The species nests in Central and Eastern Siberia. It lives in the middle reaches of the Angara, the lower reaches of the Lower Tunguska, between the Yenisei and Pyasina rivers, the lower reaches of the Lena, along the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk and on the Amur. During nesting, these ducks settle near water bodies and subalpine lakes. Wintering go to South China, Japan and South Korea.
The weight of kloktuns reaches 600 g, and the body length is 22 cm, they are somewhat larger than the rest of the teal. Fly low and usually very fast. These are beautiful, bright and catchy birds. In their plumage, many color tones are combined. On the sides of the head there are well-defined bright green and buffy spots, bordered by white and black stripes. However, bright color is a feature of only males; females wear a modest brown-brown outfit with a dark border around the edges of the feathers. Females have distinct white spots on the sides at the base of the beak. A well-defined dark stripe runs along the line of the eyes, and a light one above it. These ducks got their name for the characteristic sounds of “clo-clo-clo”.
Kloktuns often look for a mate during the flight and fly to the nesting sites, having already fully established themselves in their choice. During mating games, the male often extends his neck and throws his head back, greatly fluffing his plumage and issuing a characteristic "clok". These birds most often build nests under the shelter of shrubs. In clutch there can be from six to nine eggs.
Only the female is engaged in the construction of the nest, she digs a small hole in the ground and lines it with soft grass, sedge or reindeer moss, and from the moment of laying the eggs - also with her own fluff. She incubates the masonry. However, the male does not leave his family and, after the ducklings are born, takes an active part in their upbringing.
These ducks prefer to winter on rice checks, and on the spans they choose soybean fields. It is interesting that kloktuns feed not only on seeds, but also on the vegetative parts of plants.
In the Red Book of Russia
Today, Kloktun teal is a species that is rapidly declining in numbers. Despite the fact that this species is protected by law, poaching of kloktuns in many areas has not yet been stopped. For many years, the bird was one of the main enemies of farmers due to the fact that it sought to feed directly in the fields.
The reasons why these or other animals were on the verge of extinction, each species has its own. In the fate of chirkakloktun as a species, his way of eating played a fatal role. The fact is that these ducks prefer to eat in the fields, especially on rice checks. Numerous flocks of kloktunov can cause significant damage to crops. So they exterminated these birds in a wide variety of ways - from poisons to throwing nets on a feeding flock.
Until the middle of the twentieth century. app. the range border passed in the middle course of the Angara, then to the north. - in the lower reaches of the Lower Tunguska and between the Yenisei and Pyasina rivers, sowing. - on the west. nesting range - between light forest and tundra, to the east. - through the Khatanga Hall., the lower reaches of the Lena, Novosibirsk Islands, the mouth of the Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma to the south. parts of Chaunskaya Bay, from where it extended to the southeast. in the lower reaches of Anadyr and further to the south-west. to east Koryak Highlands. It was found everywhere in Kamchatka; nesting has not been proven in Sakhalin. From Parapolsky Dol, the border passed along the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk to the mouth of the Amur, from where it sowed. to the districts of the Lower Amur Region - to the northwest. and app. to Baikal. Currently, due to a sharp decrease in the number of nesting in many regions, it has become sporadic and irregular, but in general, the outlines of the range have retained their former contours.
1 Anas formosa
2 Nettion formosum
5 Amazonetta brasiliensis
6 Anas angustirostris
7 Anas bernieri
8 Anas capensis
9 Anas castanea
10 Anas crecca
11 Anas cyanoptera
12 Anas discors
13 Anas flavirostris
14 Anas gibberifrons
15 Anas hottentota
16 Anas leucophrys
17 Anas punctata
18 Anas querquedula
19 Anas versicolor
20 Callonetta leucophrys
P-ns of maximum concentration of kloktun at the nesting site coincide with p-ns, where small areas of sphagnum bogs are found absent-mindedly, but in some places are typical of the landscape. In the nesting period, it settles in a variety of water bodies: from small forest lakes and taiga "grass rivers" to tundra ponds and subalpine lakes 4-7. Reproduction is poorly studied. He often builds nests under the guise of shrubs, trees or fins, but sometimes among shrubberies. In clutch up to 10 eggs. Broods are usually held on small lakes. Spring arrives on the lake. Hanka along with the bulk of other river ducks, but remains here to rest and lodge longer than others. Until the mid 60s. the kloktun formed huge clusters here, where birds of different populations 10.11 mixed. Apparently, Lake. Hanka is a key territory through which in spring a large part of the population of the species passes, as evidenced by the almost complete absence of it (and in the past) to the east. flyway along the coast. All in. and especially app. parts of the breeding range appears later than the remaining river ducks 4.13, which confirms its arrival from the east. . Span flocks are usually very compact and fly at a low altitude of 10.14. Autumn span is very friendly and fast, may go unnoticed. During wintering, the favorite food stations are rice checks; on the span, in addition, there are arable lands and fields, especially with soybean crops 9.10. Environmentally kloktun close with a whistle 15.16. There is an opinion that kloktun is a teal-sized goose life form, specializing in eating not only seeds but also vegetative parts of rice and other plants, the structure of the beak, different from other river duck species, indicates this specialization. Wintering until the middle of the twentieth century. located in Japan (about. Hondo and to the south) and in the East. China, however, has now shifted substantially - up to half of the total population winter in the South. Korea in the province of Kiongsangnam, the tract of Hunam, where previously the kloktun met only on the fly.
