Text: Elena Kulygina
Soil condition is the main factor in the health and successful development of plants. Most of the work to improve the soil occurs in periods when the land rests from planting, in autumn and spring. Fertility of the soil is determined by a number of its properties: the ratio of minerals, the content of organic matter, the composition of soil microflora, the ability to retain moisture, the reaction of the soil solution.
Soil is called the surface layer of the earth with fertility, that is, the ability to produce crops. Fertility of the soil depends on the presence of humus, or humus, which is formed as a result of the decomposition of organic substances. Humus contains all the basic elements of plant nutrition, the amount of which determines the degree of soil fertility. When cultivating land on a site, this indicator should be constantly increased by proper agricultural technology, the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. Although we will make a reservation right away: there are no single recommendations here and cannot be, since everything depends on the initial state of the cultivated area, namely on the physicomechanical and chemical properties of the soil.
According to their mechanical (granulometric) composition, soils (with the exception of peat) are divided into sand, clay, sandy loam and loamy. The basis for this division is the quantitative ratio of clay and sand mineral particles contained in them.
Sandy and sandy loamy soils are called light and warm: they warm up faster, they are easy to process. Clay and loamy - cold and heavy.
Determining the particle size distribution of the soil is very simple. To a handful of earth taken from the arable layer, add water and mix until a thick dough. Then a bundle is rolled from this mass and bent into a ring. If it cracks - the soil is loamy, no - clay. If the dough does not work out - sandy.
For the cultivation of garden and garden plants, the best soils are loamy and loamy sand. They are quite moisture- and air-intensive, their agronomic properties can be improved by the regular application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Sandy and clay soils without preliminary cultivation are not able to provide a high yield of fruits and vegetables.
Sandy soils are characterized by an absolute predominance of sand, as a result of which they have a low water-holding capacity and relatively high air permeability. Nutrients are quickly washed out of sandy soil, organic particles decompose (mineralize) within one to two years. Therefore, it is impossible to ensure stable fertility of sandy soil by simply applying organic fertilizers even in large doses. What to do?
Sandy soils can be improved by adding loam and clay to them and without fail with subsequent cultivation, that is, grinding and mixing. The water holding capacity of the soil will increase, but without the risk of stagnation of the water, the applied organic and mineral fertilizers will not be washed out. A layer of fertile soil can be introduced from the side, although this is not a mandatory and not the only measure.
If the site is constantly cultivated, then to supplement the reserves of organic matter in the soil, it is recommended that regular additional organic fertilizers be applied in the form of compost, rotted manure, and crushed plant residues.
Clay soils in their properties are opposite to sandy ones: they are highly bonded, pass water poorly, and therefore dry out late and warm up slowly, are practically impenetrable to air, and are difficult to process. Aeration of such soils is poor; in spring, their surface coalesces, forming a crust. Therefore, the main task when cultivating clay soils is to make them more loose and less cohesive. Sanding is used for this: during plowing (digging) of the site, ordinary quartz sand (4–5 buckets / m2) is added. Together with the sand, manure, peat, and wood sawdust are introduced, which makes it more friable and air-consuming, as a result, clay soil becomes physically-mechanical properties close to loam, which means it is quite suitable for planting and developing garden and vegetable plants.
According to the reaction of the soil solution, the soils are divided into acidic, alkaline and neutral. The level of soil acidity has a great influence on a number of its properties, as well as on the growth and development of plants. Only in a neutral environment can plants fully absorb the necessary nutrients. At pH above or below neutral, nutrients become inaccessible to plants, even if the soil is well fertilized.
Pathogenic microorganisms develop more strongly in acidic soils, so most plants become stunted and do not bloom. Although there are those who prefer them (for example, rhododendrons). The main problem of alkaline soils is the lack of mobile iron, that is, suitable for assimilation by plants. At a pH of 8 or higher, iron in an alkaline medium is found only in the form of insoluble hydroxides, which is why white deposits appear on the soil surface, and due to a lack of iron on leaves, chlorine spots appear (due to a decrease in photosynthesis activity), plant growth slows down.
Fortunately, soil acidity is not constant. The level of acidity can be controlled, regulated and led to the optimum. Alkaline soil with a high pH can be brought closer to a neutral systematic application of peat, manure or compost, as well as acidic mineral fertilizers such as superphosphate, various sulfates, etc.
To neutralize acidic soils, liming is carried out. To do this, use slaked lime, ground limestone (limestone flour), cement dust, lime tufa (key lime), lake lime (drywall), ground chalk, dolomite flour, defecate (sugar factory waste).
Liming standards depend on the mechanical composition of the soil, its acidity, the crop grown, as well as on the calcareous material used. Lime is usually applied in the autumn for digging the soil once every six to eight years, after which its acidity is again determined and, if necessary, re-liming is carried out. In this case, the calcareous material should be scattered on the surface of the site evenly.
Soil preparation begins in the fall. It includes peeling, autumn plowing, as well as tillage for winter sowing.
The peeling is carried out after harvesting, cutting a layer of earth with a hoe to a depth of 4–6 cm or 7–10 cm in areas heavily littered with weeds. Peeling helps to destroy weeds, create a loose surface soil layer and level the site. Then proceed to plowing. Early autumn plowing is carried out in the warm period of autumn, which contributes to the decomposition of plant debris in the soil and the mineralization of organic fertilizers. It is usually combined with the introduction of organic and part of mineral (phosphorus-potash) fertilizers, as well as lime (if necessary). Moreover, lumps and lumps are not crushed and left in this form for the winter, then the arable land accumulates moisture better, and frozen pests die. Small areas are usually dug up with a shovel, on large - they use a cultivator or walk-behind tractor.
