Status Category H - a species belonging to a set of eurybionte settled bats, for which key habitats are subject to protection - medium and large underground cavities (volume over 100 m3) of natural and artificial origin (karst caves, abandoned mine workings, underground engineering structures) serving as summer places habitats of at least 500 individuals of various species of bats and (or) their wintering places. The species is included in the lists of rare species of the Ryazan and Kirov regions.
A brief description of the appearance. The bat is medium in size: body length from 41 to 55 mm, forearm - from 35 to 43 mm. The fur is long, on the back it is golden brown or reddish, the underside of the body is whitish-gray, often with a brownish tint. The wings are very wide, the wing membrane is thin, gray-brown. The ears are very long (31-43 mm), the posterior margin of the ear with transverse folds, at the base of the anterior margin there is a noticeable protrusion, the tragus is narrow, long, pointed at the end. Spur with a small epiblem.
Spread . It inhabits Central and Northern Europe, north to Northern Ireland, Great Britain and Scandinavia (up to 64 ° N), south to the northern half of the Apennine Peninsula, east to Mongolia. It is found in Russia in the middle lane and in the south of the European part, in the Caucasus, in the south of Western Siberia and the Far East, in the north it reaches Karelia, Tomsk and Yakutsk. In the Nizhny Novgorod region, ushana is found almost everywhere, but is not numerous everywhere.
The number and trends of its change. One of the most widespread, but not numerous species of bats, both in Russia as a whole and in the Nizhny Novgorod region. There are no exact estimates of abundance. When catching with spider webs, ushans were: in the caves of Ichalkovsky pine forest, Kamennoye tract and in the Balakhonykhinsky cave - 1–9% of the total number of bats caught, in the Bornukovsky cave - 29%.
Habitat. It lives mainly in forests, and is also found in settlements in which it adheres to gardens and parks.
Features of biology. Most often, tree hollows are used as summer shelters, somewhat less often - attics of houses and cavities behind wooden wall cladding, in the Nizhny Novgorod region it is found in karst caves. The average number of brood colonies is about 10-20 adult females; however, in Europe, colonies of up to a hundred adult animals are known. Hunting places are connected with the forest - it hunts among trees, along forest roads, small glades, banks of small rivers, and in settlements - in gardens and parks. Flies out to hunt in the late twilight and hunts all night, the flight flutters, with rare flapping wings. It feeds mainly on bugs and caterpillars, which it collects on the leaves and branches of trees, walls of buildings, etc. Cubs are born in late June - early July. A sedentary species, little demanding on wintering conditions. It hibernates in caves, adits, cellars, in the Nizhny Novgorod region for wintering winter flaps found in Perevozsky, Buturlinsky and Lyskovsky districts.
The main limiting factors. It may suffer as a result of disturbance in the food supply caused by human economic activity, as well as as a result of destruction in summer shelters - human buildings, anxiety and violation of the temperature regime in wintering places.
- Date of Birth:
Name: BROWN EAR - Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Conservation Status: 3 category. It is listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Short description: The bat is medium sized. Body length 42 - 55 mm, forearm length 35 - 43 mm. The swelling behind the nostrils is well developed; above the eye there is a large tubercle covered with vibrissae. It differs from most other genera of the family with very large ears (at least 30 mm). The coat is thick, long. The back is fawn - or reddish brown, the belly is fawn-whitish.
Spread: Endemic species of Europe, where it is widespread south of 65 ° C. sh., west of the Urals and north of the Caucasus. The territory of Udmurtia is fully included in the northeastern part of the species range.
Ecology: In most of the range, it is closely connected with forest habitats. In the steppe zone is found in gardens and parks of settlements. In the warm season, it settles in the hollows of trees, behind the lagging bark, in the hollows and birdhouses, in various caves, as well as in human buildings. As a rule, it does not form large clusters in the summer; it prefers to settle separately from other species of bats. Females bring one cub each, which appear in the conditions of our republic at the end of June. Sedentary look. At wintering it was noted in a number of regions of the republic. He uses caves, adits, cellars, cellars of buildings, drinking wells with a wooden log house as winter shelters.
Current state: Brown earflaps were recorded in Kizner, Syumsinskiy, Vavozhsky, Celtinsky, Krasnogorsk, Uvinsky, Malopurginsky, Zavyalovsky, Votkinsky and Kambarsky districts, as well as in the forest-park zone and in the residential sector of Izhevsk. Local populations of the species are not represented by a large number of individuals.
Limiting factors: Destruction of shelters as a result of clear and sanitary logging, destruction of animals in summer habitats and in wintering.
