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Meaning of the word root

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Most plants are firmly attached to the ground. the root. This rod going deep into the soil reliably holds them in place, acting as a kind of support. Without a doubt, this is a very important function, but not the main one. The main task of the root is to supply the plant with water from the soil with trace elements dissolved in it.

Being, in essence, a continuation of the stem, the root has a completely different structure. Special tissues provide strength to this organ and at the same time make it extremely flexible. The root is forced to independently make its way underground, and even the hardest soil is not an obstacle for it.

The root grows vertically down. The main shaft is usually provided with numerous lateral processes. They are thinner and branch shallow, closer to the surface. Here the soil is moist and contains the largest amount of organic and mineral substances. Yes, and there is enough oxygen, which is important for the plant. However, in arid areas, in order to get to the life-giving moisture, the roots have to be grown many meters, as does, for example, a camel spine.

If you look at the root under a microscope, you can see tiny vessels through which water and the substances dissolved in it circulate through the plant. The liquid is absorbed by the entire root surface, and thin, barely visible by the eye, hairs contribute to this. They increase the absorption capacity of the root several times.

In many cases, the roots serve for the vegetative propagation of plants. They can form special processes, the so-called "root offspring." In many weeds, even roots cut into pieces are capable of giving life to young shoots. It is for this reason that completely destroying them in the garden or in the garden is not an easy task.

The set of roots forms plant root system. If the main root prevails in it, then it is called pivotal (such a root system is characteristic of dicotyledonous plants), fibrous root the system of monocotyledonous plants consists of many similarly sized subordinate roots. Sometimes the main root stops growing early, and the lateral roots overtake it, forming very branched root system peculiar to many trees.

In some plants, the upper part of the stem and the main root form root cropin which nutrients accumulate. Representatives of root vegetables are vegetables known to everyone: radishes, beets, turnips, celery. In the second year of life, the root plant blooms, bears fruit, and then dies.

Each type of root system is adapted to certain conditions of plant existence. In the camel spine, which grows in deserts, the core root reaches underground water at a depth of 20 m. The fibrous root system of the cereals forms a dense network in the upper, most fertile and well moistened by atmospheric precipitation layer of soil, and the total length of the roots of one plant can reach tens of kilometers !

Origin of roots

The roots have different origins and types. The main root develops from the root of the embryo and grows down, smaller lateral roots depart from it. The roots that develop from the tissues of the stem or leaves are called secondary clauses. In some plants, they are developed even better than the main root.

Plants living in tropical rainforests develop aerial roots on their stems. These are accessory roots designed to absorb moisture from the air. Having reached the earth, aerial roots are strengthened in the soil. In Indian banyan trees they are lignified and look like additional tree trunks. Mangrove trees growing in the tidal zone of tropical seas form protruding to the surface and growing upward respiratory roots - pneumatophoressupplying underground parts of plants with air.

Root zones

The root grows down due to actively dividing cells located at its tip. This area is called division area. A little higher are the cells that do not divide, but then increase in size, stretching. This area is called stretch zone. If the root tip is damaged, it will stop growing. In order to protect this area, there is a so-called cap at the tip of the root.

When gardeners want the root of the plant not to rush deep into the soil, but spread in breadth (after all, the plant will not need to “search” for water in the thickness of the earth - it will be watered), they cut off the very tip of the root. The root ceases to grow in length and grows on the sides.

Above the growth and extension zones, root hairswhich draw water and nitrogen from the soil. This area is called suction zone. Above this area, where the root hairs end, there is a conduction zone. Here inside the root there are many vessels through which water rises up to the stem. Through this region, the substances absorbed by the root hairs are delivered to the axial cylinder.

Root

Root Root is an axial, usually underground vegetative organ of higher vascular plants, with unlimited growth in length and positive geotropism. The root fixes the plant in the soil and ensures the absorption and conduction of water with dissolved minerals to the stem and leaves.

1. The part of the plant that has grown into the ground through which it draws in juices from the soil. Ott. The wood or substance of such a part of the plant. Ott. unleash A drug or infusion prepared from such a part of some plants.

2. The internal part of the hair, tooth, nail, etc., located in the body Ott. The junction of the organ with the body.

3. Peren.Start, origin. Ott. out of date. Gender, generation, estate.

4. trans. Basis, source, cause of something. II m. The main unchanging part of the word expressing its main meaning (in linguistics). III m. A value that, when raised to a certain degree, gives a given number (in mathematics). IV m. Place of the root of the root of the root I in the harness. V m. An individual plant as a unit of account.

