Video lesson 1: The origin of plants. The main stages of the development of the plant world
Video Lesson 2: Variety, Distribution, Importance of Plants
Lecture: Variety of plants. The main departments of plants. Classes of angiosperms, the role of plants in nature and human life
Plants appeared on the planet about 3 billion years ago, when the living world was divided into kingdoms. Currently, there are more than 350 thousand species of plants. They are present in most of the planet's biocenoses and are the main producers of biomass.
In the process of evolutionary development, plants became more complex. At the moment, there are several of their taxonomic departments, very different from each other.
It belongs to the kingdom of the Lower Plants. Distinctive features of its representatives are:
1) the lack of separation of the body into tissues and organs - it is called a thallus or thallus,
2) gametes can be the same size and both are movable,
3) the plant is completely dependent on the availability of water.
Another significant difference from other plants is that many types of unicellular algae and colonial forms are known. The vast majority of algae are eukaryotes, however, they also include blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that do not have a nucleus. They feed, absorbing substances along the entire surface of the thallus, unicellular - can feed on phagocytosis.
In biocenoses, they are producers of biomass, producers. About 80% of the organic matter in the marine environment is produced by algae.
For humans, they are quite important - some, like kelp and chlorella, are used as food, others get the necessary substances in the chemical industry - iodine, organic acids, vinegar. Used in agriculture as animal feed. In pharmacology, as suppliers of mucus-like and gelling substances. The high rate of reproduction and growth makes them an important biological resource. In addition to algae, all other plants belong to the kingdom of the Higher plants.
On Earth, about 20 thousand species of bryophytes are known. These are mostly land perennials, of a rather primitive structure:
1) do not have organs and tissues. Attached to the ground with the help of rhizoids,
2) in the life cycle, the sexual generation is dominant, asexual is represented by a sporophyte - a small box on a stem growing from the main body of moss. In this box, disputes develop,
3) for sexual reproduction, the presence of water is necessary, since the male gamete is equipped with a flagellum and is mobile, it can only be reached in the water by the egg located in the archegonia.
Distributed wherever there is fresh water. They are biomass producers. By retaining moisture in the soil, they contribute to waterlogging, and also heavy metals and radionuclides are concentrated in themselves. Preservative and antiseptic (sphagnum) substances are distinguished, which is why well-preserved bodies of dead people and animals, household items of past centuries are often found in deep swamps.
There are about 10 thousand species. Distinctive features are:
1) the presence of already noticeable organs and tissues - vaya (primitive leaf apparatus), a modified shoot (rhizome), roots, and also conductive tissue,
2) asexual sporophyte generation prevails,
3) fertilization needs water.
Sexual reproduction of ferns occurs with the change of generations - the spores that can be seen if you look at the lower side of the vaya are unfertilized. They spill out onto the ground, in favorable conditions, the next sexual generation, the gametophyte, which is a small flat plate, emerges from such a spore. Otherwise, it is called a seedling. Male and female gametes develop on the overgrowth. Matured gametes in a humid environment merge, giving rise to the next asexual generation. After rooting this embryo, the seedling dies.
Several species of ferns are eaten. Fern ferns are also of interest to florists. It is worth remembering the existence of poisonous ferns, including those growing on the territory of Russia.
Currently, ferns do not have much impact on ecosystems; in the past, they were one of the dominant species. It is assumed that it was the ancient tree-like ferns that turned into coal seams over time.
This is a small numerically taxon, in which there are about 700 species. Gymnosperms, presumably, descended from ancient ferns. Known from the Carboniferous period.
Their distinguishing features are:
1) the presence of real seeds, but not having pericarp. Seeds are protected by cone scales (the scientific name is strobiles),
2) vascular, mechanical, basic tissues are developed,
3) leaves are needle-shaped, covered with a thick cuticle, most do not fall, gradually the old ones are replaced by new ones.