Security measures: Preservation of hollow trees in forest stands, creation of forest reserves in the most typical habitats, placement of artificial shelters in young forests and forest plantations, promotion of knowledge about the benefits of bats.
Sources of information: 1. Red. 2006, 2. Pavlinov et al., 2002, 3. Spitzenberger et. al., 2006, 4. Hutson et.al., 2008b, 5. Kapitonov, Grigoryev, 1995, 6. Grigoryev, 1998, 7. Red. 2001, 8. Data of the authors, 9. Bolshakov et al., 2005.
Compiled by: Kapitonov V.I., Grigoriev A.K.
Who are the earflaps?
Ushany belong to the vast family of smooth-bats. With real mice and other rodents, they have nothing in common, except that they are also mammals. Most likely, they got such a name thanks to a squeaky voice and small size.
Ears bats represent a separate genus, which includes about 19 species. Outwardly, they are not much different from each other. All have thick fur, well-developed auricles (trestles) and a smooth muzzle, devoid of special growths from bone-cartilaginous tissue.
The species Plecotus sardus, or Sardinian ushan, is endemic to the Italian island of the same name. It is found in the forested lower reaches or near the coast. A gray ear-flap is similar to it, but a little smaller. It lives in North Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, flying in forests, over parks and gardens. He is considered a double of the Ushanka ordinary (brown), since they have similarities in lifestyle, color and structure. Due to the strong similarity, they were not distinguished until the 1960s, considering them to be subspecies of the same species.
Bat Brown Ears
This is the most common and studied type of ushanka. It is characterized by a relatively small wing size, a long tail (about 40 mm) and long free wing fingers (from 6 to 7 mm). The body of the ear-flaps reaches from 4 to 5 centimeters in length. Above the small eyes are clearly visible warts. The body of the animal is covered with thick brown fur. Its shades can vary from dark brown to gray. On the chest and abdomen, the fur is lighter and has a yellow tint.
Ears bat lives in North Africa and the Middle East. It is widely distributed in Eurasia. The western border of the usan range covers Portugal, in the east it is limited to the Far East and the central regions of China. Far to the north, the bat does not climb, therefore, in Norway, Sweden or the northern parts of the taiga, the species cannot be found.
Hunting and echolocation
Brown-eared bat is a mammal that preys on small animals. Its diet consists mainly of insects and other invertebrates, for example, May beetles, butterflies, moths, caterpillars, etc. Unlike giant evening gowns or pseudo-vampires, larger prey is beyond their power.
A characteristic feature of all ears is large ears, which help them better capture echolocation signals. Their size is almost equal to the length of the mouse’s body and is 3-4 centimeters. Brown earflaps emit low frequency waves invisible to humans and many animals in the range of 25-85 kHz with an amplitude of 50 kHz. Reflecting from various objects, they give mice information on how objects are located around them.
Echolocation is primarily used for orientation in space, as well as for communication between relatives. Like birds, during a conversation they sing songs consisting of a dozen syllables of different sequences. The only difference is that their trills are not heard by all creatures.
Echolocation also helps bats find food. True, some insects have learned to block their signals or use their own to trick predators. During the hunt, ear-flaps may not use “superpowers” at all, relying on eyesight and excellent hearing. The sensitivity of their ears allows you to recognize the flapping wings of a moth at a distance of several meters.
Ears bats live on different types of landscapes. They can live in forests, in highlands and woodlands. Often they are found in city parks, gardens and along roads. They live alone or in small groups. Raising offspring, they can unite in groups consisting of mothers and cubs.
These are sedentary animals. For the winter, they do not fly away anywhere, but hibernate in a secluded place. Such for them is a hollow in a tree, a cave, a dark attic and a basement. There the earflaps sleep in the summer, waiting for the day. When it gets completely dark, they go outside, hunting until dawn.
The flight of ear-flaps is reminiscent of the flutter of butterflies: fast and intermittent flapping of wings, circling around trees and frequent change of trajectory. From time to time, they can hang in the air, fluttering wings to collect a caterpillar or spider directly from a leaf or bark.
The front part is not elongated and short, slightly pointed in front. The brain is convex and oval. The wings of the brown ear-flaps are short and wide. The eyes are very large. Ears are quite large and directed up and a little forward. The coat is long and grows in a chaotic manner.
Sizes: body length of an adult brown ear-flaps 4-5 cm.
Color: The upper side of the body is dark gray or brownish gray. The underside of the body is gray or light gray.
Breeding and habitat
The birth of cubs occurs in June, usually 1 individual. During pregnancy, the males keep their distance from the females.
Widely distributed throughout Europe and Asia, especially can be found in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. They live in hollows of trees, caves, walls, cracks, attics, basements, etc.