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This widespread species is found throughout Central America from the states of Veracruz and Chiapas in Mexico to the Valle del Cauca in Colombia. It grows in mixed forests like a ground orchid, as well as on rocks and along roadsides in the open sun at an altitude of 100-1500 m above sea level.
Climate in natural habitats:
- Fixed temperature range from + 10 ° C to + 34 ° C.
- Average humidity ranges from 70% in winter to 80% in summer and autumn.
- Precipitation from 5–10 mm. from January to March to 230-300 mm. throughout the summer and fall.
- The average temperatures (day / night) are from + 24.4 ° C / + 15 ° C in January to + 27.2 ° C / + 17.4 ° C in May.
Plant size and type:
A very large terrestrial or rocky orchid, sometimes reaching three meters in height. On its stems, resembling shoots of grapes, a lot of mustaches and processes appear, and the orchid, growing, forms high dense thickets. A distinctive feature of this species are aerial roots that appear on nodes along the entire length of the stem. Due to its rapid growth, this Epidendrum is not recommended for cultivation in small rooms.
Roughly hard fleshy leathery leaves 8–10 cm long and about 2.5 cm wide grow from nodes along shoots. Leaves are yellow-green, ovate-oblong, with rounded tips.
Very long, sometimes reaching 60 cm in length, the peduncle grows on top of the shoot. Flowers alternately bloom in the apical part of the peduncle, which continues to grow as the flowers develop.
Each peduncle carries from five to ten flowers with a diameter of 3.5 cm. The color of the flowers is very diverse: they can be orange, red, yellow, scarlet, cinnabar or orange-red. The lip in the center is decorated with large yellow spots. Petals and sepals elliptical, open. The fringed sides of the lip resemble wings. The middle part is also fringed.
Flowering period: in nature it blooms all year round, in culture it can also bloom throughout the year with a maximum in late winter and early spring.
The plant is moderately thermophilic. Throughout the year, the average daily temperature is + 24–27 ° C, and the night temperature + 15–17 ° C with a daily difference of 8–11 ° C. But due to the large difference in heights at which this Epidendrum occurs, the plant can adapt to temperatures 4 ° C higher or lower.
40,000 to 50,000 suites. In nature, these orchids often grow in the open sun, therefore, in culture, the plant needs the brightest light that would not cause leaf burns. Constant strong ventilation is required.
From late spring to autumn, rainfall in those places where the Epidendrum rooting grows is plentiful, but in winter their average amount drops sharply. In a culture, during a period of active growth, the plant should be often watered, gradually reducing watering from the end of autumn. However, complete drying of the substrate should not be allowed.
During the period of intensive growth, the plant is fed weekly 1 / 4–1 / 2 of the recommended dose of fertilizer for orchids. In autumn, a fertilizer with a low nitrogen and high potassium content should be used. This contributes to abundant flowering in the next season. To avoid excessive salinization, it is recommended to wash the substrate about once a month. This is especially important in areas where the water is too hard. First you need to water the plant as usual to dissolve the mineral salts, and after about an hour, rinse the substrate with water in an amount equal to twice the volume of the pot.
This orchid is usually grown in pots filled with a loose and rapidly drying substrate, for example, medium-sized pine bark with the addition of chopped sphagnum moss, perlite and charcoal. Transplant the plant at the slightest sign of decomposition of the substrate. This is best done at the time of the growth of new roots.
About 80–85% most of the year, but in winter and early spring it drops to almost 70%.
Temperature conditions should be the same throughout the year. Although precipitation is insignificant in nature in winter, fogs and dew often form due to high air humidity and a large daily temperature difference, which gives plants additional moisture. Therefore, in culture during this period, watering must be reduced, but not to allow complete drying of the substrate. Top dressing is limited or completely stopped before the resumption of abundant watering in the spring.
Species forms of the epidendrum differ among themselves not only in external signs, but also in size. Despite the significant differences, they all have a shortened creeping shoot, which is a small branched rhizome, and solid dense leaves, like in real succulents. The foliage is located either at the top of tiny pseudobulbs in a few pieces, or grows in the next order on the surface of direct thin shoots. Breeders have bred varieties that are characterized by linear-lanceolate leaves with sharp ends. On the site next to the central vein, the leaves slightly fold in half. In other species, the plates are wide and oval, concave inward and resemble the shape of a boat or a scoop.