Gymnosperms belong to bisexual, wind-pollinated plants. Male and female cones are formed on the plant. Gametophytes are represented by pollen grain and an egg, the main form of life is a sporophyte - in fact, a bush or tree. Gymnosperms play an important role in biocenoses and human activities.
Evolutionarily the youngest plants. Their main features are the presence of flowers and ovaries, as well as double fertilization. The name was received due to the fact that the ovule is located inside the ovary, protected from the negative impact of the external environment.
Flowering is currently the most numerous taxon. More than 250 thousand species are known. Angiosperms are distinguished by an extreme variety of forms, among them are trees, shrubs, creeping, shrubs, grasses.
There are 2 taxonomic classes of angiosperms:
1.Monocotyledonous - the Liliaceae, Orchidaceae, Grains and many others belong to them. Characterized by:
the presence of a fibrous root system,
rare branching of stems,
parallel venation of leaf blades,
the presence of one cotyledon.
To accurately establish the belonging of a particular plant to this class, a combination of several characteristics is required.
2. Dicotyledonous. This class is characterized by the following differences:
the presence of a bicotyledonous embryo,
the presence of educational tissue - cambium, located between the wood and the bast, which makes it possible to thicken the stem during growth,
the presence of leaves of complex shape,
rod root system.
They play a very important role in the economic activity of people - many agricultural plants and almost all woody forms of angiosperms are dicotyledons.
3. Begonia ever flowering
The beautiful begonia can easily argue with a rose for the title of Queen of the Garden: she is in no way inferior in beauty to the latter, but in leaving she is much less capricious. Begonia is beautiful because it feels good in the shade and partial shade and does not impose special requirements on growers for growing.
Evergreen begonia can be grown both in flower beds and in containers. Flowers in containers can be carried away for the winter to the room.
Clove, Dutch, garden, Chinese, Turkish, Shabo - all kinds of cloves are good in their own way. We love them for their captivating terry flowers, a huge variety of color petals and versatility. Depending on the type and variety, cloves can be grown in single and group plantings, rock gardens, borders, mixborders and containers.
Bright, bizarre shapes, fragrant hyacinths - one of the most catchy and spectacular spring flowers. Take note of the secret of gardeners in Victorian England - plant hyacinths in rows, alternating colors (in the same row - flowers of the same color). We bet your spring flower garden will attract many admiring glances.
11. Japanese camellia
Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to grow Japanese camellia in the middle lane (the exception is a heated conservatory). But on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, this magnificent shrub feels very good.
The fact is that this culture blooms in early spring (and some varieties bloom at all in December) and react equally poorly to sudden warming and to a cold snap. For a good flowering of camellia, a stable temperature of about + 10 ° C is necessary.
Clematis is a spectacular decorative vine that in a short time will twist a pergola, fence or pergola with a beautiful floral cover. This plant blooms depending on the type of variety from spring to the end of summer, so a luxurious coating of small architectural forms on your site is guaranteed throughout the summer season.
13. The bell
Varieties of bell can not be counted - there are views for every taste, flower garden and climatic conditions.
The special charm of the bells is that they quickly master the territory of the garden, covering it with a charming blue carpet, so these flowers are great for mixborders and Moorish lawns.
Ranunculus, or garden buttercup, is a favorite flower of florists and flower growers who rely on simple and natural beauty. Ranunculus is beautiful for everyone, except for one essential fact - it is a thermophilic culture, therefore, to propagate it in a harsh climate, frankly, is not easy. This problem in the middle lane is solved as follows: of all varieties of ranunculus, Asian buttercup is selected, which is grown as an annual.
It is most advisable to plant ranunculi in containers, since even the most unpretentious of all types of garden buttercups can die during return frosts.
This fantastically beautiful shrub is able to win the heart of any grower. That's just to grow this southern beauty in the middle zone is not so simple. However, for the sake of one type of flowering rhododendron, it is worth taking the risk.
