogs should be examined every week, checking the condition of the teeth and gums. Maintaining the dog’s oral hygiene is very important for its general condition. An unpleasant smell from the mouth, yellow or brown plaque on the teeth, and bleeding gums indicates that the dog needs a visit to the doctor. Most often, tartar is deposited on the upper and lower fangs, molars. The reason for the appearance of tartar is an increase in the number of bacteria on the teeth as a result of the accumulation of food debris and salts contained in saliva due to the lack of sufficient amount of solid feed in the diet. Tartar can irritate gums and lead to the development of gingivitis (gum disease).

There are specially designed treats for dogs that reduce the formation of tartar and prevent the development of gum disease.

Nose. Usually the nose does not require close attention from the wearer. The nose of a waking dog is cool and slightly moist, while sleeping it is warm and can be a little dry. When inspecting, pay attention to whether there are cracks or scratches on the nose. If you find that dried crusts have formed that make it difficult to breathe, discharge appears, there is a need to show the dog to the doctor.

Claws and paws. After each walk you need to wash your paws. This is done in order to clean the paw pads from dirt, sand, and in winter - from salt and chemicals that sprinkle on the sidewalks. For washing, use warm water in a bucket or basin. If the contamination is strong, you need to wash them with soap and water, then rinse with clean water and thoroughly wipe with a dry clean rag, especially the spaces between the fingers. The skin between the fingers is tender, easily inflamed, all sorts of sticky substances can stick together and dirt can accumulate during the walk. Claws should be trimmed. Long claws can split or grow into the paw pads, causing pain when moving. Claws need to be cut with special forceps. This should be done carefully so as not to hurt the blood vessels.

Paraanal glands. Periodically check to see if your dog has increased paranal glands and if there are any unusual discharge in the anus. The paraanal glands secrete a secret that often clogs the ducts and accumulates, leading to itching and anxiety. If germs enter the glands, inflammation can occur. In such cases, after cleansing the paraanal glands, the anus with soap should be washed, and at night a candle with ichthyol should be introduced into the rectum to avoid inflammation.

Claw trimming

In living conditions in the wild, the nails of dogs are sharpened naturally, and the owner should take care of the nails of the pet. Ignoring long horn formations can have consequences: when moving, the dog will put its paws unevenly, gradually stretching tendons and joints. An innocent seemingly oversight, after a few years, can provoke serious problems with the musculoskeletal system of the animal, therefore, the condition of the paws should be carefully monitored.

Claw trimming is needed for all breeds, with the exception of domestic and working dogs. The time of the procedure is determined individually: if you hear characteristic clanging when the dog is moving on the hard floor, the pet clings while running, unintentionally scratches furniture and households.


    Before an important session, take a few minutes to carefully study the structure of the horny processes. In their central part lies a blood vessel - a pulp, the damage of which causes bleeding and pain. If your animal has white claws, the border of the pulp will be clearly visible, if not, you will have to rely on intuition.

Fix the dog’s paw, and with the help of nippers or a clipper (these simple devices can be purchased at a specialized store), cut the claws by 5-6 mm, holding the tool at an angle of 45 degrees.

  • Saw the nails so that the trimmed edges become smooth.
  • Due to regular pruning, the structure of the horny growths will change. Each time, you will notice that the pulp moves away from the cutoff border, and manipulation becomes less risky.

    Chartreuse breed description

    Chartreuse - a short-haired blue cat belonging to one of the oldest and most secret breeds of breed bred in the good old Europe. It will be discussed in this publication.

    Chartreuse cat color can be any shade of blue, but light gray tones are considered the most preferred. The first representatives of this ancient breed had green eyes, but honey shades became relevant in the twentieth century, and similar specimens of cats, striking with the light of copper-yellow eyes on a blue background of wool, were successfully bred by breeders.

    As seen in the chartreuse photo, modern purebred representatives of the breed, also called Cartesian, have a strong and dense physique. And they weigh on average about six kilograms, moreover chartreuse cats significantly larger than their female relatives.

    Cats of the Cartesian breed are striking in that not only the hair, but also the skin, as well as the tips of the legs and nose, should also be blue. A chartreuse kittens they are born with the same eye color, which only gradually changes its shades, becoming first gray and then copper or orange, just as it was once the ancestors of the breed green.

    Chartreuse It amazes with the shade of its coat, but in addition to its original colors, it should be inherent in: a pleasant shine, density, density and softness. At the same time, it is assumed that the hair structure of the purebred is double: the main coat and undercoat are hairy, which resembles otter fur.