After the autumn digging, the soil freezes in the winter, thaws in the spring, greatly moistened and compacted. Its surface dries, crust and cracks form on it, a mass of sprouted weeds appears. The purpose of spring soil cultivation - harrowing, cultivation or plowing (plowing of the chill) - elimination of the crust, suppression of weeds, as well as aeration. It should be borne in mind that spring plowing in no way replaces autumn plowing. Pre-sowing treatment begins with early harrowing - shallow (surface) loosening of the soil, which is carried out with a toothed cultivator or a hoe (on large areas with a special tool - a harrow) in March-April, immediately after thawing the soil and drying out the surface layer. Harrowing is especially necessary in light soils and high areas to retain soil moisture. On light soils under the early crops of cold-resistant crops, the harrowing is replaced by cultivation - loosening the treated soil to a depth of 12-15 cm without turning over the loosened layer, while cutting weeds.
Cultivation is usually carried out with preliminary spreading of fertilizers and immediately before sowing or not later than one or two days before it. As a result of harrowing and cultivation, a loose mulching layer is created on the soil surface, which prevents the evaporation of moisture. On heavy clay soils, instead of cultivating, it is better to apply plowing of the winter fallow to full depth. In garden areas, cultivation is carried out with a pitchfork or a hoe-cat (large serrated hoe) in two mutually perpendicular directions, if necessary, fertilizers are embedded in the soil and its surface is leveled. Lumps and lumps break, for convenience, using the back of the rake. Soil, especially clay, should not be crushed too much to prevent crusting, to some extent. Then the earth, if it is not waterlogged, is rolled up (compacted without effort), destroying the remaining lumps and eliminating voids. Clay soils do not compact or do so very weakly. The rolled surface is leveled with a rake. And immediately, until the soil has dried up, they begin to sow.
In spring, on clay soil, you can immediately give a full dose of fertilizer for the entire season. Fertilizers intended for sandy soils are divided into two or three portions and applied fractionally during the season, otherwise due to the low connectivity of such soils, useful components may be washed out by precipitation or water during irrigation. The first part of the fertilizer is applied when preparing the soil for planting, the next portion - after two to three weeks and again after a month. True, this recommendation is too general, the exact scheme for fertilizing and subsequent fertilizing is determined based on the needs of the crop.
Organic fertilizers (sapropel, manure) can be applied in the winter, scattering directly onto the snow. In the spring with melt water, organic matter will fall into the soil. The only condition is that the site should not have a strong slope, since the fertilizer will simply wash off.
Mineral fertilizers are applied (if necessary) before planting or transplanting in minimal doses, and then, when the plants adapt a little in a new place, they are fed according to the scheme recommended for this crop and taking into account soil conditions. For plants grown from seeds (lawn grasses, garden green crops, carrots), it is advisable to add fertilizer immediately before sowing.
Ready-to-use complex fertilizers containing three main mineral macronutrients are very convenient to use: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The ratio of these components varies in accordance with the seasonal needs of plants, therefore, among preparations of complex fertilizers, spring, summer and autumn are distinguished. The main application is made (if necessary) when preparing the soil for planting (sowing). Subsequent feedings are usually carried out twice already - in spring and summer.
Sofya Zhelezova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Lecturer, Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University:
“Soil is a unique natural object, living according to its own laws, with its own internal processes. Why is one soil bad and the other good? What is soil as an independently working system? What is inside this "black box" that provides plant growth and life on Earth?
Outstanding Russian scientist, soil scientist V.V. Dokuchaev defined the soil as a “mirror of the landscape,” since it bears the imprints of all the natural processes that took place in the landscape earlier and are ongoing. The concepts of “landscape” and “soil cover” are inseparable, because soil is one of the components of the landscape and at the same time its “child”, the result of its development.
Three phases of matter are represented in the soil: solid (mineral and organic components), liquid (soil solution) and gaseous (soil air). The phase ratio can be different, and it depends on it whether the soil is bad or good, that is, suitable for the growth and development of plants. The optimal condition for the normal development of the roots of most plants is the following ratio. The solid phase should occupy about 50% of the volume, and the rest should be in the pores. Water (soil solution) and air in the soil pores should be contained in approximately equal amounts, that is, 25% for each of these phases.
Air and water in the soil are antagonists, that is, they tend to squeeze each other out of pores. If one of them wins, the entire living part of the soil suffers, the so-called living phase - the totality of living organisms that permanently or temporarily inhabit the soil layer: roots of higher plants, small animals (vertebrates and invertebrates), microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa and other). Without this “population,” the soil is dead and represents lifeless soil. ”
Adding an article to a new collection
In recent years, growing blueberries has become very fashionable. But in order for the berry to bear fruit well, it is necessary to take into account the region of growth, and the characteristics of each variety. For the future harvest, it is also important in what land to plant the plant and how to care for it.
Blueberries are still not very common in our gardens, because this culture is quite demanding, although very promising. But those who decide to grow it will be rewarded for their efforts.
What is useful blueberry
Blueberries are a source of biologically active substances and vitamins; they have anti-zingotic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and general strengthening properties. Berries contain vitamins C, E, A, flavonoids, anthocyanins, trace elements - zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, as well as plant hormones - phytoestrogens. Blueberry tastes like a mixture of grapes and blueberries.
The choice of quality seedlings
You can buy ready-made seedlings on the market or grow it yourself. In any case, for planting, it is necessary to choose only those seedlings that have a well-formed root system and a sturdy stalk that has reached a height of 20 cm.
It is important that on each shoot 8-9 full-fledged leaves are formed. If they have a saturated and uniform green color, this is a sure sign of a healthy state of a seedling. The spotting or pallor of the green indicates that the conditions for growing seedlings have been violated or it is affected by some kind of disease.
If seedlings will be grown independently, it is necessary to observe the correct temperature regime for each stage of development and the timing of sowing.