The most winter-hardy rhododendron species that can take root in the middle lane are deciduous Schlippenbach rhododendron, Katevbin rhododendron, Japanese rhododendron.
Blooming lilacs are a symbol of late spring. It is difficult to imagine the blooming month of May without its entrancing aroma. Despite the fact that it is difficult to find a more traditional ornamental shrub, the lilac provides great scope for imagination: it can be formed both in the form of a short bush, and in the form of a tall tree. And if desired, you can grow a dwarf variety of lilac in a container.
Planting a tulip in your flower garden is impossible to miscalculate - you are guaranteed to get what you expect: a beautiful flower that can transform the entire front garden if you plant it in a large group. Take an example from the Dutch Keukenhof park, which literally drowns in the tulip sea every spring.
Preparing plants for planting
Before buying a new plant, it is advisable to find out the conditions in which it will grow well and bloom, will get a bright color of foliage and will not suffer from the proximity to fish and other inhabitants of water bodies. It will be necessary to choose herbs for an already launched aquarium taking into account the existing conditions in it (hydrochemical indicators of water, its temperature, tank volume).
After the purchase, a new plant is inspected and its primary processing is carried out:
- leaves damaged during transportation,
- they remove the found clutch of snail caviar,
- shorten or divide the rhizome (a number of plants in this way can be immediately propagated),
- cut off crushed, broken roots (otherwise they will rot after planting),
- in plants with a fibrous root system (cryptocorynes, vallisneria, echinodorus), thin roots are shortened by 1 / 2-1 / 3, if they are too long.
It is not recommended to shorten thin weak roots (long-stemmed plants, mosses, ferns, etc.). Only broken root threads can be removed.
Before planting the plant, prune the old and yellowed leaves, and also remove the broken and damaged roots.
Before planting in the aquarium, the acquired bush must be treated with disinfectant fluids:
- a solution of methylene blue (0.5 g / l) - effective against bacteria and fungi, mollusks,
- potassium permanganate (1 g / l) - acts on pathogenic microflora, planaria, hydra, etc.,
- sodium chloride (5 g / l) - destroys microorganisms,
- special preparations (Sera costapur, Tetra Medica Contralck, etc.) according to the instructions or in a double dose for disinfection of an individual plant - fight against pathogens of fish infections.
In order not to bring into the aquarium rapidly growing green algae (for example, black beard, etc.), they are additionally treated with algaecides. Antiborodine and other drugs can be purchased at the pet store. The solution of the pharmaceutical preparation Streptomycin (0.5 g per 1 liter of water) will also have the desired effect.
The disinfecting solution is poured into a wide container. Greens are immersed in it for 10-15 minutes, unless otherwise specified in the instructions. After that, the grass is washed under running water (can be from the tap). After treatment, plants are planted in an aquarium.
How to plant bulbous specimens
Part of the aquarium flora has a special organ - the bulb. It stores nutrients that maintain the viability of the bush during dormancy. Bulbs include nymphaea, apono-hetons, barclays and crinums. All of them are decorative foliage and flowering specimens.
Bulbous aquarium plants can be planted directly into the soil of the aquarium.
Landing in the ground does not cause difficulties:
- You can plant both in a separate pot, and in the soil, which is poured to the bottom,
- the root system is well developed, when planting it is shortened as necessary,
- nutritional substrates optional (before the roots grow, the bush will receive food from the reserve of the bulb, and then from organic matter clogging into the ground),
- for correctly planted bulbs, the upper part should be above the ground, since leaves will appear from the growth point (if sleeping bulbs are bought).
When planting in a container, soil is laid on the bottom (for example, coastal sludge), the bulb is placed, spreading the roots, sprinkled with river sand or synthetic backfill, leaving the top of the bulb free with or without foliage. If the plant has not yet sprouted, the container is placed in warm water (+ 27 ° C) and placed under a bright lamp until germination. Then the container can be transferred to a reservoir.