Large modern explanatory dictionary of the Russian language

1m.
1) a) The part of the plant that has grown into the ground through which it draws in juices from the soil. b) The wood or substance of such a part of the plant. c) decomp. A drug or infusion prepared from such a part of some plants. d) A single plant as a unit of account.
2) a) The internal part of the hair, tooth, nail, etc., located in the body b) The junction of the organ with the body.
3) a) trans. Origin, origin. b) out of date. Gender, generation, estate.
4) trans. Base, source, cause of smth.
5) The place of the root tree (1 *) in the harness.

2. m. The main unchanging part of the word expressing its basic meaning (in linguistics).

3. m. A value that, when raised to a certain degree, gives a given number (in mathematics).

New explanatory and derivational dictionary of the Russian language Efremova

husband. rootlets, -chets, roots will diminish. the root is scornful, the root is magnifying, the underground part of every plant. The trees distinguish between deadlift and lateral roots, and with them roots and small lobes. absorbing moisture. The root can be: onion, wedge, radish, shaggy, creeping, etc. | In tver. the root is generally called a stump, and the root is a stick or a poker. The part of the plant between the trunk and the root is called the rhizome, it is more noticeable in ferns. The root of a tooth, hair, feather, nail, etc. is the part that has grown into the body. The root, the spine of the book, the back, the stitching where it is sewn. Weave into the spines, into the leather back and paper cover of the boards. A love spell for healers and healers, forcing someone to love. The root of the matter, beginning, foundation, source. My root is there, tamb. homeland, settled. The root of the word, production, syllable or sound from which the word originated. | mat. a number multiplied by itself one or several times is the root of this product, the square root or the second degree, if the number is multiplied by one rae, cubic, third degree, if doubled, etc. The root, they say about the harness, the horse is laid in shafts , and on the sides of their buckles. Man is root, stubborn, stubborn and stern. Cut the sub-root, tear out the root, destroy, destroy. Dig roots, fierce roots, engage in quackery. Launch where or where the roots are, strengthen, establish oneself. Root for root, eye for eye and tooth for tooth. From a good root, good and industry. The root of the doctrine is bitter, and its fruit is sweet. Thin tree with a root out. Without root and wormwood does not grow. It’s not with good intent that the evil roots dig. Fell as if cut off from the root. To grow as it comes from the root. Do not fool from the root, but pick up a fallen tree. Either the yard is full, or the root (with the root) is over. The house is the root, and the side is the boast. The little son is sitting in the bud, in the peasantry, inheriting the house. Wash the roots, talk about the first spring rain. Let's skip stumps, roots, to no avail. Is it growing up? soot in the pipe. Neither the root nor the binder. Runs on jumpers (jumps), but is not good at the root. Himself at the root, two thighs in a tie. For all three, the root is not throne - but apart from the root, there is not one! Measles husband. (genus quack) ryaz. root, in all To sit on the measles, to take a hut and a house of direct heritage. Many plants are popularly called measles: Wine, ungulate, turpentine root. hoofed, wine, macarshan, cardiac, animal root, Polegonum bistorta, see brylen, root of thunder, asparagus, - tannic, chin-barnik, kermek, Statice latifolia, - maiden, Tamus communis, - yellow, kermek yellow, Statice tatarica, - stingy. a piece of wood, - snake, bloody beard, luskach, gusset, - goiter, noritsa, norichnik, - clerical, diva, - red, bugle, - cross, Cnicus benedictus, - marin, peony, - linger, bear, Meum athamaticum, - feline , full-time, meoon, digol, drunk, Hyoscyamus physaloides,

root, root, sentence in (na) k`orn, on the root, pl. korni

Dictionary of Russian Lopatin

the underground part of the plant, which is used to strengthen it in the soil and absorb water and nutrients from it in the garden. There are ten roots of apple trees (i.e. ten apple trees). To take root (also trans., Firmly settle somewhere, decomp.). Trim under the root (without leaving a stump, also trans.: Completely undermine, destroy). Tear up the root (also trans.: Destroy completely). root In linguistics: the main, significant part of the word, singled out after separation of the ending, prefixes and suffixes, the root is the internal part of the hair, tooth, and nail in the body Redden to the hair roots (very strong). root beginning, source, sources of something K. evil. Someone has strong roots. (long-standing origin).