Soil preparation for tomatoes
Tomatoes are among the photophilous plants, but they are poorly tolerated by direct sunlight. An ideal place for them is a garden, shaded by a nearby greenhouse or fruit tree. It is advisable that there are no drafts in this area.
It is recommended to plant seedlings in the place where cucumbers, onions or carrots grew last year. If potatoes were previously planted on the site, there is a risk of infection with different types of diseases such as late blight. It is very important to properly prepare the soil.
Before planting, you need to enrich the soil with fertilizers and bring acidity back to normal.If this is not done, even with timely top dressing, the tomatoes will wither and hurt. In specialized stores, you can purchase a special test that will help you independently determine the pH of the soil. For tomatoes, an ideal range is 6 to 7.
To reduce the acidity of the soil, it is recommended to use lime - per 1 sq. Km. m is taken 500 g. To increase the acidity in the same proportions, sulfur is taken.
It is not recommended to plant tomatoes for two years in a row on the same site, but not everyone has the opportunity to change the location. In this case, soil restoration can be carried out in the fall:
- In the autumn, the soil is dug up, all plant residues are removed.
- Fertilizers are applied to the depth of the shovel bayonet - superphosphate, potassium salt or compost, humus, peat, bird droppings.
- Rye or white mustard is sown on the beds, can be replaced with other siderates.
- To activate the beneficial microflora, it is recommended to spill humic solution on the soil.
It is not recommended to dig unripe compost into the soil, as this can attract worms and wireworm larvae that can harm the roots of young seedlings.
You should not add manure to the soil, because tomatoes are very fond of it, and as a result, all the strength will go to building up only green mass. The tops of the plant will begin to twist in a ring, but the yield will be small. If there were frosts, it is recommended to cover the soil with any black material around mid-May.
Form beds for seedlings need about a week before the intended planting. The depth of the holes should be at least 20 cm. For several weeks, it is recommended to pour the soil with a solution of copper sulfate. The solution is prepared in the following proportions - 1 tbsp is taken per 10 liters of water. l This simple procedure will help disinfect the soil.
Blueberry garden: description, variety selection
Blueberry is a deciduous shrub from the Heather family. By the way, blueberries with lingonberries belong to the same family.
The main types of blueberries:
- undersized (up to 0.5 m),
- marsh (0.6-0.9 m),
- tall (0.8-2.5 m),
- eshi, or "rabbit eye" (over 3.0 m).
Of greatest interest to gardeners is a half-tall blueberry, which is characterized by high productivity and large-fruited, as well as large-fruited low-growing blueberries. Among the tall blueberry species, the most promising is the late-ripening large-fruited blueberry with high winter hardiness.
The wide geographical variability of blueberries allows you to choose the variety that is most suitable for growing in your area. Most varieties withstand winter temperatures without damage to –27 ° C, and some varieties withstand drops to –30–40 ° C.
How to prepare the soil for planting blueberries
Light blue soils with an acid reaction (pH 3.8-4.8) are suitable for growing blueberries. At lower acidity (pH above 4.8), the plants show signs of lack of nutrients due to poor digestibility. The humus content in soils should be at the level of 3.5%.
Soils with a medium acidity (pH) above 5 units are not suitable for growing blueberries.
Blueberry bushes can grow and bear fruit for more than 50 years, so you should carefully approach the preparation of the planting pit. Blueberries are planted in pre-prepared planting pits 60 × 70 × 50 cm in size, pre-filled with substrate. Four seasons “For blueberries and wild berries” based on peat, complex mineral fertilizer and agroperlite. Priming Four seasons "For blueberries and wild berries"developed by Lamatorf, fully imitates the natural conditions of growth, contains the necessary amount of macro- and microelements and humus. The distance between the plants in the row is 0.8-1.0 m, between the rows is 1.5 m. The surface soil layer is covered with a mulching layer of pine or larch bark up to 10 cm high.
Most often planted are biennial seedlings, which in the third year after planting begin to bear fruit. Mass fruiting begins at the age of 6-7 years. Early ripe varieties begin to bear fruit in the first half of July, mid-ripening varieties in the second half, late-ripening varieties in the first half of August. Harvested gradually, as the berries ripen, over 3-4 weeks.
How to care for blueberry seedlings
Throughout the season, substrate moisture should be maintained at 60-70%. Particularly carefully monitored soil moisture in the second half of summer. A lack of moisture at this time has a negative effect on the growth, maturation and laying of flower buds for the next season.
For normal growth and development of blueberries, top dressing with macronutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is necessary. The preferred methods of application are foliar top dressing (by leaves) or along with watering. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are most often introduced at the beginning of the growing season (in April) scatter with their subsequent incorporation to a depth of 3-4 cm and subsequent watering. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied three times: 50% - of the recommended norm for the whole season in April, 30% - in May and 20% - in June.
Fertilizers are applied within a radius of 25 cm from the center of the bush. For top dressing, it is convenient to use liquid complex mineral fertilizers Our cottage "For fruit and berry crops" and Four seasons "Universal", which are adapted to the needs of blueberries.
Blueberries are propagated by semi-lignified cuttings, which are cut from late June to early August. For better rooting, we recommend using a substrate based on high peat and agroperlite, such as, for example, the Four Seasons substrate “For blueberries and wild berries”. It can be used both for rooting cuttings, and for the subsequent cultivation of seedlings in containers.
In addition to competent planting, timely watering and mineral top dressing, which will support plants during the most fruitful period of fruiting, blueberry bushes need mulching or gentle loosening of the soil around, weeding of weeds, pruning of dry dead branches, and in hot weather, additional spraying leaves. Caring for blueberries is a troublesome business, but if you are patient and stick to our advice, this shrub will definitely give you a wonderful harvest.