Until the mid-60s, despite the characteristic fluctuations in numbers, it remained the largest span duck in the south of the Far East, 20.21, common or numerous in Transbaikalia and Baikal, at nesting sites in Yakutia 7.15.23, 24 and app. Chukotka. The reduction in numbers occurred simultaneously throughout the range from 1965 to 1967. 26-29. On the lake Hanka number decreased by 300-450 times. Currently, only about 40 thousand birds are left in the wintering grounds. The decline in numbers occurred for several reasons. Among the most likely - intensive hunting in the winter, the extermination of ducks as pests of rice and chumiz crops. Kloktun was for many years the main hunting species and the enemy of farmers because of its mass, unusual flocking and desire to feed in the fields. In Korea, a method of poisoning birds with seeds with pesticides was widely practiced, in China it is still used today. The intensity of prey can be judged by the case when in Japan 3 hunters caught 50 thousand birds in 20 days of the winter of 1947, up to 10 thousand of them in 1 day. The main method of prey is to throw nets onto a flock that low flying at dusk to the feeding place (typical behavior), in the Far East, during the flight, hunters also preferred kloktun by taste and extraordinary flocking. The second reason may be poisoning with pesticides, which in mass began to be used since the mid 60s. During this period, soybean - a technical culture that was heavily pickled, was consumed in Primorye and Amurye, and the kloktuns ate it with particular desire. The third possible reason is epizootic, which when mixing different populations during a stop on Lake. Hanka could quickly cover a huge number of birds. Most likely, a sharp decline in numbers as a result of a combination of these reasons.
The first formal description on the teal of Lake Baikal was by the German natural scientist Johann Gottlieb Georgi in 1775 under the binomial name Anas formosa . A molecular phylogentic study published in 2009 showed that genus Anas as it was then determined non-monophile. Based on this analysis, the genus was divided into four planned genera with teal Baikal placed in the resurrected genus Sibirionetta , which was introduced by German zoologist Hans von Boetticher in 1929. Title Sibirionetta derived from latin Siberian for Siberia and the Old Greek NETTA for the duck. Specific epithet Formoz from latin Formosa for the "beautiful."
Between 39 and 43 cm (15 and 17 inches), this duck is slightly larger and has more tails than a common teal. Reproduction male is unmistakable, with a striking green nape, yellow and black auriculars, neck and throat. He has a dark crown, and her chest is light brown with dark spots. Already long ago dropping the dark shard, and its gray sides are counted on the front and back with white stripes.
Teal Baikal has a height of 11.75 to 15.75 inches and weighs an average of 1 pound.
The female is similar to the female green winged teal, but with a longer tail and a characteristic white spot at the base of the bill and white throat that have corners in the back of the eye. She also has a pronounced light - eyebrow bordered by a darker crown. The underwing is similar to the green-winged teal as well, but has a darker leading edge. The green mirrors have a fuzzy brownish-buff inner border. Some “women” have “bridles” marked on their faces, but it has been suggested that at least some of them have curbed “females,” if not all, are actually male minors. Juvenile has a plumage similar to that of a female and can be distinguished from the common teal pale loral spot.
In non-nesting (eclipse) plumage, the drake is more like a female, but the plumage is much richer in reddish-brown (red) color.
Distribution and habitat
It nests in the forest zone of Eastern Siberia from the Yenisei basin in the east to Kamchatka, in the north of Koryak, in the east of the Magadan region, in the north of the Khabarovsk Territory, in the southeastern and northern Sakha in the east of central Irkutsk Region, and in the north of Krasnoyarsk Territory. These are migratory species wintering in South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, North and East China, from Beijing down the coast to the Vietnamese border, and west to Yunnan then north to Chongqing and Henan.
It nests in pools on the tundra of the region and in marshy forests. In winter it is found on plain fresh waters.
This species belongs to the least concern group on the IUCN Red List, although it was classified as vulnerable until 2011 due to hunting and the destruction of its wintering wetlands. These threats remain, but the teal Baikal is recovering, with an increase in the number of wintering birds and some increase in habitat. Based on the number of Baikal teal, wintering in South Korea was counted, the world's population is estimated at about 1.07 million individual adults around 2010, a significant increase from tens of thousands counted in the 1980s and several hundred thousand in the 2000s.
French translation: Sarcelle grise (élégante)
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