How to plant rosette aquarium plants
Rosette specimens form a bunch of leaves emerging from 1 point. The stalk of such herbs is short, and all petioles look growing together, like onion bulbs. Unlike the latter, rosette aquaflora (cryptocorynes, echinodorus, saggitaria, pisti, water hyacinths, wallisneria, etc.) does not have a storage organ in the form of a bulb or corm. The root system of such plants is fibrous, thin roots grow from the base of the bush in different directions.
If the plant is not a floating plant (pistia, hyacinth, etc.), then it will have to be planted directly in the ground or in a container. When planting in a pot, proceed as described in the description for the bulbs. Unlike terrestrial plants, the aquatic flora does not need drainage layers, and a clay substrate or a mixture of clay with peat is laid immediately in a planting tank.
Rosette aquarium plants before planting can be divided or vice versa fastened with a plastic clip so that the bush does not crumble during planting.
Digging sockets in the sand at the bottom, use special substrates or tablets for aquaflora. Experienced aquarists also mix clay and peat in equal proportions, mold balls from this mass, which are laid at the roots of the grass when planting. This provides the bush with nutrition in the form of organic and mineral substances.
When planting outlets independently, it is important to observe the only requirement: the root neck (the place where the roots exit down, and the leaves up) should not sink into the ground, nor rise above it. The substrate level passes exactly along the boundary between the aboveground and underground parts.
How to plant plants with horizontal roots
Aquarium plants with horizontal or aerial roots need to be carefully fixed in the ground with a sinker.
Planting aquarium plants with rhizomes is complicated by the fact that in most species this part cannot be dug in sand. All growth points from which leaves or branches are formed are located on the surface, and the rhizome must lie on the substrate.
Trunks, from which both rhizoids and leaves depart (for example, in ferns), are poorly retained at the bottom. They practically do not form branched roots and constantly float to the surface of the water. You can fix them if you press down the rhizome with a stone or decor element. It will be possible to weight the bush with a sinker of lead wire or a plate.
Special organic-mineral substrates are almost never used for feeding such specimens: most of the nutrients of the plant are obtained from water, or thin roots absorb nitrogenous substances from organic residues.
1. “Cook” the stem
Such a shock method is suitable for flowers with a heterogeneous stem, dense on the outside and soft inside. These are chrysanthemums, peonies, gerberas, hydrangeas, ranunculi.
We lower the stem of the plant by 5-7 cm in boiling water for about 3 seconds. We get and cut with a sharp knife obliquely that part that was in boiling water. Immediately set in clean and cold water. Thus, a peculiar process of “renewal” of the plant is launched, and the flowers will stand for much longer. Moreover, using this method, you can give a second life to flowers that have already begun to fade.
2. Give water to the leaves, otherwise they will take it from the flowers
The fact that the leaves should not float in water so as not to provoke the growth of bacteria is known.
But it is better if the leaves in the bouquet are smaller, otherwise they draw moisture from the flowers onto themselves. Do not want to get rid - spray from the spray bottle every day.
3. Treat flowers with a cocktail
Yes, flowers like to drink unusual water and respond very well to supplements. If you do not use special industrial additives, then please flowers:
- aspirin (1 tablet per medium vase),
- liquid ammonia (1-3 tsp. depending on the volume of the vase),
- universal mixture (1 tsp. citric acid, 1 tsp. sugar, 1 drop of bleach).
Some colors have their own preferences. For example, aster is an “alcoholic lady” and will stand for a long time in a cocktail of 1 tsp. alcohol per 1 liter of water. Tulips and daffodils love sugar, and roses love citric acid.
If you want the buds to bloom faster, the assistant is camphor or ammonia.
4. Make them drink
By provoking the production of active substances in plants, some drugs literally make them drink water.
In flowers with a hollow stem, water can be poured directly into the stem and close the hole with a piece of cotton wool. Dahlias and lupins will live so much longer. Hydrangea (on the left side of the photo collage above) will look fresh if you periodically dip the flowers in a container of water.