Preparing the soil for seedlings: the main stages
The key to success in all matters, in particular, in the cultivation of horticultural crops, is advance planning. The first and main condition for obtaining a good crop is competent soil preparation. The main part of the plants needs fertile, loose and permeable soil that passes air well. Ideal can be called the soil that, in a state of maturity, easily crumbles. It is important that the soil meets all the needs of the crops that it is planned to grow in it. The process of preparing the soil for seedlings requires not only compliance with the sequence, but also the presence of a certain amount of knowledge.
Every gardener and gardener can make turf soil, considered one of the best foundations for soil mixtures. They have been harvesting raw materials for such land throughout the year in meadows, so that in May it can already be used. This process involves the following agrotechnical manipulations:
1. The sod is cut with layers and stacked in a stack from a height of 1 m.
2. To speed up the process of reproduction, laying sod, it is interbedded using fresh manure.
3. To avoid drying out of the stack, it needs to be provided with regular watering, especially in hot weather.
4. After 3-4 months, a bunch of need to shovel and weed out large rhizomes that have not decomposed.
5. The resulting soil should be scattered in buckets and bags, and then sent for storage in a cool enclosed area.
Please note that the preparation of the mixture requires the use of exclusively fresh ingredients that have never been used before. This allows you to minimize preparatory work in the spring. In addition, such a composition does not need to be disinfected - you can immediately sow seeds into it. If you plan to plant tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cabbage, celery or lettuce, the seed must be sown in a mixture of turf, humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. For 10 liters of such a mixture you will need 2 cups of wood ash, 10 tsp. superphosphate and a few pinches of potassium sulfate.
Seeds of crops that need nutritious and neutral soil, and which do not like lime, should be sown in turf soil with the addition of humus in a ratio of 1: 1. You must also add 1 cup of ash to 5 liters of soil.
Optimal soil structure
One of the most important measures is tillage. Processing methods cause a lot of heated debate. Some people think that the grandfather system with the formation rotation is correct. Others call it, no less, a crime against the breadwinner. They cite the example of American natives who grew corn and potatoes using only a digging stick and a hoe. To understand what’s what, you need to know what properties the land has on our site, and what we would like to do. Plants, as you know, have different needs, but most vegetables work best on light, nutrient soils with a good structure (a large number of pores that retain water and oxygen, with particles that absorb and retain nutrients), slightly acidic or similar to a neutral reaction (pH from 6 to 7). This is ideal, but in practice this is not so simple.
I think that no one would strive for heavy excavation work if the beds corresponded to the parameters just given, and it would be possible to limit themselves to their easy loosening. Alas, our soils are mostly heavy and acidic. The introduction of calcareous and loosening materials without their sealing, to put it mildly, is problematic. Manure and compost will only benefit if mixed with the ground. The use of mulching materials also requires a thoughtful approach. Undecomposed organics will not give plants nutrition. The layer of mulch should be quite thick (from 15–20 cm) and serve as the actual soil. It is even better if it covers a fairly structural soil into which the roots of cultivated plants easily grow. The same cucumbers will easily master a thin layer of bulk soil from plant debris and compost, and they will not let the roots into the clay below.
Recently, much has been written about the use of ridges for autumn, "crop" mulching, in addition to traditional peat, sawdust and straw, not only weeds, grass cutting, but also tops, cuttings of cabbage, food waste. Personally, I am not happy with this. And not only because each portion of such organic matter must be sprinkled with earth, which is rather laborious (not to make heaps of garbage from the beds), but also because it is food and a winter house for mice, slugs and other daring garden pests. In addition, the decomposition of coarse stems and roots, as well as pests, is still easier to control in a compost heap.
Weeds and pests
Our sites differ greatly in the number and species composition of weeds. And you need to decide how to overcome them. Which pitchfork to dig, which just chopped down and not allow the seeds to crumble. And which will be less after digging. Separate conversation about areas where there are many root-sprouting perennials, such as creeping wheatgrass and chafing. In the fight against them, a shovel is a poor helper. When digging, we will inevitably cut the rhizome into separate pieces with buds, that is, involuntarily weed cuttings, achieving an effect opposite to what was expected. Here it is better to use a pitchfork and a rake, taking out and "combing out" rhizomes from the ground that can stretch a meter deep. It is difficult to eradicate both wheat and wheatgrass, and the harm from them is considerable. They not only oppress cultivated plants, but give shelter and write to malicious pests. Wheatgrass is a favorite dish and bait for wireworms. In dreams, whiteflies, the scourge of greenhouse plants, feed and breed. In the open ground, it also harms, but in the greenhouse it has the best conditions for reproduction, and being numerous, it is able not only to parasitize, but to destroy cucumbers, tomatoes and flowers.
It would be nice to think about our enemies and allies from the animal world. If pests do not cause us much trouble, restrained by natural conditions, it is better to minimize our interference. If in our garden, hordes of slugs, wireworms, Colorado potato beetles, May crunches, mice and other harmful animals settled for wintering, it would be nice to disturb it with a late autumn digging. Beetles and larvae, which have already lost their mobility, will be frozen to the surface, and disturbed mice will leave their homes in search of a quiet "cloister".
Dig or not dig in the fall?
- the need for the application of calcareous materials and organic fertilizers of a low degree of decomposition, including green manure,
- high weed perennial weeds,
- heavy, compacted soils,
- an abundance of wintering pests,
- the need for snow retention,
- humid climate with prolonged springs, slow warming and maturing of the soil.
- plot with a slope
- flood-prone area
- light soil prone to erosion.
Planting seedlings in open ground
For planting in open ground, you can use only well-seasoned seedlings, otherwise most of the seedlings will be lost. A sharp change in weather conditions leads to a delay in seedling growth. Depending on the climate of the region, the planting dates of young plants are also adjusted. It is important to remember that tomato seedlings are not able to tolerate too low temperatures at night or frosts.
