Home / - Next View Volume 5 / Short-Tailed Streptopelia / Streptopelia tranquebarica (Hermann, 1804)
|Type Name:||Short-tailed dove|
|Latin name:||Streptopelia tranquebarica (Hermann, 1804)|
|English name:||Red-coilared dove|
|French name:||Tourtorelle indien|
|German name:||Weirole halsfringtaube|
|Latin synonyms:||Columba tranquebarica, Columba humilis, Turtur humilis, Oenopopelia tranquebarica|
|Gender:||Streptopelia bonaparte (1855)|
|Status:||A stray, possibly rare breeding species in Southern Primorye.|
General characteristics and field characteristics
The smallest of our turtledoves, according to the body’s warehouse, is closer to “real” pigeons. Total body length 230–235 mm, wingspan 400–410 mm. The color at a distance is reddish brown above, wine brown below, especially in males. Like other turtledoves, it flies beautifully. The flight is swift, fast, with a noisy flapping of wings during takeoff. A seated bird lurks in the dense crown of trees and behaves silently and secretly. Flies alone and in pairs. It is found on the ground only during feeding and watering, it moves easily in small steps.
The voice of the short-tailed throat is sharply different from the voice of other species of pigeons and resembles the deep grunting short “y, y” or “gru-gurr-goo”.
It differs from other species of turtledoves by its small size, relatively short and slightly rounded tail, red-brown back color and voice.
Coloring. Male and female in mating attire. Unlike other types of doves, sexual dimorphism in color is characteristic. In an adult male, the head and neck are ash gray, on the back of the neck there is a black crescent wide half-ring that separates the gray color of the neck and the reddish color of the back. The back, upper covering wings and humeral, chest and belly are brownish-wine-red, with a bluish tinge in fresh plumage. The coloration of the lower body is paler than on the back. The lower back, the mantle and the upper tail coverts are gray, the undertail is whitish or pale gray. The sides of the body, axillary and lower covering wings are light gray or gray-gray. The feathers of the feathers are dark brown, tail feathers are gray, the ends of the tail feathers are white, and as they approach the center of the tail, they turn gray. The middle pair of helmsmen is grayish-brown, the tail is slightly rounded.
The female has an earthen-brown upper body, a pinkish-gray tint on her chest, and a light gray head. The black half-ring on the neck is not as sharp as that of the male, trimmed with a narrow grayish-white border. The forehead is whitish. On wing coverts, reddish apical rims are weakly expressed. The upper tail coverts and the middle tail are gray, with a brownish-olive hue. The lower side of the body is a dull pinkish brown (Meklenburtsev, 1951, Ivanov et al., 1953). Seasonal outfits are not expressed.
Down dress: from the territory of North Asia is not described.
The nesting outfit is similar to the outfit of an adult female, but the black half-ring on the neck is even weaker, feathers on the back, upper covering wings, humeral, fly wings and on the chest with pale ocher or dirty white apex rims. The general coloration of the body above and below is lighter and grayer than that of a female.
Three subspecies are distinguished, of which Chinese short-tailed turtledoves are found in Eastern Europe and North Asia.
1.Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis
Columba humilis Temniinck, 1824, Planches color ,, livr. 44, tab. 259, Bengal
The subspecies differ slightly in size, the saturation of wine shades of the general body color, the color of the axillary and lower wing coverts. S. t. humilis is distinguished by the darkest general color of the plumage of the body, as well as by the monochromatic gray-gray lower wing coverts and axillaries (Stepanyan, 1975).