    Chartreuse kitten

    TO chartreuse description the following details must also be added: the head of such a cat is rather large with rounded cheeks. The eyes are round and large, for modern representatives of this breed, for ideal characteristics, they can be dark orange or honey, but not green.

    The ears are medium, located high and with a slight slope forward, the parameters of the body should be massive, the muscles developed, the skeleton strong and heavy. The tail of such cats is approximately equal in length to the body and slightly rounded at the end.

    Chartrez breed features

    Chartrez breed history dates back many centuries in its annals and is quite extensive. The mention of the first representatives of the feline family with blue wool is associated with countries in the Middle East, such as Syria and Iran.

    And only in the XIV-XIV centuries, as evidenced, some sources, such creatures appeared in France in the Catholic monastery of Grand Chartres, which is why the name Chartrez breeds, as well as its second name, because the monastery belonged to the Cartesian order.

    And one of the representatives of this species of feline with soft hair like silk (as historical facts testify) was the darling of Charles de Gaulle himself - the famous general and statesman of France of the last century.

    The First World War, which resulted in the death of a huge number of blue cats, was a threat to the physical extinction of this breed, which was subsequently practically bred again by the efforts of French breeders.

    Enthusiasts restored signs of purebred Cartesian cats from historical chronicles, scientific records, and other sources. In those days, only cats that met strict standards were allowed to breed, and purebred applicants for mating were stubbornly searched for in private houses and monasteries, even taken from the streets.

    The results of fruitful and tireless work were specimens of blue cats, possessing all the necessary signs and characteristics. And selected with great care, french chartreuse soon appeared before judges and spectators at an international exhibition in 1928. And six years after that, the final breed standards were formally described and adopted.

    Like all cats, chartreuses sleep a lot.

    The new world war again put the breed on the brink of physical survival, and breeders and factories stopped work to improve it. And only the intervention of American breeders and felinologists after three decades saved the situation. Cartesian cats, like most members of this family, have an independent disposition.

    But Chartrez breed feature is calm, understanding and patient in nature. Cartesian cats are characterized by philosophical contemplation, they quickly get used to the house and love it for real. These are ideal companions for single people, keepers of comfort and warmth for friendly families, the atmosphere of which is filled with warmth and the voices of young children.

    Chartreuse love to walk outside

    These tailed creatures are loyal and attached to the owners, but not at all obsessive in behavior. They don’t climb on their hands without reason, but they react to affection with reciprocal attention. Sitting in the corner, they faithfully look into the eyes, waiting for the moment when their company can be pleasant. And do not harbor grudges if they have not been given due attention.

    They are excellent hunters, but rarely give their voice. It is believed that this is due to their historical roots. The members of the Chartreuse fraternity, who had been breeding this type of cats for a long time, were extremely taciturn, and if their cats began to voice their desires and moods, they did it in a quiet, weak and barely audible voice.

    And the jerky and high sounds that they made do not resemble the meowing of ordinary cats. But then these animals successfully helped the monks rid their cells of hordes of rats and mice.

    Chartreuses are distinguished by adequate behavior, do not needlessly look for trouble on their own head and will not bully and get involved in a causeless fight with tetrapods and bipeds if they see that the enemy is stronger and will surely win, avoiding conflict in every possible way. But they are also not worth bullying, they are not used to giving offense. Chartreuses are capable of severely punishing an attacker, but they will never offend children.


    The Yorkshire Terrier does not stop developing, his hair grows all the time and requires careful care. Regular bathing is recommended every few days (at least once a month), otherwise the coat becomes oily and skin irritation may occur. If York is still a puppy, you can have your first bath after 10 weeks of life (but not immediately after vaccination).

    During the bath you need to use specially designed shampoos, and the water temperature should be about 37 degrees. Water should not get into your ears.
    You also need to monitor the eyes and mouth of the dog. After swimming, you can squeeze the water with your hands, then put the York on a towel, wrap it and gently wipe it without squeezing the wool.


    The dog should be combed with a comb and dried with a hairdryer in the “heat” mode. To comb the hair under the eyes, on the mustache, ears and chin, use a special small brush. The procedure should be carried out as carefully as possible so as not to break the hair and not harm the pet.
    The combing of the Yorkshire Terrier should take place not only after bathing, but at least once a day.

    If you make the tail of the dog on the head, you can not use rubber bands, only frosts or pins.