The best time for planting seedlings in the open ground is May. If a decrease in temperature occurs, to protect young plants it is worth using agrofabric or special constructions with a film.
After the site with the soil is completely prepared for planting (the soil has been dug up and leveled), you can proceed directly to the seedling planting. This is best done in the early morning until the sun is hot. Wells for seedlings are dug, between which a small distance is made, depending on the selected plant variety.
If the tomato bushes are tall, the best option is to make a distance of about 60 cm, for a small crop - about 40 cm. If the tomatoes are planted in several rows, it is recommended to place the plants in a checkerboard pattern, which will make it possible to save space. Between the rows, a distance is left, which also depends on the variety - from 40 to 70 cm.
After not very deep holes are formed, it is imperative to sanitize the soil. For this purpose, potassium permanganate dissolves in water, the resulting composition should have a light pink hue. Wells are abundantly watered with a solution, after which you can perform additional watering of the soil with clean water. It is important that the soil is well moistened before planting. After planting, seedlings are not recommended to be watered for several days.
Planting tomatoes in open ground: step by step instructions
The process of planting tomato seedlings in open ground is very simple, it is enough to adhere to the following recommendations:
- Landing is carried out only after the frost has passed, and the plus temperature will last for a week. It can be the beginning of May or June.
- The area should be sunny and well ventilated, but without drafts. A great choice would be the southeastern, southwestern, or southern portion of the site.
- After the first flower brush appears on seedlings, it can be planted in open ground. At least 6 fully formed leaflets should appear on the seedlings.
- Planting seedlings of tomatoes is recommended at the age of 50-60 days, but this indicator may vary depending on the type of plant selected.
- Pre-prepared wells are watered - no more than a liter of water per well.
- You need to wait until the water is completely absorbed into the soil.
- If, at the time of transplanting, the seedlings stretched too much, a few lower leaves are cut off.
- After the pruning procedure, the seedlings are transplanted into the soil with deepening, the additional roots located on the lower part of the stem provide tomatoes with additional nutrition. Strongly elongated seedlings are placed obliquely; they must be buried to half the stem.
- Standard seedlings are placed in a hole in an upright position and deepened down to the cotyledon leaves.
- The holes are watered again, and a small layer of dry earth is poured on top.
It is not recommended to plant seedlings where plants grow that can harm it, for example, fennel, squash or potatoes. The growth of tomatoes is positively influenced by the neighborhood with onions, basil, bird cherry and celery.
Proper and timely care of seedlings helps to achieve good fruiting. To develop a strong root system and provide the plant with the necessary amount of oxygen, it is recommended to loosen the beds every 2-3 weeks - the tool is immersed in the soil to a depth of at least 8-10 cm. If the soil is sufficiently dense, this procedure should be carried out more often.
Loosening is often combined with weeding, because weeds can provoke a real invasion of pests. The grass retains moisture in the soil, which creates excellent conditions for the development of various diseases. Heavily thickened beds are poorly ventilated.
Watering and feeding
Watering should be carried out directly under the root of the plant, do not water the greens. If you choose from existing irrigation systems, it is best to opt for spot irrigation. The use of sprinkling can lead to shedding of inflorescences, causing pale fruit.
After planting, do not water the seedlings too often. It will be enough to perform water procedures several times a week. It is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out.
When watering tomatoes, consider the following tips:
- Excessive watering is harmful.
- Use water at room temperature for watering.
- When watering, try not to get on the trunk and leaves of plants, otherwise this can lead to burns.
- Watering tomatoes is necessary in the evening, the exception is only on hot sunny days.
- Before hilling, during the flowering of the first and second brushes, it is necessary to water the plant.
For the entire growing season, tomatoes are recommended to be fertilized 4-5 times. Feeding is carried out according to the following scheme:
- The first time is feeding 15 days after transplanting in open ground seedlings. For this, nutritious infusions of bird droppings or mullein, in which a little wood ash is added, can be used. At this time, the bushes begin to pick up buds, so applying fertilizer will have a positive effect on the formation of fruit ovaries.
- Second feeding held 10 days after the second brush on the bushes blossoms. An organic infusion is used with the addition of complex mineral fertilizers in the following proportions - 1 tbsp is taken per bucket. l If the tomatoes are tall, 1.5-2 liters of infusion are applied, under the undersized - not more than 1 liter.
- Third feeding should be carried out during the ripening of the first tomatoes. The same nutritional composition is used, but in this case its volume changes - 500 ml of solution is poured under each bush.
- Last feeding performed 15 days after the third. The ideal option would be to use industrial fertilizer Agricola-3, into which superphosphate is introduced - for each square meter. m 4 l of solution.
Read more about feeding tomato seedlings here.
The formation of side shoots or stepsons must be carried out with the growth of tomato bushes. They simply do not have time to ripen, while drawing out a large amount of nutrients. Therefore, they must be removed in the early stages of the development of the bushes.
On each plant, 2-3 main shoots are left. By the time ripening begins, there should be no stepsons on the bushes. Side shoots, the length of which are 3-5 cm, are removed. They need to be broken out or nipped at a distance of about 1 cm from the main stem. During the procedure, work carefully so that large wounds do not remain on the plant. It is advisable to perform the stepsoning in the morning.
Tall varieties need additional tying. Due to this, plants do not fall to the ground, and harvesting is facilitated. The tying procedure itself is very simple:
- A peg is installed next to each plant that will be tied.
- You can dig strong stakes along the edges of the row, and then pull a cord or twine between them.
- Twine, as well as synthetic thick threads, are considered to be excellent material for garter. The main advantage is that they do not rot.
- You can use metal or wooden stakes.
- Tie plants to a peg or wire need not very tight.