Nesting range. Southeast Asia, including all of India, to Kashmir, Burma, Indochina (without Malacca), Sri Lanka, Andaman, Hainan, Taiwan, Northern Philippines. In China, it lives in the basins of the Yellow and Blue rivers, it is possible to nest in Northwest China, Northeast Afghanistan. Conventional flights to Borneo, the Japanese Islands, to Afghanistan, Manchuria, the south of Primorye (Goodwin, 1967, Ali, Ripley, 1969). In 80 years until 1951, in Eastern Europe and North Asia, four flights were recorded (in autumn) in Primorye and one in Transbaikalia (Ivanov et al., 1953): in June 1856 near Nerchinsk (1), in the autumn 1856 on Askold Island (Peter the Great Bay) (2), October 1, 1877 on Askold Island - 9 specimens, and in summer a small flock was noted (3), on the coast near the mouth of the river. Kasyga October 25, 1908 (4), an adult male in September 1948 near the city of Khabarovsk (5) (Meklenburtsev, 1951). In October 1962, on October 3, a single male (6) was caught on the De Vries Peninsula (Omelko et al., 1974). The chronicle of the meetings of the Short-tailed Dovetail testifies to the irregularity of its flights to the territory of Southern Primorye, far beyond the northern border of the nesting range, there is no reason to talk about the expansion of its range to the north, however, the probability of nesting of single pairs is not excluded if there are suitable conditions in the settlements of Primorye.
Figure 36. The area of distribution of the short-tailed dove
a - border of the breeding range, b - unexplained border of the breeding range, c - flies. Subspecies: 1 - Streptopelia tranquebarica traaquebarica, 2 - S. t. humiJis, 3 - S. t. murimensis
Figure 37. Short-tailed Streptopelia meetings in Southern Primorye
The numbers in the circles correspond to the numbers of finds
Genre: Pets, Home & Family
Current page: 13 (total of the book 16 pages)
Distributed in Europe, North-West Africa, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, the Himalayas, China. In the northern part of the range, it is a migratory bird; in the rest, it is a settled bird.
On the territory of our country, the vyakhir winters in Transcaucasia, Central Asia, and sometimes remains in Moldova. It inhabits deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. In Western Europe, in addition, lives in city parks.
After arriving from the wintering grounds (March - April), the vyahiri keep in small flocks, then break up into pairs, occupying nesting areas, and begin to build a nest, which is built from thin branches of various tree species at a height of 3-4 m. The nest is placed between two females near the trunk and represents a loose, rather random pile of branches through which eggs are visible from below. The first clutch appears in April or early May, the second - in mid-July. Hatching lasts 17–18 days, in which both birds take part. During the entire period of nesting, males often coo and make current flights, flapping wings in the air and, as it were, flaunting in front of the females. During cooing, it’s easy to approach a wahir with a shotgun, and poachers often use it, thereby condemning the nest with eggs or chicks to death. Vyakhir does not tolerate anxiety during the hatching and feeding of chicks, and in fright, it forever throws a nest. If a person accidentally finds himself near a nest, do not disturb the bird and stop the pigeon from sitting on its eggs. Chicks fly out of the nest at the age of 30 days and gather in flocks, and old birds proceed to the next conclusion of the chicks.
The favorite food of the vyahir is the seeds of conifers, which are often stuffed with goiter. They collect these seeds not only on the ground, but also peck from the opened fir cones. Vahir also eats seeds of herbaceous plants, lingonberries, snails and earthworms.
The mass of the vahir varies depending on the availability of food and its composition. The average mass of males during the period of sexual activity is 510 g. At this time, it feeds mainly on germinating plant seeds. During the period of growth, flowering, and at the beginning of the ripening of cereals, the mass of the pigeon decreases by 35 g, then during the ripening of cereals and harvesting, the mass increases, but does not return to its original value. During the period of sexual depression, starting in October, vyahiri again gain weight, especially when they actively feed on acorns and beech nuts: males - on average up to 526 g, females - up to 516 g. With this diet, weight gain is especially noticeable in females. By autumn, vyahiri form flocks common with young birds, which often feed on mown meadows and harvested fields, collecting fallen grains of wheat or other seeds of cultivated plants. Of the pigeons of our fauna, only vyakhir can harm agriculture. Crops of cereals and peas are most often damaged by flocks of vyakhirei. Damage to vegetables is usually local in nature. It was noted that the size of damage to crops largely depends on the availability of natural feed. An insignificant yield of blueberries, blackberries and other feeds determines the concentration of vyakhirei in the fields, where in those years they cause significant damage to the grain harvest. The opposite picture is observed with an abundant harvest of natural feed, when vyahiri cause little damage to crops.