Peduncles of the upper tier often consist of a group of flowers. Inflorescences look like a ball or brush. The buds are closely pressed against each other. Some varieties carry only single-flowered inflorescences or lush spikelets, which are formed from a pair of flowers. The plant boasts saturated flowering. The diameter of the largest inflorescences reaches 14 cm. And, conversely, the smallest brushes barely reach 1 cm.
The bud is formed of 3 sepals and 2 petals. In some cases, these flower elements are similar in color and shape. The 3rd petal is a complex lip. The tubular lip is hiding near the legs.
Epidendrum orchid care at home
Epidendrum has not yet gained popularity among domestic gardeners, but abroad, specialized stores offer consumers a wide range of such orchids. There are both traditional species and unusual hybrid combinations. It is recommended to grow crops that growers with extensive experience with indoor plants, as beginners in this business run the risk of encountering many difficulties when caring for a flower.
Location and lighting
The orchid is kept in a well-lit room, but at the same time it is protected from direct scorching rays. It is better to place the flowerpot on the windowsill next to the window opening, which is built in a western or eastern direction. If flower pots are left on the south side of the building, the plant is closed from the sun every day at noon.
Leaving the epidendrum near windows looking north is a bad idea. Even in summer there is a lack of natural light. To create normal conditions for growth, artificial phytolamps are installed nearby. The optimal lighting that the culture needs is observed at 6,000 lux, and the daylight hours are at least 10 hours. Backlighting is used in the autumn-winter season, when the sun sets quickly.
The flower requires a moderately warm microclimate. A prerequisite is to ensure temperature differences day and night. Daytime room temperature should not exceed 18-25 ° C, and nighttime temperature should fall below 12-16 ° C. So that the plant develops correctly, they try to maintain the difference in daily temperatures within 6 ° C.
In the interval from spring to early autumn it is allowed to keep the flowerpot on the street, but at the same time monitor the weather so that night frost sets in. A sharp cooling at night threatens a freezing of culture. Stalks protect from direct solar streams of light and shelter from rain. The temperature regime is important if the owners want to get a healthy and beautiful orchid.
Soil selection is determined by the species. Tall and large varieties, for example, rooting epidendrum, are advised to be planted in containers, and for low varieties, on the contrary, use blocks.
The necessary soil mixture is collected from drainage (scraps of pine bark), peat land, moss and a small fraction of charcoal. A large fragment of the cortex is used for the block. The rhizome of the flower is placed on the bark along with the roots. Moisture after watering will not evaporate so quickly if you wrap the block with a thin layer of sphagnum.
Irrigation water is pre-settled at room temperature. A flower pot or block is immersed in a basin of water. The top watering method is not recommended. In this position, the container is left for 20-30 minutes. Having taken it out of the water, they wait until all drops of water have drained. Then the pot is returned to the windowsill.
The next watering is organized after the drying of the upper earthen layer, and the drying of the soil poses a threat to the roots.
The room does not have to be too humid, it is enough that the humidity level is in the range of 50-70%. It is easy to achieve such indicators by installing pallets with expanded clay, where a small amount of water is added. Twice a day, the leaves must be sprayed with warm water.
What to feed
Fertilizer is applied every 2-3 weeks. In stores, manufacturers offer special complex formulations for orchid crops. The nutrient mixture is diluted in irrigation water, observing the dosage indicated on the package.
The plant actively develops throughout the whole year and does not go into a dormant state.
The method that is best suited for propagation is directly related to the type of orchid. The flower is bred by children collected from the surface of the shoot, or through the division of rhizomes. You can also root parts of the adult bush, cut from the top, where there are air root growths.
When dividing the bush, it is important to take into account that the delenki retain 3 developed pseudobulbs or shoots. Children are disconnected from the bushes, provided that they have already formed strong long roots.
Diseases and pests
With proper care, the plant is rarely attacked by insects, but if you violate the requirements for the content of the crop, you will have to prepare for difficulties. Pseudobulbs and root layers begin to decay as a result of overflow of soil. Burns on the leaves appear when the flowerpot is constantly under the sun. Poor lighting causes flowering problems.
Epidendrum rooting (Epidendrum radicans)
It belongs to lithophytes, is found in the tropical forest belt of Colombia and sometimes grows in Mexico. The flower is characterized by thin shoots, devoid of leaves, and many aerial roots. The length of the stems is often up to half a meter. The tips of the plates look pointed. Narrow foliage of an ellipsoidal type. The size of the leaves does not exceed 10-14 cm.