Dictionary of the Russian language Ozhegova

in biology - one of the main organs of plants, which serves to strengthen the soil, absorb water, minerals, synthesize organic compounds, as well as to isolate some metabolic products. The root can be a storage place for spare substances (for example, for carrots, beets), and an organ of vegetative propagation (for aspen, lilac, etc.). Many roots are edible. Roots containing starch, oils, dyes and other valuable substances are used in industry and medicine. - in linguistics, a non-derivative (simple) word base that does not include any affixes. The root is the lexical core of the word, i.e., bears its basic material meaning. - in mathematics - ..
1) a root of degree n from a is any number x (denoted by a is called an radical expression), the nth degree of which is equal to a (). The action of finding the root is called root extraction ...
2) The root of the equation is a number that, after substituting it into the equation instead of the unknown, turns the equation into identity.

Modern Explanatory Dictionary, TSB

1m.
1) a) The part of the plant that has grown into the ground through which it draws in juices from the soil. b) The wood or substance of such a part of the plant. c) decomp. A drug or infusion prepared from such a part of some plants. d) A single plant as a unit of account.
2) a) The internal part of the hair, tooth, nail, etc., located in the body b) The junction of the organ with the body.
3) a) trans. Origin, origin. b) out of date. Gender, generation, estate.
4) trans. Base, source, cause of smth.
5) The place of the root tree (1 *) in the harness.

2. m. The main unchanging part of the word expressing its basic meaning (in linguistics).

3. m. A value that, when raised to a certain degree, gives a given number (in mathematics).

Explanatory Dictionary of Ephraim

root, pl. roots, roots, m

1. A part of a plant that has grown into the ground, through K-ruy, it draws in juices from the soil. A storm turned trees with roots. Oak deeply rooted in the ground. || The wood or substance of this part of the plant. Licorice root. Soapy root. (see soapy).

2. In hair, teeth, nails, claws, etc., the part that has grown into the body. Tooth root Hair roots. || The base, the place by which the organ connects to the body (rarely). The root of the tongue.

3. trans. Origin, origin (book). The roots of serfdom

Explanatory dictionary of Russian language Ushakova

toaboutReny, toaboutRnya, offer in (on) toabouton the rootYu, many toaboutrni -eth

Complete spelling dictionary of the Russian language

branched underground part of the plant, an organ that provides fixation (rooting) in the soil, feeds with water and other substances, and in some cases for vegetative propagation, the pedigree, generation, ancestors of the hidden, buried part of the base of something, for example, an organ of a living organism (hair, tooth, etc.) a hidden source, the root cause of a phenomenon (often with a negative connotation: the root of the problem, the root of evil, the root of all ills) the main, central part of the word, bearing its lexical meaning, number, when substituted into equality giving an identity, when substituting into a polynomial giving 0 a number, obtained from a given by using the operation inverse to raising to a power, a function that returns this number

I hope that after reading this book, you will surely find something useful in it, and this will help you overcome ailments, always feel healthy and cheerful! Chapter 1 What kind of bear root is this? Bear root is what the people call penny tea , or red root, also known as protein root, or blood root.

“And the root of sin came forth from them ...” The meaning of the expression “root of sin” (') is clarified by comparing it with similar expressions in Isaiah XI: 1 - “the root of Jesse”, color, branch, branch from it, as well as Sirach, XLVII: 26 - "the root of David."

The respiratory formula (medicinal marshmallow, comfrey, mullein, gerbil, and lobelia) or the formula “Hay fever and asthma” (coniferous ephedra, medicinal marshmallow root, Canadian yellow root, chaparral, burdock root, parsley root, lobelia and cayenne) are two formulas that provide breathing relief.

With it, you will gain strength faster and improve your health. Golden root - 20 g Maral root (levzea) - 10 g Zamaniha root - 10 g Chinese schisandra - 10 g Elecampane root - 10 g Juniper berries - 5 pcs.

. Sanskrit: MULADHARA CHAKRA • Meaning: Base, root, support, main entrance • Location: Sacrum. Padma. In Sanskrit, Mula means root, while Adhara means. means lotus. In other words, the root of the stem or the root of the lotus. In ancient Indian philosophy, lotus.

Otherwise, the solid parts of plants will not be able to give all their healing properties to water. Here are examples of plant materials that need to be boiled: oak bark, buckthorn bark, rhubarb root, licorice root, marshmallow root, flax seed, etc.

. , plums, dried prunes, raisins, alfalfa, burdock root, catnip, chilli. , mushrooms, nuts, watercress, alfalfa, burdock root, catnip, chilli. , wheat germ products, alfalfa, burdock root, catnip, peppers.