Therefore, during the pigeon invasion of agricultural fields, to reduce the damage, one should open the hunt for these birds earlier than usual.
Caught vyahiri soon become tame and live for many years in a zoo. They should be kept in the aviary, in the cage they quickly fatten. With other species of pigeons, vyahiri usually get along well. In the outdoor aviary breeds. Otherwise, the maintenance, care and feeding are the same as domestic pigeons.
Brown Dove (C. eversmanni)
The brown pigeon looks like a wild bluish pigeon, but it is smaller and has a dark, slate-gray plumage with a strong admixture of a brown hue on the front of the back, shoulders and wings. Its beak is dark gray with a yellowish tip.
Distributed in Central Asia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, North India. Nesting sites are various (burrows, hollows, abandoned human buildings, wells, etc.), but prefers tree plantations, especially groves of old elms, plane trees, mulberry trees or poplars. It often nests in colonies, sometimes in conjunction with cesars, but the number of birds in them is never significant. Cities and large villages are avoided by birds. The nesting season begins in April and ends in July.
The bird lays eggs on the bottom of a hollow or burrow without any litter. Usually they have 2 broods per year.
The main food is wheat, safflower, alfalfa, weed, and snail seeds, but they especially like wild foliage plants.
Dark-Tailed Dove (C. picazuro)
The head and top of the chest are wine red with a matte finish, the bottom of the chest and belly are pale red. On the neck, nape and around the eyes there is a “scaly” pattern of white and gray feathers with black borders. The top is gray, on the back and wings there is a “scaly” feather pattern with dark bordering. Bill is dark, eye circles are carmine-red. The legs are red. The length of the bird is 37.5 cm, the tail is 11.5 cm. It lives in South America, inhabits forests, and sometimes occurs in open areas with free-standing trees. Held in packs. The main feed is plant seeds, food waste, various fresh greens. Birds nest on trees, nesting on a female at a height of 5 m. The nesting season lasts from November to December.
In the zoo lives long and breeds. While feeding the chicks, it is recommended that dark-tailed pigeons be given soft food: millet or steely cooked porridge and egg, finely chopped vegetables and fresh herbs. At normal times, they need to be fed grain mixtures for domestic pigeons.
Real Doves (Streptopelia)
The genus contains 17 species of very diverse birds. They are smaller, slimmer than real pigeons, have a small head, long wings and a tail that is very rounded and with a white stripe at the end. The beak is long, straight. The plumage is usually brownish-sandy or pinkish-gray in color, most species have a ring around their neck that is decorated with these birds, it is black or consists of scaly feathers on the sides of the neck, legs are red, relatively long, suitable for walking on the ground.
All types of true turtledoves - unpretentious birds, feel good in a zoo, can live in it for a long time (up to 20 years), and are quickly tamed. They get so used to the person that they recognize him even after a long absence. These birds are very elegant, beautiful, have a pleasant disposition, and their gentle cooing enlivens the city apartment and diversifies the life of a person. All these advantages of dovesnuts are the reason for their considerable popularity among amateurs - when they enter zoological stores, they quickly sell out.
All types of true turtledoves in domestic zoos multiply well. One of the species, namely the laughing turtledove, is domesticated by humans and has several varieties obtained by breeding them in captivity. A box is used for the nest, which is hung in the corner of the aviary, where they drag branches and blades of grass, eggs are laid on this litter. They should be fed in the same way as domestic pigeons.
Common turtledove (St. turtur)
The head is bluish-gray, the back is buffy-brown with a large scaly pattern on the wings and blue. On the neck there are transverse black and whitish stripes, the beak is dark gray, goiter, chest and front part of the abdomen are grayish-pink, the rest is lighter, the tail is long, fan-shaped with a white stripe. The length of the bird is 28–29 cm, the tail is 11–12 cm. The plumage of the female is paler; young birds have no stripes on their necks.