- To strengthen the stems can be used mesh, grille or cap made of twigs.
Tomatoes are self-pollinating plants that easily cope with this issue. Great help in the pollination process is provided by insects - bumblebees and bees. To attract them to the site, you can plant fragrant honey plants such as mint, rapeseed, lemon balm, coriander, mustard, basil.
In some cases, artificial pollination is required:
- Each bush is shaken a little.
- You can simply tap on a flowering brush, but not too hard.
- This procedure is carried out in the morning.
- After pollination is complete, you need to spray or pour the tomatoes with warm water so that it flows down by flowers.
Diseases and pests of tomatoes, methods of control
There are quite a few pests that can harm tomatoes, the most common of which are:
- Medvedka - an insect that settles in well-fertilized and moist soils. To combat it, strong insecticides are used, including infusions of vinegar and red pepper.
- Wireworms - These are larvae that are covered with a dense shell that damage the root system of the plant. For prevention, during the autumn preparation of the site, alkalization of acidic soils is performed.
- Gnawing scoops - These caterpillars are considered the most dangerous enemy of vegetable crops. For prevention, it is recommended to carry out deep mechanical tillage and perform timely weeding. If caterpillars appeared in large numbers on tomatoes, they must be collected and destroyed manually.
Tomatoes can suffer from the Colorado potato beetle, thrips, spider mites, whiteflies and gourds. To combat these types of pests, it is worth using insecticidal drugs.
It is recommended every 5-7 days to carry out preventive spraying of tomatoes with alternate use of onion infusion and Bordeaux liquid. If the plant has been affected by a dangerous infection, serious treatment is required.
Tomatoes are often subjected to diseases such as vertex rot, mosaic, late blight, blotchy spotting, anthracnose, phomosis, etc. In this case, it is necessary to treat the plants with special potent fungicides, the affected parts of the plant must be removed.
Given the severe defeat of tomatoes, complete destruction of the planting is required. To minimize the likelihood of a re-development of the infection, the soil must be treated with disinfectants before the new season, for example, it is poured with a solution of copper sulfate, a hot solution of potassium permanganate, and deep digging is performed.
The main mistakes when growing tomatoes
In order to protect the crop from major losses, it is worth familiarizing yourself with the mistakes that inexperienced gardeners often make:
- Violation of the timing of planting seeds or seedlings.
- The use of tomato varieties that are intended for growing in a greenhouse.
- The acquisition of seedlings with inflorescences, as there is a violation of the formation of ovaries.
- Too plentiful and frequent watering leads to decay of the root system.
- Excessive fertilizer.
- Planting seedlings ahead of time in open ground - violation of the temperature regime negatively affects the formation of ovaries.
In the middle of summer, the harvest season begins. Since uneven ripening occurs, the fruits must be harvested every day. You need to collect tomatoes without stalks. Do not wait until the fruits fully ripen, because in room conditions they perfectly achieve ripeness.
To speed up the ripening process, you can place the tomatoes in a well-lit and ventilated place. To delay ripening, the fruit is recommended to be placed in a cool and dark place.
Let's watch a video on how to grow tomatoes in the open field. What fertilizing should be, and how to understand what elements the plant lacks, how to pinch tomatoes, and how to increase the future crop many times over:
Care and cultivation of tomatoes is not as difficult as it might seem at first. It is enough to adhere to the above tips and do not forget about regular weeding, fertilizer and watering.
How to prepare the soil for sowing?
You need to start preparing the land for planting in early autumn - during this period, usually digging the site. If it is not produced in the fall, then it will have to be done in the spring. This operation is mandatory, otherwise after some time the earth will dry out and it will be difficult to break it. In addition, you need to walk around the site and organize ridges with a rake.
The digging process involves the removal of rhizomes of weed grass and insect larvae, as well as the introduction of fertilizers, manure and humus. Pay attention to the fact that the territory allotted for root crops does not need to be added with humus and manure. The only thing necessary is to sprinkle mineral fertilizing on the soil surface before proceeding with digging.
In 6-7 days after digging, it will be possible to start weed control, which is firmly established in your area. This is done, again, using a rake. After harrowing the topsoil, the germinated weeds will turn to the surface and die. To reduce the contamination of the earth, it is necessary to conduct about 3 such procedures with an interval of 3-4 days.
One of the most crucial moments in preparing the soil for sowing seeds is the formation of beds. At this point, nitrogen fertilizers should be added: urea and ammonium nitrate. In the spring, the soil lacks nitrogen, so such fertilizing will be of great benefit. Mineral fertilizers must be scattered on the ground and planted deep into the beds using a rake. Further, the topsoil should be well leveled, after which it will be possible to start planting seedlings or sowing in abundantly watered soil. Seedlings should be planted in the wells very carefully. If peat containers are used, they will have to be torn up in order to improve the growth of the root system. It is desirable that the density of plantings was not too large. By the way, the ideal time for planting seedlings is considered the evening when the sun has already hidden behind the horizon.
We prepare the greenhouse for spring. How to get a high yield?
What is a greenhouse? This is a reliable design that allows for the whole year to engage in the preparation of seedlings and the cultivation of various cultivated plants. Features of the materials from which the greenhouse was built have a direct effect on temperature and other indicators of the air environment. As you know, each plant has individual preferences regarding these parameters. The preparation of the greenhouse for the season usually begins after the last harvest.
Garden Soil Care
In a young garden, the soil is kept in a loose state, achieving this by a combination of different types of processing. The compacted clay soils are dug in the spring (April-May) and in the fall (September). During the summer, it is loosened 3-4 times after watering and heavy rains. Light soils loosen less often as they are compacted. In young trees, the roots lie close to the surface, which must be taken into account when loosening.