In addition, bananas contain tryptophan protein, which is converted into the “hormone of joy” serotonin. Dried bananas are rich in natural sugar, which, when digested, is easily absorbed into the blood. With the same weight, dried bananas contain 5 times more calories compared to fresh ones. 1 Take valerian root - 2 parts, chamomile inflorescences - 3 parts, caraway seeds - 5 parts, 10 g dried bananas. 2 tablespoons of the mixture pour 2 cups boiling water, leave for 20 minutes, drain. Drink 0.5 cups in the morning and evening as a sedativea remedy for nervous agitation and irritability. Recipe 2 Take valerian root - 1 part, mint leaves - 1 part, trefoil leaves - 1 part, hop cones - 1 part, 10 g of dried bananas. 1 tablespoon of the mixture pour 2 cups boiling water, leave for 20 minutes , strain. Drink 0.5 cups in the morning and evening as a sedative for nervous agitation, insomnia. Recipe 3 Take valerian root - 3 parts, mint leaves - 3 parts, watch leaves - 4 parts, 10 g of dried bananas.

meat broth, offal of 1 goose, 200 ml of cucumber pickle, 5 pickles, 1 parsley root, 1 parsnip root, 1 celery root, 1 onion, 50 g

It cannot be assumed that Victory Day on May 9, 1945 was a turning point in our existence, that as soon as the rumble of guns subsided, life in the blink of an eye changed its character and became serene and blessed. In fact, life from one quality to another evolved slowly and inconspicuously. Much of what we discovered for ourselves in the midst of the most difficult trials, with us to this day, many of our spiritual, moral and organizational acquisitions in one way or another have had or are affecting the subsequent life of society. Therefore, is there a need for the writer to adjust the truth of our existence to the truth of war or to reconstruct reality? Isn’t it more fruitful to look for a common denominator, the philosophical root of what took place in the war and has not lost its moral or other significance even now? Of course, the method of hunting snipers for enemy soldiers is unlikely to seriously interest anyone today, snipers are not the most relevant specialty for peacetime societies, many other qualities that were once important for the war have fallen into the past, and with them carriers of these qualities. But lovers to substitute a neighbor under the blow of fate or bosses, to hide behind him, have not been extinct to this day. True, during the war years it was more noticeable and more impressive according to the results, now often such things look less dramatic, but for all that their nature remains the same. The nature of betrayal in all forms is repulsive and reprehensible, no matter what motive this betrayal is guided by or whatever good goals it pursues.

Great Academy - life

Klopovnik, stinker ordinary or stuffy root - one of the popular names for black cohosh (Actáea cimicifúga), plants from the family of buttercups (Ranunculaceae).

The character of a sailor, having been formed once in the history of the fleet, where storms and battles fill every page, a lot moves easily and quickly from one person to another, from one generation of sailors to another. The newcomer on board the ship, surrounded by the energetic natures of old sailors, quickly and uncontrollably submits to their influence and is imbued with their character that has developed over the centuries. This character soon conquers the indifferent, unsteady nature of the young recruit, finds in his soul a new, fresh and, perhaps, strong ground for his further existence and development. Thus, the traditions of the fleet are gaining weight and typical personalities of sailors, living repositories of marine traditions are created. These traditions cannot be recorded or narrated. They do not live the dead life of a dusty record, but the full life of the present — they live in the character of sailors. They are invaluable for the fleet and are the root of its vitality and strength, they give its development that inexhaustible moral ground that is no longer afraid of accidents, because it can always create a new fleet and new sailors.

Francois of Orleans, Prince de Joinville

Premature optimization is the root of all evil.

The castration complex is the deepest unconscious root of anti-Semitism, because even as a child, the boy often hears that something is cut off from the Jews - he thinks a piece of the penis, and this gives him the right to disdain Jews.

Want to be big and scary -Eat red root for lunch.

Self-pity goes along with self-indulgence and, in general, with self-esteem and is the root of all indulgences, omissions, indifference and carelessness. Have you heard the phrase: the sin living in us? “So he is self-pity, with his retinue.” If you indulge him at least occasionally, then it will always be like paralysis to break any good that has been gained by previous works.

Desire is the root of all your needs.

Man is immortal through knowledge. Cognition, thinking is the root of his life, his immortality.

What are related words?

Some words are said to be related. Recall what this name means?

Siblings are words that can be explained using the same word. Part of this word lives in all related words. Therefore, related words there iscommon part and general meaning.

For instance, sugar bowl, sugar, candy - related words?

1. Let's see if the words have a common part? (The words sugar bowl, sugar has a common part sugar)

2. Is there a general meaning? (Can words be explained with the same word?)

Sugar bowl - a piece of tea utensils for sugar. So, sugar bowl, sugar are related words. Candy is not a related word.

Putting together a family of related words

Words are given: fish, fish, catch, fish, fish, perch, fisherman.

Gather a family of related words.