But there is one plant that does not accept water. If you put mimosa in the water, it will quickly grow moldy, and the yellow balls will turn black. Keep it in a container without water.
5. Rip the stamens
In flowers with long stamens, you can remove them to extend the life of the bouquet.
Thus, pollination ceases. This applies to tulips, lilies, decorative poppies. In the case of lilies, this action will save you from the pungent smell in the room.
6. Place a nearby plant doctor
Some flowers love proud loneliness: for example, flowers that are adjacent to a bouquet of roses or daffodils will not last long. But other plants, on the contrary, act as doctors. The bouquet will live longer if its neighbors in the vase are:
- all types of pelargonium (on the left on the collage),
- thuja branches
- branches of woodruff.
7. Put the flowers in the refrigerator
Almost all flowers are well preserved in the cold, and this knowledge will help if you need to save a bouquet for a special occasion.
Tulips, carnations, chrysanthemums will perfectly live a couple of days without water in the refrigerator, but it is better to wrap the stems with a damp cloth. The remaining plants must be stored in water, while cutting the stems. A cold loggia is also suitable for roses as a “waiting room”.
8. Donate “legs” to keep the “head”
The most difficult thing is to keep the bouquet when there are a lot of “participants” in it — some flowers, of course, will fade first. In this case, make the flower stems as short as possible and the cut as long as possible. Remove wilted buds so that they do not infect others, and cut the stems every day.
In the case of tulips, their leaves take a lot of moisture from the flowers, because they are similar in structure. Remove the bottom leaves to allow the buds to live longer.
9. Apply “torture”
Try unusual ways to handle the stem:
- soften the stems below with a hammer (lilac, roses),
- treat the stalks with salt before placing them in a vase (calla lilies, gerberas),
- split the stems below and insert a piece of match (chrysanthemum),
- scratch the stems below with a sharp object (daffodils, tulips).
All these actions will increase the flow of water.
Perhaps you checked on your bouquets other ways to prolong life? We welcome comments.
How to form a compact bush. Where to begin.
When they ask me how to form a compact bush, first of all I advise you to start growing a new plant. That is, take the stalk, root it, and then work with it. An old plant, no matter how regrettable it sounds, you need to throw it away or give it to someone. There are 2 reasons why it is advisable to start with this. Firstly, a young plant is almost always more decorative than an overgrown one. In addition, many plants (Kalanchoe, Scheffler, pedilanthus, etc.) are most beautiful at a young age. Secondly, a large adult flower can hurt after all the “manipulations”.
Light plays a huge role in plant life. After all, they can eat only in good lighting conditions. Accordingly, a flower that receives enough light does not need to grow excessively tall. After all, even slight shading is a signal for enhanced growth. Under natural conditions, this only happens in the forest. The plant is trying to grow tall (most often with one "stick") in the "hope" of finding the sun. And only then it starts branching. Therefore, providing the plant with good bright lighting, the grower eventually gets a compact bush. Of course this only works partially. The same hibiscus in sunlight can grow to the ceiling.
How to form a compact bush. Pruning.
Of course, pruning shoots is the main measure to reduce the size of the plant. I am often asked: What plants can be cut? Any. The shorter you cut the shoots, the more compact the bush will end up. I cut my hibiscus very shortly. There remains a “stump” of 8-10 cm in height. After pruning, treat all damaged areas with garden varieties or Runnet. How to form a small deciduous tree on the example of Benjamin's ficus read in our article.
Hibiscus after pruning
When to crop.
Hibiscus blooms on young shoots. Therefore, it makes no sense to cut and pinch in the period from mid-spring to October. Of course, all plants with a similar growth regime also do not need to be touched. Hibiscus, pelargonium (geranium), etc. must be cut off either in late autumn or early spring. Personally, it’s more convenient for me to do this in November. I translate the trimmed plant during the dormant period and put it in the corner of the window sill, so as not to interfere) Plants that are grown for foliage can be cut at any time of the year. Well, except for winter. Still, the flowers need to be given a rest.