In the tree-trunk circles of apple and pear, the soil is dug up to a depth of 8-12 cm. At the stem, it is finer, towards the row spacing it is deeper. Summer cultivation is limited to a depth of 6 cm. When digging, put a shovel in radius relative to the tree trunk.
Doses of fertilizer elements
|Tree age||Year after planting||Barrel circle diameter, m||Nitrogen, g||Phosphorus, g||Potassium g|
- In young gardens, mulching (covering) the soil is a good technique. Peat, manure, compost, grass are used as mulch. When using sawdust, straw, for their decomposition, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers (approximately 1/3 of the established doses).
- Mulch on light soils is not dug, only weeds are weeded, on heavy soils in the early years, mulch material is planted in the autumn in order to accelerate its cultivation. Mulching promotes the activation of microbiological processes; under mulch, the soil freezes less and moisture is better retained.
- Under the mulch, the soil warms up more slowly in spring, but freezes less in winter.
- Mulch under conditions of increased moisture quickly decomposes, so the layer of mulch is periodically replenished.
Another system of soil maintenance is sod-humus. In this case, the soil is under constant sodding.
- They close the garden or part of the garden area for the 7-8th year after planting the trees.
- The soil is prepared for sodding 1-2 years before sowing grasses, 2-3 annual doses of organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied, the soil surface after digging is leveled, which will subsequently facilitate grass mowing.
The soil is prepared from autumn or spring. Seeds of perennial grasses are sown in the early spring (April) or in the summer (late June - early July), when it rains a lot. To create a stable turf, a lawn mixture or grass mixture consisting of meadow fescue (300 g), meadow bluegrass (200 g per 100 sq.m) is sown. Grass seeds close up with a rake and pack in a skating rink. Clover is not sown due to the fact that under the conditions of shading and the use of nitrogen fertilizers, it quickly dies.
Care consists in the systematic mowing of grass (4-6 times a season) and the application of mineral fertilizers.
- In the first year after sowing, seedlings of perennial grasses grow slowly and, as it were, under the cover of weeds, which grow violently on fertilized soil. Weeds mow 2-3 times, as they reach a height of 15-18 cm, and compost. After the second mowing, perennial grasses prevail in the grass, displacing weed vegetation completely in the second year.
- From the second year, grass is mowed 4-6 times, starting from the third decade of May. It is very important to do the first mowing when the grass reaches a height of no more than 20 cm, since in this period perennial grasses are able to remove about 50% of the nutrients that they absorb over the entire growing season from the soil. The last time it is necessary to mow in mid-September, so that perennial grasses can prepare for wintering.
Chamfered ground mass is best scattered over the entire sod surface. Then the batteries return from decaying herbs.
Organic fertilizers do not contribute to constant soil sodding. Soil conditions improve if periodically scattered rotten peat is superficially scattered. Mineral fertilizers are used in the same doses as on black steam, they are applied to the surface of the turf, potash and phosphorus in the fall, nitrogen in the early spring, on sandy loam all fertilizers in the spring.
Soil top dressing
In adult trees, the consumption of their soil of nutrients spent on the formation of the crop and increase the volume of the tree increases. In order to improve the condition of trees and increase the laying of flower buds, in addition to making basic fertilizer (in spring or autumn), top dressing of trees is used (after flowering). To do this, use slurry and a solution of mineral fertilizers.
- 5-6 buckets - per tree under 10 years old,
- 7-10 buckets - on a tree 12-18 years old,
- 12-15 buckets - on an older tree.
Periodically (after 5-6 years) make furrows and basic fertilizers. Then, according to the crown projection, grooves 25-30 cm deep and wide are dug out, 1-2 buckets of compost or manure are added to each linear meter of length with the addition of 250 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium chloride.
During the growing season, 1-3 dressings are done: the first - after flowering, the following - after 1.5-2 week intervals.
The optimal conditions for spraying trees are formed at a temperature of 18-20 ° C and humid air in the morning. The concentration of the complete mineral fertilizer solution during the growing season should not exceed 1.5-2%.
- superphosphate: 1% (100 g per 10 l),
- potassium chloride: 0.2% (20 g),
- urea: 0.3% (30 g).
Superphosphate is dissolved in water a day before the mixture is prepared, the superphosphate solution is drained from the precipitate. Feeding with urea or urea with potassium chloride is also effective.
In addition to summer top dressing, autumn top dressing is used with a concentrated urea solution (500 g per 10 l of water). Other fertilizers are not suitable for this purpose. Spraying trees is carried out before leaf fall, when the first yellow leaves appear. It replenishes the nitrogen reserves in the tree and serves as a means in the fight against scab.
With a lack of trace elements, they are applied to the soil or non-root top dressing is used. Cultivated soils contain all trace elements and do not need them.
- Dried peat bogs often need boron, copper.
- Re-known acidic soils are in manganese and molybdenum.
- Sandy soils are in the bore.
Watering the soil
Most regions of Russia are sufficiently provided with moisture for the successful cultivation of fruit trees. But part of the spring-summer period (May - June) or the second half of July can be arid. Then watering is effective. Most often, the need for them is observed at the end of flowering and by the time of intensive growth of trees, with prolonged drought, trees are watered repeatedly.
- To moisten sandy soils, the irrigation rate is less than for clay soils. The approximate water consumption for one irrigation is 3-4 buckets per 1 sq.m.
- In some years, with a dry autumn, they resort to winter watering at the end of the growing season (in late September - early October).
- Abundant watering (7-10 buckets of water per 1 sq. M) provides soil moisture to the full depth of root penetration. If groundwater is close, the irrigation rate is reduced.
- The best conditions for soil moisture are formed when the boundary of the moistened layer coincides with the upper line of moist soil.
- Winter irrigation creates a favorable water regime in the soil in winter and protects the tree from winter drying out.