    The eyes of the Yorkshire Terrier are very sensitive, so the hair on the eyes should be bent or trimmed so as not to limit the pet's vision. In addition, falling hair irritates the eyes and can cause conjunctivitis and retinal tears.

    The ears of the Yorkshire Terrier are open, so they have good ventilation and should not cause trouble, but from time to time you need to wipe the inner ear with a cotton swab moistened with water or olive oil. If the hair is longer than the ears, it is worth making sure that those that fall out do not fall inside.

    Yorkshire terriers, like other small dogs, tend to form stones on their teeth. To prevent this, you need to give the dog once a week special dry food or bone for biting.

    There is also toothpaste for dogs, which you can regularly brush your teeth York. If, despite all efforts, the Yorkshire Terrier is uncomfortable with tartar, you need to contact a good veterinarian who will remove the formation.


    The Yorkshire Terrier also needs to regularly cut its nails with a special tool (scissors should not be used). If the dog often runs on a hard surface, these procedures may be less frequent, as the claws are rubbed off the cover. It is important to avoid strong regrowth of the claws, because they can cause problems when walking or even distortion of the fingers.

    Cat care and nutrition chartreuse

    Cats Chartreuse they do not belong to the species of especially whimsical animals, but regular, not very burdensome care is simply necessary for them. It is better to comb the hair of cats and cats that is short, but beautiful in appearance and to the touch, at least once, preferably two, a week. During periods of molting, it is much more common, and this is necessary even in the interests of the owners, because otherwise home carpets, armchairs and sofas will necessarily suffer.

    By the way, all these objects can also suffer from the sharp claws of a beloved pet, so it is better to ensure that the animal sharpens its claws only in specially designated places, which chartreuses do not always do, because by their nature they are a bit lazy.

    But with cleaning their ears and caring for their own eyes, these cats are able to cope on their own. But if painful symptoms appear, expressed in atypical discharge, it is better to take urgent measures, in extreme cases, consult a veterinarian. Chartreuses are not picky about food, and they can be fed with what is convenient for the owner.

    But you need to ensure that the diet contains valuable vitamins and minerals. Mandatory required: chicken, boiled eggs, dairy products and cottage cheese. You can use ready-made feed, but monitor their dosage, shelf life and quality. But mixed nutrition is contraindicated.

    Chartreuse cat price

    A cat with a fluffy blue coat and a wise look of honey eyes is valued quite expensive in our time, despite the fact that representatives of this breed sometimes go unnoticed in the shadow of more common pets.

    Pictured kittens chartreuse

    A rough chartreuse price ranges from 800 to 1200 euros. In Russia, such a breed is rare, so buy chartreuse kitten pure blood is not an easy task. And the majority of nurseries and breeders operate in France and America. In view of this, in addition to the cost of buying a pet, future owners also have to pay the cost of transportation and paperwork.

    Breed description

    There are several names of the breed, as well as stories of its origin:

    1. Medieval A cat with similar features was first mentioned in Europe in the 16th century. Merchants brought from Syria animals with a characteristic ashen color of wool and eyes of a copper shade. Cats immediately settled in new territory.
    2. Cartesian. The ministers of the Cartesian order bred cats with a characteristic gray color on the territory of the Grand Chartreuse monastery. Near the monastery there is a mountain, which among the local population is called the "Gray Cats" mountain.
    3. Chartreuse. The coat structure of the medieval cat is very similar to the natural Spanish Chartresian fabric.

    Breed standard

    Each legend of the origin of the name of the breed does not exclude any other, therefore these cats bear all three names for many years. Despite this, the relevant documents clearly describe the standard of the Chartreuse breed.

    1. The head should be in the form of a trapezoid, without excessive elongation.
    2. By standards, the nose should be wide enough and straight. The tip of the nose is always gray. Other colors indicate impurities of other breeds in the genus of chartreuse.
    3. The medium-sized ears are rounded at the ends, located high on the head and slightly directed forward.
    4. The eyes should be round, large, and should be close enough to each other. Eye color - from yellow to dark orange. In a kitten, it changes over several months from blue to yellow.
    5. The head is set on a short but powerful neck, passing into the muscular shoulders and chest.
    6. The body is strong and muscular with a good skeleton. Chartreuses have an average height reaching 28-30 cm at the withers.
    7. Feet - round in diameter and quite powerful. The rear is larger than the front. The color of the pads is the same as the color of the animal’s coat.
    8. The tail corresponds to the size of the cat's body, has a rounded shape to the tip and a thick but short coat.