Trimming the roots is a fairly effective measure to restrain growth. Just for the reason that a plant that has lost part of the root system will not be able to build up shoots as much as before. I cut off part of the roots during transplantation in late autumn. That is, after my hibiscus fades, I cut off the shoots to it, then transplant and additionally cut off part of the roots. Very often, flushing the root system with water can cause wilting. Therefore, it is better to free the roots from the soil with a wooden peg. First of all, you need to remove long and thick roots. They are needed for enhanced growth. Thin fibrous roots must be preserved to the maximum. Due to them, the plant absorbs water and minerals from the soil. Accordingly, if they are cut off too much, the plant will eventually get sick.
Growth regulation by pot size.
If you need to form a compact bush, then you need to plant in small pots. Indeed, in a small container, many roots cannot grow. Accordingly, this will partially limit the growth of shoots. Therefore, I transplant hibiscus 2 times a year. Once in late autumn in a very small pot (diameter 11 cm). After all, after trimming the shoots and part of the roots, a lot of soil is no longer needed. Even dangerous. After all, even in a standard pot, a trimmed plant will not be able to absorb as much water as before. Accordingly, this will lead to decay and may cause death. Therefore, for the winter period you need a very small pot. In March-April, I transfer to a larger pot (diameter 16-17 cm). After all, for flowering, you need uniform hydration of the roots. In a pot too small, this cannot be achieved. That means there will be a compact bush, but without flowers. In this mode, I have been growing my hibiscus for many years.
Hibiscus at the beginning of the growing season
The use of retardants.
Retardants are substances that cause enhanced development of shoots in thickness, and due to growth in height. The greatest effect is noticeable only in low light conditions. That is, using such drugs, you can get a compact plant in light shading. Of the retardants, I met only one drug - Athlete. Perhaps there are others. If you decide to use such drugs, strictly follow the manufacturer's instructions. Personally, I rarely use them. Due to limited action. For example, monocotyledonous plants practically do not react to them. In relation to hibiscus, the Athlete gives a positive result.
Very often, flower growers mistakenly believe: since the plant is southern, then it should always grow, both in winter and in summer. In fact, the change of seasons is almost everywhere on our planet. In addition to a small strip in the equator. Therefore, only a small part of plants (anthurium, spathiphyllum and several others) should develop identically throughout the year. All other plants from the second half of autumn to the beginning of spring should rest from growth. Violation of the dormant period causes stretching of the shoots. The plant is growing. This means a decrease in temperature and a strong reduction in irrigation can be used as a deterrent to growth. After pruning and replanting, I greatly reduce watering for my hibiscus. Unfortunately, there is no way to reduce the temperature. But even rare waterings cope with their task: during the winter holidays, the growth of new shoots completely stops. Accordingly, the plant remains very compact until the beginning of the growing season. In addition, the dormant period is useful for future flowering.
Hibiscus before spring transplant
How to form a compact bush. The results.
How to form a compact bush - of course, first of all, this is achieved by cutting the shoots. The remaining tricks are aimed at restraining growth. With a combination of different measures, you can choose the necessary care for any plant. For example, in order to form a compact bush near pelargonium (geranium) or hydrangea, it is enough to cut them shortly every year and put in good sunlight. For Kalanchoe or Begonia, this approach is also possible. But still the youngest plant has the greatest decorative effect. Therefore, it is better to periodically update them with cuttings. Ficuses grow slower than hibiscus. Therefore, they do not need to be trimmed as radically as described above. Cut the shoots at the height at which you personally will like its appearance. For hibiscus and other fast-growing plants, it is better to apply all the above methods to achieve the most decorative effect.
The rest of the aquarium plants
Other varieties of herbs are grown in aquariums:
- Floating plants. Small representatives of this group (duckweed, richchia, salvinia) do not have developed roots. Large species (pistachia, water hyacinth, etc.) have drooping roots that absorb nutrients from the water. These herbs do not need to be fixed on the ground.