These pigeons are common in almost all of Europe, Central Asia, North Africa and Kazakhstan. Inhabit deciduous, mixed forests, forest-steppes, and in the steppes and deserts live in river valleys and anthropogenic landscape. They arrive in the middle lane of our country in May. The nesting season is extended, while some birds already have chicks, while others are just starting to build a nest. During courtship of the female, the male emits a gentle and pleasant monotonous coo, consisting of the sounds of "tur-turr". At the same time, he puffs his neck and lowers his head slightly. If you come closer, you can hear how the current male emits a slight click between cooing.
The common turtledove nests at the edges of forests, spikes, brews and other forest stands. A bird's nest is built from brushwood and plant roots, placing it on trees or in bushes. The masonry consists of two white or cream-colored eggs that hatch both birds for 13–16 days. Parents are very attached to chicks and do not leave the nest, even in case of danger. On the 20-21st day, the chicks fly well, become independent and, leaving the nesting area, gather in independent flocks of 7-10 individuals. In the south of the country, common doves have time to make 2 broods over the summer.
The main feed is the seeds of various plants, including trees (pine, spruce, birch, alder, etc.), as well as berries, small mollusks and insects. In spring and summer, they look for food in meadows, pastures, riverbanks, and after ripening of bread - in the fields of wheat, hemp, buckwheat or millet. Ordinary turtledoves of grain from ears and panicles do not peck, but collect them only on the ground. By the fall, they focus on sunflower crops, pecking seeds from baskets, and, together with doves that have flown from the northern areas of the range, cause noticeable damage to the sunflower fields. However, ordinary Streptopelia cannot be considered harmful birds, since they are much more beneficial for the destruction of weed seeds than damage the sunflower crop. Common turtledoves quickly get used to new living conditions, become tame and belong to pleasant house birds. In the enclosure can be bred.
Great Dove (St. orientalis)
The color of the plumage is similar to the color of the common dove, but the size of the large neck is much larger, the nape is brownish-ashen, the forehead is ashen-blue, the bluish-gray color of the integumentary feathers on the lower abdomen and tail is dark, the beak is lighter on the tip, its base dark red, periorbital ring of dark purple color
Distributed in the southern part of Siberia, Transbaikalia, in the Far East.It inhabits forests of various types and large forest belts in an open landscape. In the mountains lives to an altitude of 4000 m above sea level. Migrant. Nests usually in forests with dense undergrowth and undergrowth, as well as along the banks of rivers and lakes covered with trees. The nest is more massive than that of other turtledoves, built of branches and thin twigs, placed low on a tree branch. During the non-breeding period, birds keep in small flocks. The voice of the neck of the throat, bass, coarse, is far heard around and is a bit like the cooing of a whirlwind.
Ringed Doose (St. decaocto)
The head, neck and chest are pinkish, the back is brownish-gray, the neck is black, trimmed with white, a half ring, young birds do not have necklaces around their neck, the tail is very wide with a white stripe, the beak is dark, legs are purple. The length of the bird is 30 cm, the tail is 14–16 cm.
Lives in South-West and South Asia, in recent decades the ring-tailed dove began to actively settle and populated almost all of Europe, individual birds were recorded in Voronezh and even Moscow. In Central Asia, this species is also moving to the north, and now this turtledove has reached Kazalinsk and Chimkent.
Ringed Dove lives in settlements and agricultural landscapes. Very gullible, feeds in the immediate vicinity of houses, collecting carrion, or eats food along with domestic pigeons. In birds living in rural areas, cereals (up to 95%) predominate in food, as well as berries, stone fruits (cherries, cherries, bird cherry trees) that have fallen to the ground.
Overnight places usually exist for many years. Their distribution in rural areas, and especially in the city, is determined to a greater extent by the presence of old trees with closed crowns (pine, spruce, etc.) than by food resources. In most places, the turtledove is sedentary; in the more northern regions, a migratory bird. With the onset of late autumn in the more southern parts of the range, the number of ringed doves increases not only due to young birds, but also due to the arrival of migratory birds.