    Whichever story of the emergence of the Chartreuse population in medieval France was reliable, they lived among the common population, as evidenced by the literature of those years. The value of cats in those days was not character or attractive appearance, but meat and fur.

    Only at the end of World War I, breeders isolated cats of this breed and began selective selection. The standard of appearance was the description of medieval individuals by naturalists of the 18th century. Cats on the island of Belle Le ideally fell into these standards, and their large population was the source of the appearance of the modern breed. Chartreuse, as a separate breed, first participated in the cat show only in 1928.

    Chartreuse Character

    The character of chartreuse resembles dogs: they are faithful and gentle towards the owner. They show their joy with a purr. The voice is quiet and subtle. It does not seem to fit a large muscular cat. In temperament, chartreuses are considered very calm cats with balanced emotions. Kittens are very curious and playful. If they are encouraged in the game, then this quality can be preserved in an adult. Chartreuse happily participates in an active game if its owner is the initiator.

    Cats of this breed are unpretentious to the conditions of detention, quickly adapt to the world around them. If the kitten will be alone for a long time, then it will not grow up to grow homesick without company in the house. For children, a chartreuse will become a good companion: he is patient and not aggressive.

    The described character traits are quite averaged for the breed. Each animal is individual and requires its own approach. In many ways, the behavior of a cat depends on the conditions in which it was raised.

    Chartreuse Care

    Although the breed belongs to the shorthair species, still the coat requires more careful care than representatives of other breeds. The fur coat has a thick and dense undercoat. It needs to be combed out regularly. If this is not done, then the hairs will rise and stick out in different directions, spoiling the appearance of the animal. A positive characteristic of chartreuse wool is tangling resistance. For proper care of the cat's hair, it is enough to comb it at least once or twice a week with a good brush. During molting, this can be done more often.

    Bathing an animal should be infrequent, as this is not an easy procedure. The dense undercoat has water repellent properties. The fur coat dries for a long time, and during this period the animal must be protected from cold and drafts.

    Due to the calm temperament and good appetite, chartreuses are prone to fullness, so you need to monitor their diet and engage in active games.


    Like American shorthair cats, chartreuses are prone to overweight, it is better to remove fatty foods from their diet. Naturally fed cats should not receive food from the owner’s table. Any fats, spices, salt and smoked products harm the health of the pet. It is important to prepare food for the animal separately in order to balance nutrition as correctly as possible. Do not offer chartreuse pork and exclude fish. Fish in the diet can cause urolithiasis.

    Chartreuse nutrition should be based on lean meats and poultry. In addition to meat, cats should eat eggs, sour-milk non-fat foods, vegetables and greens. Greens are important so that the cat can cleanse the stomach of lumps of wool in time.

    An alternative to natural feeding can be balanced premium feed. They include all the necessary components that a healthy pet needs. You can alternate natural food with prepared feeds, but do not offer the animal at the same time. Fresh drinking water should be in constant availability of chartreuse.

    Chartrez disease

    Many thoroughbred cats have a number of genetic diseases acquired as a result of breeding animals within the same breed. Some illnesses occur in animals due to the structural features of the body, head and internal organs. Similar diseases are inherent in chartreuse:

    1. Hip dysplasia and dislocation of the knee joints. If the cat’s behavior has become unusual, she doesn’t want to play, and spends more and more time in one pose, maybe she started having problems with her joints. Sudden claudication without injury may confirm this suggestion. It is important to consult a doctor in time to begin the necessary therapy and to eliminate serious consequences.
    2. Diseases of the teeth. The structural feature of the skull has made changes in the location of the teeth. The incisors are very small and are located close to each other. Sometimes other teeth simply push them out. It is important to ensure that plaque does not form on the teeth and stones do not appear. Because of them, the pet may lose healthy teeth.
    3. Cardiovascular disease caused by overweight animals. To exclude such ailments, the diet of the animal should be monitored.

    If the chartreuse provides good living conditions, then it will delight its owner for a long sixteen years. Not all thoroughbred animals have such a long life. This indicates the good health of the Cartesian cat, its good stamina and ability to adapt to different living conditions.

    In general, the breed does not present any difficulties of maintenance. The balanced nature and ease of care make chartreuse increasingly popular in the world. It is important to vaccinate the animal on time and show it to the veterinarian at least once a year to prevent and exclude the development of pathology.