- Long stem plants. They are often used as floating, but can be fixed at the bottom. Root threads of ludwig, elodea, limnophile, cabomba, hornwort, etc. are few and smooth. You can hold the lower parts of the stems with the help of sinkers: wrap the bunch of stems with wire, pass them into a glass tube or press down with a stone.
- Mosses and algae, other small plants. Low-growing herbs (Anubias, Marsilia, Sitnyag, Mollusk, Javanese moss, etc.) are difficult to dig into the substrate due to their miniature size. Bushes with a developed root system or rhizomes are fixed according to the principle of the same tall herbs, using a sinker. Moss on a stone or snag is fixed with a thin fishing line or thread. Cladophores lower the algae balls to the bottom without fixing.
When choosing greens, they prefer low-growing and fast-growing plants along the bottom (anubias, small cryptocorins, marsilia, etc.). They look good in small aquariums, because they rarely reach a height of 5 cm in height. Open foreground lawns can occupy about 50% of the bottom surface.
Along the edges you can place slightly higher varieties of cryptocoryns or similar medium-sized rosettes. They are designed to limit the field of view, distracting the viewer from the side walls.
Center and back area filling
The middle and background are tall plants, which are the basis of the composition. You can combine them by color, forming thickets of red-leaved or other bright forms. Plants with green leaves, which are not too expressive (wallisneria, hornwort, mollusks, etc.), are shaded by the plants adjacent to and behind.
Large and tall plants are planted in the background in the aquarium, and decorative elements and stunted plants are placed in the center.
The background is the background of the whole composition. Large high apono-hetons, echinodorus, etc. are most often planted there. But even in the back of the aquarium you can plant reddish long-stem plants (for example, ludwig), creating a bright accent in the green wall.
The sides of the middle plan often serve as the “backstage” for equipment installed in the water (aerator, filter). For planting, choose tall (to the very surface) herbs with a dense rosette (vallisneria).
These are always the most beautiful and expressive pieces. Large bushes of lotuses, aponogetons with beautiful foliage (for example, uvirandra) are selected or topiarias are artificially created from snags with moss. In a small aquarium, a cladophore ball can act as a tapeworm.
Tapeworms are best placed in the foreground and middle ground. In the first case, the best place for a large bush is on the side of the composition. In the middle ground, the tapeworm is a central figure.
What to consider when planting plants
In addition to placing on different plans, it is worth observing the lighting requirements without planting light-loving varieties near tall bushes. The duration of lighting is at least 12 hours a day. Long stems are arranged so that they do not interfere with each other to grow.
The lighting power for the aquarium is selected taking into account the plants, because some of them do not require a powerful light flux for growth and vice versa.
Proper vegetation care
The main care is to maintain the optimum temperature of water and lighting. Not only the growth rate, but also the appearance of the greenery depends on this.
Top dressing is applied depending on the requirements of the flora: for red-leaved forms, a high iron content is important, plants with green leaves need nitrogen. Any fertilizer can be purchased at a pet store: Tetra, Sera, and others produce tablets in the form of tablets for various types of aquatic plants.
Pruning aquarium plants
Pruning foreground grasses most need pruning. They quickly “populate” the bottom, but then begin to reach up. You can trim the lawn with manicure scissors. For large plants, pruning is reduced to the removal of old, yellowing leaves.
Sometimes it is necessary to trim and peduncles (for example, in Barclay). Excessive flowering, and especially fruiting, can cause the death of the bush.
30. Chrysanthemum garden
The main advantage of chrysanthemums is that they bloom until late autumn, when the remaining plants in the garden and flower garden gradually wither and lose their colors until the next season. At this time, chrysanthemums of all kinds of colors continue to delight the gaze and cheer up.
Which of these ornamental plants "live" in your garden? Tell us!