Ringed doves arrange nests on trees, cornices and balconies of houses from twigs and dry stems of herbaceous plants. Clutches of 2 eggs of yellowish-white color,
Birds give 3-4 broods per year. It was noted that the male protects the female from another male only until she lays the first egg. After that, he spends less time with the female and is more involved in collecting feed. Thus, the male guarantees his paternity and reduces the possibility of raising foreign chicks.
A beautiful and gullible ringed neck decorates and revitalizes our cities and deserves protection.
Small dove (St. senegalensis)
The plumage of the head and lower side of the body is grayish-pink, on the sides there are reddish-black spots, the beak is black, the back is brown-sand, the female has a lighter coloration of the head, neck and chest. Young birds have a more even color of the head, neck and back - from yellowish to pink. The length of the bird is 24–28 cm, the tail is 11–12 cm. It is widespread in Turkey, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the southern part of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. The African subspecies of the small neck has a slightly different color with a predominance of gray tones and larger.
This resident of settlements, enjoys the patronage of man and in his lifestyle resembles other turtledoves.
It feeds on plant seeds and due to human nutrition. In the zoo, ringed and small Streptopelia live long, breed and feel good on a grain mixture of millet, oatmeal, rape and other small seeds. In addition, they need to be given fresh greens (salad, wood lice, dandelion leaves, etc.) and flour worms.
Madagascar turtledove (St. pictrata)
The head is bluish gray, the neck and chest are dark pink. On the neck there is a blackish-spotted pattern of spots, the back and top of the wings are reddish-purple, on the wings there is a dark brown matte spot, the tail is white, the beak is bluish-gray at the end, the base is purple, the ring around the eyes is purple-red, legs are red with matte shade. The female has a lighter coloration of the head, neck and chest. Young birds have an even yellowish or pinkish coloration of the head, neck and back. The length of the bird is 24–28 cm, the tail is 11–12 cm.
Distributed in Madagascar and the surrounding small islands. On the rocky islands and coral reefs of the Seychelles archipelago there was once a subspecies - the Seychelles turtledove with a red head and back. Now the endemic subspecies exists in its pure form only on two small islands, in the remaining places of its former range it disappeared, as it mixed with the nominal species acclimatized here - the Madagascar dove.
The Madagascar turtledove holds itself among stunted shrubs and detached trees, where it searches for seeds of plants on the ground, loves copra and often paces among fruits laid out for drying. In clutch 2, sometimes 3 glossy white eggs. The rest of the birds are very similar to other turtledoves of this group.
They have been bred in zoos since 1907. The maintenance and care are the same as for the small doves.
Laughing turtledove (St. roseogrisea)
The head, neck, chest and abdomen are beige yellow, the back and wings are darker, the ends are slate gray, the neck has a black and white necklace in the form of a half ring, the beak is black, legs are reddish. Young birds without a necklace. In the home form, birds with yellow and pure white color were bred by artificial selection. The length of the bird is 26 cm, the tail is 13 cm.
Lives in North Africa, inhabits the dry steppes overgrown with thorny bushes, near water bodies. This turtledove makes sounds very similar to the cooing of an ordinary turtledove, but resembling laughter, for which it got its name. In search of seeds of wild and cultivated plants, she runs on the ground in the streets of rural villages, near grain depots. Nests are arranged in bushes or on a tree of twigs and fine brushwood. The masonry is hatched alternately by both birds for 2 weeks. The chicks are covered with sparse white fluff, but already on the 3rd or 4th day they have fly and tail feathers, on the 16-18th day they feather completely and soon fly out of the nest.
In the zoo live long and not only domestic birds, but also wild birds breed well. They are unpretentious, are content with any grain mixture with the addition of finely chopped fresh herbs. In the summer, it is best to keep them in an outdoor enclosure with spruce, pine or undergrowth undergrowth. With the onset of cold weather, birds should be transferred to an indoor aviary, since at low temperatures they feel bad and sit up with their tongues. If the open-air cage with a warmed shed, then in such a premises cannons can be kept year-round. Laughing turtledoves live peacefully with other birds. In addition, they are very caring parents, so they can be used as "nannies" for feeding chicks of other species of pigeons.