Before watering, any type of soil is loosened for better absorption of water. Watering can be done by sprinkling, lining along the furrows or into the trunk circle. When watering the near-stem circle, they arrange a bowl with the help of an earthen roller, where water is let in, with the furrow method, water is poured into 3-4 furrows up to 15 cm deep, carried out at a distance of 50-80 cm from the stem and at the same distance from each other along a row or around the tree. After watering and drying the soil, the furrows are leveled, the soil is loosened with a rake.
In dry weather so that lack of moisture is not negatively said.
In household plots, it is planted along paths or fences on races.
Sea buckthorn planting begins in mid-April and ends at the end.
In home gardening, care for felt cherries should be carried out.
Edible honeysuckle - one of the young berry crops in the gardening of Ro.
Organic fertilizers are applied evenly over the area. For this is measured out.
Caterpillars of yellowish-white color with black b.
Landing work can be carried out in autumn and spring.
The source of plant nutrition and increased fertility.
In this article we will describe in detail the shape of the structure of the square
Powdery mildew, white and black spotting, rusty.
When vegetable or fruit crops are grown in one place, and even in an enclosed space, sooner or later the soil is depleted and becomes incredibly vulnerable to infection by various diseases, microbes and other pests. As a result, one can only dream of high yields. That is why it is so important to take care of soil disinfection in the greenhouse, which is one of the most important processes. It is carried out in various ways. We present to your attention the most popular among them:
1. Steaming. This is perhaps the simplest and most popular method in which the soil is scalded with boiling water and covered with a film. The key advantage of this process is its cost effectiveness.
2. Copper sulfate. To prepare such a solution, add 1 tbsp. vitriol on 10 l of water. Due to the toxicity of this substance, it is very important to follow all the rules and recommendations when using it.
3. Formalin. This solution is very effective in combating various parasites. You need to prepare trenches in advance and pour a little formalin into them, then fill everything up with earth. After this, the greenhouse must be tightly closed and not opened for 2 weeks. After 14 days, open it and properly ventilate the room.
4. Chlorine lime. Another popular means for disinfecting a greenhouse, which is scattered throughout the entire area of the greenhouse.
5. Fumigation. One of the most effective methods, characterized by safety and high performance. For fumigation, a sulfur block is used: it is placed in the center of the greenhouse and set on fire. In the process of its decay, a gas is released that destroys parasites. At the time of this procedure, the greenhouse should be tightly closed. After complete combustion of the checker, the greenhouse will need to be ventilated for 2-3 weeks.
Experienced gardeners and gardeners recommend updating the soil when processing greenhouse soil. It is best to take new land from a place where nothing grows - so you get a guarantee that it is not infected with anything.
You can also disinfect the old soil in the greenhouse, and then add a new soil preparation of your own preparation. To cook it, you will need humus and organic fertilizers (litter, manure, sawdust, sand, limestone, peat). As for the introduction of inorganic fertilizers into the greenhouse soil, this is decided by the owner of the greenhouse. For example, the currently popular organic farming does not require fertilizing from mineral fertilizers.
To get a good, environmentally friendly crop, the tops of the beds should be periodically mulched with compost, and the leaves should be sprayed with microelements. Planting in greenhouses, as well as in open ground, requires the observance of crop rotation of vegetable crops. Growing the same crops in one place, it is important to ensure soil fertility. This is done quite simply: remove the top layer and replace it with nutritious soil.
How to improve the condition of the soil in the greenhouse?
Soil preparation for sowing should begin with warming up. To do this, you need to build trenches across the ridges and pour hot water into them. Thanks to this measure, the temperature of the soil rises to 10-14 ° C. For a good warming up of the earth, you can also cover the beds with a very dense film. After the soil is well warmed up, it will be necessary to make fertilizers. According to experienced gardeners, an excellent solution would be to plant green manure. This method contributes to the development of special microorganisms that improve the structure of the soil and have a healing effect on the main culture. After fertilizing, the soil should be plowed, and after 8-13 days it will be possible to start planting.
General soil preparation guidelines
In order to do everything right, preparing the soil for future plantings, gardeners and gardeners, one should take into account such features:
1. The mechanical composition. There are 3 types of soil: light, medium and heavy. Most plants prefer medium soils, as well as sandy loam (slightly lighter than medium). To make heavy clay soil easier, sand needs to be added, and lightweight sandy soil, in which there is little nutrition, will increase the amount of organic compost.
2. Acidity. With increased acidity of the soil, the state of cultivated plants is aggravated - the development of beneficial microorganisms that they need stops. In this situation, it is necessary to add additives based on lime. Plant growth slows down significantly if the soil is neutral. For planting crops (with the exception of cucumbers, cabbage, beets and black currants) in such soil, it is necessary to acidify the beds by mulching them with compost mixed with pine sawdust.
3. Salinity. One of the most difficult problems gardeners and gardeners have to deal with is salinization of the soil. If the soil is saline, crops grow incredibly slowly. In addition, their development is significantly inhibited. The presence of quinoa and wormwood on the site indicates the salinity of the soil. To correct the situation, you should make a large amount of compost, green manure and humus. To increase soil fertility, plastering is used. The essence of this procedure is simple: after digging the soil, gypsum scatters along its upper layer. The next step is sowing on the site of green manure (leaf mustard). When it grows, the earth will need to be dug up.
It is important to remember that a lot depends on the competent preparation work: how intensively the seeds will germinate, how quickly the seedlings will appear, the root system will strengthen and, of course, how high the yield will be. Compliance with the technology and rules in the preparation of the soil contributes to the creation of appropriate conditions for heating its surface layer, improving water and air regimes, destroying weeds and various pests. All this will make it possible to make good and proper planting, which in the future will bring a solid crop of high quality!