Tolai Hare - Lepus tolai
Body length 40-50 cm.
The tail is black on top. Ears are very long, occasionally with a dark rim. The remaining color is sandy gray. The footprints are narrow, pointed, like a roach, but smaller: the length of the hind paw footprint is 9-12 cm, width 2-3 cm. It lives in semi-deserts and dry steppes in the south of Siberia and, possibly, under Astrakhan. Adheres to the surroundings of ponds with bushes and lush grass. It is especially common in shrubs in winter. In the hot time of the day, hiding in the shade of a bush, changing the place of lying after the movement of the shade. The breeding season is from March to August, during the summer there are 2-3 broods. Little tolays often hide in rodent holes. Places of hunting.
In the book version
Volume 32. Moscow, 2016, p. 234
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TOLAY, tolai hare (Lepus tolai), a mammal of the hare genus. Body length up to 55 cm, ears up to 12 cm, weight 1.5–2.8 kg. The color is gray with brownish or ocher tones, the alternation of dark and light outer hair is characteristic, the tips of the ears are dark, the ventral side and throat are white. Winter fur is lighter. It lives in the strip of deserts and semi-deserts of Asia, in Russia - in the dry steppes of the South. Siberia, to the south. Altai, in the Chui steppe, in the south of Buryatia, the Trans-Baikal Territory and in the basin of the upper reaches of the Amur, in the mountains to the heights. 3000 m. Prefers places with high grassy, shrubby or tugai vegetation. Adheres to permanent sites. It can form clusters of up to 30 individuals during rutting or in winter. Activity twilight and night. He arranges lodging in shallow pits, less often hides in abandoned holes (marmots, foxes, etc.). It feeds on the green parts of plants, digs out roots and bulbs, eats ripened wheat, barley, corn, eats young shoots in winter, gnaws at the bark. trees and bushes. All in. parts of the range to 2, south to 4 litters per year. It gives birth to 4–6 rabbits. Maturity in the second year of life. An important object of hunting. May cause minor damage. x-woo. One of the main carriers of tularemia, is involved in plague epizootics. Strength is subject to. periodic fluctuations.
Contents of the dissertation candidate of biological sciences Baytanaev, Ozat Amantayevich
Chapter I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLAINS OF KAZAKHSTAN AND ASIA AS AREA AS A PLACE OF HABITATION OF A HARE-TOLAY
1. Natural conditions
2. Work methods and material volume
Chapter P. TAXONOMIC POSITION, MO NON-METRIC AND MURIFYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE HARE-TOLA
1. Taxonomic position
4. The size of the ears is an adaptive sign of tolai living in the arid zone
Chapter S. AREAL AND SPATIAL ACCOMMODATION OF A HARE-TOLAI
1. The nature of the location of the roofing inside the range
3. The northern periphery of the range and its changes
Chapter 17. ACTIVITY, ELEMENTS OF ETHOLOGY OF THE HARE-TOLAI
Chapter 7. FOOD HARE TOLAI
Chapter L. REPRODUCTION, HEAD AND AGE COMPOSITION OF A HARE-TOLAI
1. Features of reproduction
2. Sex and age composition
Head of UL DYNAMICS OF HARE-TOLAI NUMBER
1. Influence on the number of weather conditions
3. The role of predators in the regulation of the number of crowns
Head of USh. ROLE OF HARE-TOLAI IN NATURAL
DIGITAL TULAREMIA TREASURES
1. Interspecific (topical) contacts with rodents and parasitic connections with ixodid ticks
2. Tolai hare and the natural focus of tularemia
Introduction of the dissertation (part of the abstract) on the topic “Tolai hare (Lepus Tolai Pall,) in Kazakhstan and Central Asia (biology and role in the tugai foci of tularemia)”
The relevance of the work. Tolai hare is one of the most important species of animals of desert, semi-desert and mountain biogeocenoses of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Therefore, the study of his biology is of both practical and theoretical interest. Meanwhile, tolai on the flat part of the range to the present time, Sil has been studied in detail only in the lower reaches of the Ili River (Perevalov A.A., 1953, 1956). At the same time, for the first time here, the questions of reproduction, nutrition, population dynamics and helminthic infestations were studied in detail, as well as some other aspects of its ecology. In addition, literary information on hare-tolling from the lower reaches of the Ili River, and in other parts of its range are scolded by M.N. Bogdanov (1892), S.P. Naumov (1927), D.N. Kashkarov (1932), V. N. Shnitnikova (1936), A. A. Sludsky (1939, 1953), S. U. Stroganova and A. S. Stroganova (1944), M. N. Korlov (1947), B. A. Kuznetsov (1948) B.A.Beloslyudova (1948), V.G. Krivosheeva (1959), O.N. Nurgeldeeva (1960.1969), V.P. Kostina (1962), M.M. Ostapenko (1963), Yu.F. Sapozhenkova (1964), R. Reimova (1972a, 19726), G.S. Davydov (1974), N. Ishadova (1974), etc. However, in general, this hare has not been studied enough (S. Naumov, Shatalova S.P., 1974), especially as a separate carrier x natural focal diseases of humans and animals, including tularemia. Moreover, the current state of its range, distribution over the territory, and changes in numbers have been little studied.