Short-tailed Dovetail (St. tranguebarica)
The upper side of the plumage is reddish brown, the lower side is wine red, the head and neck are bluish-gray, the throat is lighter, the necklace is black in the form of a half ring, the undercoat is white, the beak is black. The female is smaller than the male and more brownish. The length of the bird is 22 cm, the tail is 9 cm.
Distributed on the Hindustan and Indochina Peninsulas and in Northwest China. Inhabits forests and cultural landscape. The main feed is the seeds of various plants. Nests build high on trees. Short-tailed dove-throat does not tolerate the factor of anxiety and throws a nest upon frequent examination. Hatching lasts 14 days, chicks leave the nest at the age of 11 days.
This turtledove is very shy, rarely lives in the zoo. The bird is cheerful, mobile, therefore it cannot be kept in a cage or in an aviary with other birds, especially small ones, which it greatly frightens with its restless disposition. Nesting devices (drawers, baskets or a wire base) are attached to knots, a tree or in the corner of an indoor enclosure in the most peaceful place, where they would not be disturbed while hatching eggs. The main feed is a grain mixture (millet, wheat, oatmeal, a little poppy, rape, canary seed) and fresh herbs. In the winter, doveslings are kept at a temperature of 18–25 ° C.
Spotted Streptopelia (St. chintnsic)
The head is gray, the forehead is light gray, the back of the head is a wine-red spot with a matte tint, the neck is a wide black half ring with white “drops”, the throat and chest are wine-pink, with a yellowish bloom, the beak is black, the upper body is light brown, lower abdomen tawny, legs matte pink. Some subspecies on the back and wings have white spots on a light brown background. Bird length - 32 cm, tail - 15 cm. Distributed in South Asia.
In California, Australia and the Havana Islands was introduced by man, but feral. Inhabits forests, parks and gardens. Nests fly at an altitude of 3-5 m in the trees. Clutch of 2 white shiny eggs. In a zoo he lives well on a grain mixture of any composition and easily reproduces.
Cuckoo throats (Macropygia)
A group of birds with a characteristic cuckoo-shaped body shape. The plumage usually consists of stripes or dots on a tan background. The tail is stepped or fan-shaped, the middle tail feathers of which are especially long and wide. Distributed (8 species) in Southeast Asia, from the Himalayas to the Solomon Islands and Eastern Australia. The main food is plant seeds, small fruits and berries that they pluck from trees, like fruit-eating pigeons. In captivity are rare. Maintenance and care are the same as for fruit-eating pigeons. Cuckoo throats need to be fed with juicy fruits, berries with the addition of a grain mixture (millet, canola, oatmeal, canary seed).
Malay, or stripe-tailed turtledove (M. unchall)
The plumage of the front of the head and throat is yellowish brown, the top of the head and neck is gray with a pinkish tinge, the rest of the necks and chest are matte pink, the beak is black, the ring around the eyes is bluish-gray, the back and wings are chestnut with black stripes, the stomach and undercoat are yellowish -brown, on the tail feathers are bluish-gray with wide transverse black stripes. It is slightly larger in size than a laughing dove. It inhabits the highlands from East India to Southwest China and south to Java. The main food is plant seeds, fruits, berries and tree buds. The nest usually flies low from the ground on the horizontal branches of a tree; it is a flat platform made of branches.
Madagascar turtledove up to 28 cm long. It is slightly larger than the wild laughing turtledove (Streptopelia roseogrisea), has a slightly more awkward physique compared to her, as well as longer legs. Compared to other turtledoves, she has a short tail. Sexual dimorphism is absent.
The shoulders are red-brown, the back is dark brown, the belly is light brown, the head is bluish-gray. She has brown marks on both sides of her neck. The large hiding feathers are dark brown, and the undertail is white. The eyelids are red. The top of the beak is bluish-gray, the base of the beak is opposite the purple color. The rainbows are red-brown, the periorbital ring is purple.