Peduncles crowned with clusters of spherical flowers. Petals are painted in a rich red tone. The diameter of one flower is up to 4 cm. Inflorescences are surrounded by sepals no larger than 5 mm. The borders of the sepals are spiky. The widest petals resemble small rhombuses, and the three-lobed lip is similar in shape to a flying bird. In the center of the lips, rectangular lush lobes stick out. The central petal has forked tips. On the surface of the pharynx, it is easy to see a bright yellow spot.
Epidendrum cross or ibaguei (Epidendrum ibaguense)
A wild-growing species of orchid that is commonly known in South and Central America. Something reminiscent of the previous description, but different arrangement of aerial roots. They surround only the axillary part of the escape. Inflorescences of the cross epidendrum are colored in various shades: red, yellow or orange.
Epidendrum ciliated (Epidendrum ciliare)
Natural crop plantings are concentrated in the humid areas of Central America. A plant of medium length, is included in the group of epiphytes. Bulbous bulbs are covered with one or a pair of leaves. The central foliage is predominantly elongated and elliptical. The length of the plates is 15 cm. Flower-bearing arrows on the tops are covered with racemose inflorescences. Fragrant flowers are relatively small in size. The diameter of the largest flower reaches about 9 cm. The color of the sepals is yellow with a green tint, the petals are narrow, lanceolate. A white lip stands out against the rest of the green. The fringed edges on the sides are dissected, like shaggy feathers. The elongated lobe, which occupies a leading position, is also narrowed in the center and has a clear resemblance to a spear.
Ivory Epidendrum (Epidendrum eburneum)
This is an epiphyte found in Panama and Costa Rica. Smooth and rounded shoots at the ends are extended by 20-80 cm in accordance with the age of the orchid. Their surface is protected by a tubular shell, like a thin film remaining after fallen leaves. The ground part of the plates is narrow and oval. The size of each leaf is about 11 cm and the width is 2 cm. Short peduncles bear 4-6 pieces of fragrant large flowers with diameters of about 6 cm. The very thin sepals surrounding the flower are lanceolate. The color of the petals is light, close to ivory. A voluminous, continuous lip resembles a heart. Its width is approximately 4 cm. In addition to a white lip and pharynx, a bright yellow spot is present on the inflorescence.
Crescent Epidendrum (Epidendrum falcatum)
Another lithophyte that can be seen in the natural environment only in a limited area - Mexico. The plant is compact in size, therefore suitable for home growing. The height of the shoots containing small pseudobulbs with one leaf does not exceed 30 cm. Young bushes barely reach 10 cm. The diameter of separately arranged flowers is up to 8 cm. The sepals have a white-green tone, a lanceolate structure is also characteristic. Elements of the lips are wide rhombuses. The borders of the lips bend slightly to the top. The central part of the calyx is belt-shaped and narrow. On the shell of the pharynx, a yellow spot peeps inside.
1. Seven secrets of success:
Botanical name: Epidendrum.
Family . Orchidaceae.
Origin . Tropics of America.
Height . The size of plants varies greatly depending on the species and is 30 - 150 cm.
This genus of orchids needs very bright lighting. As a rule, it should be scattered in this case, but there are also species that can withstand direct sunlight. But despite this, such flowers need to be shaded from the scorching midday rays of the sun, otherwise burns may appear on the surface of the foliage.
It is preferable to put the flower pot on the windowsill windows of the southern, western and eastern orientation.Regardless of which window the plant is located in, in autumn and winter it will need additional illumination with special phytolamps, and the daylight hours should last from 10 to 12 hours.
Most species require moderate-warm or moderate temperature conditions. In this case, the plant must ensure the difference in daily temperatures. So, you need to try so that throughout the year the temperature in the daytime is 18-22 degrees, and at night - from 13 to 16 degrees. Experienced growers recommend that the encyclines provide a difference in daily temperatures of approximately 5 degrees.
Under favorable weather conditions, in the warm season (May – October), it is recommended to transfer the orchid to the street. However, she needs to be protected from gusts of wind, direct sunlight and precipitation. On the street it is much easier to maintain the required temperature.
To grow such an orchid, both blocks and pots are used. To fill the pot use sphagnum, conifer bark and small pieces of charcoal. A large piece of pine bark is taken as a block. On its surface, you need to fix the root system and the rhizome of the flower, while they should be wrapped with a not too thick layer of moss.