T.N. Dunaeva (1979) believes that of all the diseases found in rabbits, only tularemia infection is of epidemiological significance *. Therefore, we carried out the present work to clarify the most important elements of the animal’s ecology. In this case, the role of the hare-thawing in the formation of natural foci of tularemia of the tugai type, located in the lower valleys of large rivers - Ili, Chu, Syr Darya and Amu Darya - remained poorly studied (Kondrashkin G.A., 1957, Olsufiev N.G., 1960, Aikimbaev M.A., 1967). Little was known about the structure of these foci. We have made attempts to fill these gaps.
The purpose and objectives of the study. The purpose of the thesis is to study the ecology of the hare-tolai in the area of the range where such information is almost absent (the lower reaches of the Chu-hospital), a generalization of the biology of this species from the plains of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, an assessment of the specific role of tolium in the natural foci of tula-remy infection of tugai type. In implementing this goal, it became necessary to solve the following tasks:
1. The study of the patterns of habitat and spatial distribution of the hare-thunder, the characteristics of fluctuations in its numbers and breeding.
2. Characterization of interspecific and parasitic contacts of the toll with rodents and ixodid ticks.
3. Analysis of the facts of his participation in the regular circulation of the causative agent of tularemia. The most complete assessment of the role of tolai hare in the natural foci of this disease.
Scientific novelty. Many biology issues of this species have been clarified: the range, distribution of the tol inside it and the habitat, population density, activity, nutrition, enemies, and endochs. We add that tola brucellosis can also give epidemic (complications (Rementsova M.M., Levit AB, 1960 ). parasites and the nature of interspecific relationships. The maps (М 1: 5000 LLC) of the thrust range, made using the square grid method, as well as the results of studying its biocenotic relationships, are presented for the first time.
Theoretical and practical value. The theoretical value of the proposed work lies in the fact that all the material on the biology of rabbit-hare and the natural foci of tularemia in the arid zone of Kazakhstan and Central Asia is systematized, and the general theory of the foci of this infection is expanded and supplemented. It is shown that tolai, due to a number of factors, is not the main source of tularemia in all foci. In connection with the expected transformation of these ancient foci of the disease (as a result of anthropogenic influence), the dissertation is of certain interest.
The material collected by the author was fully included in the capital summary “Mammals of Kazakhstan” (vol. 2, Zayobraznye, Alma-Ata, Nauka, 1980), of which he is a co-author.
Based on the scientific results obtained, the author compiled guidelines for employees of the sanitary-epidemiological stations involved in the prevention of tularemia within the studied natural focal areas. So, since 1978, the work plans of the Dzhambul and Alma-Ata regional sanitary and epidemiological stations include items regarding the use of our data in the planning and implementation of epizootological examinations, selective vaccination of a contingent of people who have direct contact with the outbreak (hunters, students of construction teams), regular counts of the numbers of hare, gerbils, mouse-like rodents, as well as ticks.
An improved methodology for accounting the number of hare-tolai was introduced by us into the practice of the Aralomorsk antiplague and a number of sanitary and epidemiological stations of the Kazakh SSR.
The results of the thesis are used in the lecture course "Epizootology and the natural foci of tularemia", taught at the advanced training courses for doctors and biologists, as well as to foreign specialists (Vietnam, Mongolia, Burma) at the Central Asian Anti-Plague Institute.
Approbation of work. The materials of the dissertation were reported at the republican conference of young scientists (Alma-Ata, 1976), at the scientific council and at the scientific conference of the Central Asian N.-i. Antiplague Institute and the Biological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Alma-Ata, 1977-1978, Novosibirsk, 1979, 1983).
Publications The main provisions of the dissertation are reflected in II scientific papers, with a total volume of 4 printed pages, and in almost all publications the author is the main performer and prepared the manuscript for publication.