How to water
All year round, the plant is watered abundantly and often. Watering should be done only after the bark is almost completely dry. On the surface of the root system there is a rather thick layer of velamen, and therefore it can withstand short droughts (do not make the dry period too long). It is recommended to water the encycline not in the usual way, but immerse the pot (block) in a basin filled with lukewarm water for 20-30 minutes. The water temperature should be approximately 30–35 degrees. This time is enough for the bark and roots to be saturated with moisture. After this, the plant must be removed and wait until the excess liquid drains. Then it is put in its usual place.
It should be watered exclusively with soft water. It can be filtered or let it settle well.
The plant does not require excessively high humidity. Optimum humidity should be between 50 and 70 percent. To increase humidity, you can pour expanded clay into the pan and pour a little water, or put an open container filled with liquid next to it. If the humidity is very low, then you can use household humidifiers or steam generators. Experienced gardeners advise, at least once a day to moisten a plant, bark, as well as moss from a sprayer.
The rest period of this plant. He does not need it for abundant flowering and normal development. In the case when an apparently healthy flower has not formed a single peduncle in 12 months, it will be necessary to artificially create a stressful situation for it. To do this, completely stop watering for 11-14 days, as well as skip several fertilizer application procedures.
When grown indoors, such an orchid can be propagated by dividing the rhizome. It should be remembered that each dividend must have at least 3 mature pseudobulbs.
Propagated by seeds only under industrial conditions, they also use the cloning method (meristem propagation).
Pests and diseases
A spider mite can live on the plant. If this pest was found, then the flower should have a warm shower (approximately 45 degrees), while thoroughly washing the foliage.
Can get sick in case of violation of the rules of care. So, rot may appear as a result of too frequent and abundant watering, if watered very poorly - the roots will dry out, direct sunlight can leave burns on the foliage. Also, if there is poor lighting, then you are unlikely to see flowering.
Ferruginous encyclia (Encyclia adenocaula)
This is the most beautiful view of all representatives of this genus. The flower itself is of medium size, mature pseudobulbs in height can reach from 5 to 7 centimeters. The leaves are quite long from 30 to 50 centimeters. The meter-long peduncle is multi-flowered. Aromatic flowers of a sufficiently large size (up to 10 centimeters in diameter) are painted in a delicate, pinkish-purple color. Sepals and petals have a narrow-lanceolate form. The triangular lip is quite wide, however, at the central lobe, the lateral parts are bent downward, so it acquires a wedge-shaped shape. In the center of the lip are dark purple longitudinal strokes, and at its base is a snow-white speck.
Encyclia winged (Encyclia alata)
This plant has achieved particular popularity due to its fragrant flowers and undemanding care. It is quite large. So, a bush can reach a height of 1.5 meters, and a width of 0.5 meters. Multifloral peduncles have the same length as the bushes themselves. The flowers are relatively small, so in diameter they reach no more than 5-6.5 centimeters. The yellowish-green narrow sepals and petals have a spade or obovate shape. In their upper part there are many small points of burgundy color. The lips are quite large whitish-yellow side parts have a wide oval shape. On the triangular central part of the lip there are longitudinal burgundy strokes, and its wavy edge is painted in a rich yellow color.
Direct sunlight can fall on plants in the evening morning hours, daily. To shade an orchid is in the afternoon - in the spring and in the summer. In autumn and winter, maximum illumination is needed. With a lack of natural light, fluorescent lamps can be used.
2.4 Substrate for orchids
You can use the finished mixture for growing orchids or make your own from leaf humus, peat, sphagnum moss, pine bark or fern fibers, well-rotted manure and small pieces of charcoal. The soil should easily pass moisture and air to the roots of the plant, add coarse sand or perlite to improve drainage.
2.7 flowering time
The flowering period is long - it can last more than a month, usually occurs in spring or summer. The exact time of flowering varies depending on the species. Many epidendrums can bloom several times a year.
A transplant is carried out only if it is necessary to change the soil or the size of the pot in the spring. Never replant flowering plants. Pick up clay unglazed pots with large drainage holes for planting. The clay walls of such pots easily pass moisture and air to the roots of orchids.
Bract encyclia (Encyclia bractescens)
This dwarf species is very popular. It differs in that it can form quite dense and dense green colonies. The height of mature pseudobulbs is from 2 to 3 centimeters, and the leaves of linear-lanceolate shape have a length of 40 centimeters. Peduncles bear many flowers and they, as a rule, do not rise above the leaves. Small fragrant flowers have a diameter of only 2.5 centimeters. Brownish-yellow sepals and petals have a lanceolate shape. The broad lip is spade-shaped painted white. On its surface are longitudinal blurry streaks of purple.SharePinTweetSendSend