How to recognize them? Firstly, in words there is a common part (of fish), and secondly, there is a general meaning. You can explain words with the same word.

To fish - to fish. A fish is a small fish. Fish - cooked from fish. A fisherman is one who fishes.

Means fish, fish, fish, fish, fisherman - related words.

We still have words catch and perch.

We select only those words that we consider related. Perch, dipped, catch, nimble - related words?

Does the word have a common part? (Perch, fishing)

Can words be explained using the same word? Perch is a small perch. So, perch and perch are kindred words.

Dipped - immersed in a liquid. Perch, dipped - these words do not have a common meaning.

Catch - the amount of fish that was caught. So, catch, catch are related words.

Artful - skilled, possessing physical dexterity. Catch, dexterous - these words do not have a common meaning.

We solve the secret of the roots

What is the common part of related words called?

The general part of related words is called the root.

The root contains a common meaning for all related words.

Note the root in related words. In words perch root perch. In words catch, catch fishing root.

Related words are called co-root, because they have the same root.

Conclusion: vowels and consonants are different.

Are the letters the same? The letters are the same.

Remember the secret of the roots! The roots of related words are spelled the same..

We learn related words from the description of the meaning

By the way snow pick up related words. We recognize them by the description of the meaning.

1. Affectionate name of the snow (snowball).

2. Crystal of snow (snowflake).

3. Snow woman (snowman).

4. Abundant in snow (snowy).

5. Small, tightly rolled up lumps of snow (snowballs).

These words have a common meaning. We observe the root.

Imagine that in all these words the root snow. Say every word with that root. Was it convenient for you to pronounce “Snowy”, “snowballs”?

You have observed the law of language: in the root of the same root words, some consonants can be replaced by others. This replacement is called alternating consonants.

In these words, the root is snow and snow, in the root is the alternation of letters of consonants Ms.

We observe the alternation of consonants in the root

What other consonant letters alternate in the root of the same root words?

Look at the last letter of the consonant in the root.

poohOK

uhabout-the earko shh

watersit-leaderak

lookingto eatlookat d

riversa-speechka

tormenta-tormentnoah

weightyoweightival

braida-koshat s

WHOhaveleaderat

tale-sayand ws

And in words ice iceYana atepointsspruce letter ё replaces the letter e.

Note! The root is considered the same, and the words are related, if the letters e and ё, g and w, h, h, h and others replace each other.

Looking for cognate words in a poem

Many years ago

He was not fruit

He was only a word.

It began to grow soon

And brought fruit to us -

There are a lot of new words.

Here's another landing nearby.

The gardener is walking with him.

Take a walk in the verbal garden!

Gang words: garden, planted, seedlings, planting, gardener (Gardening Specialist)gardener (the worker who cares for the garden).

Can I add words garden, plant, soot, seedlings?

Garden - related to the garden.

Plant - the same as planting.

Seedlings - plants transplanted from another place. At the root of the root words there is an alternation of consonants.

But soot not common. Soot is a black coating from combustion.

Conclusion

In the lesson, you learned that the common part of related words is called the root. The roots of related words are spelled the same. Words with one root have the same root and common meaning. To find the root in a word, you need to select related words and select the same part in them.

Recommended Reading List

  1. M.S. Soloveichik, N. S. Kuzmenko "To the secrets of our language" Russian language: Textbook. Grade 3: in 2 parts. Smolensk: Association XXI Century, 2010.
  2. M.S. Soloveichik, N. S. Kuzmenko “Towards the secrets of our language” Russian language: Workbook. Grade 3: in 3 parts. Smolensk: Association XXI Century, 2010.
  3. T.V. Koreshkova Test tasks in the Russian language. Grade 3: in 2 parts. - Smolensk: Association XXI century, 2011.
  4. T.V. Koreshkova Practice! Notebook for independent work on the Russian language for 3 classes: in 2 parts. - Smolensk: Association XXI century, 2011.
  5. L.V. Mashevskaya, L.V. Danbitskaya Creative tasks in the Russian language. - SPb .: KARO, 2003
  6. G.T Dyachkova Russian Olympic Games. 3-4 classes. - Volgograd: Teacher, 2008

Recommended Internet Resources

  1. School-collection.edu.ru (Source).
  2. Festival of educational ideas "Open lesson" (Source).
  3. Padabum.com (Source).

Recommended homework.

  • Write the word salt and assign to it root words. Recognize them from the description of the meaning.

1) A small vessel for table salt - ...

2) Putting salt for taste in something - ...

3) Salt Flavored - ...

  • Write out the same words from proverbs and sayings. Highlight the root.

1) True is not friendly with a lie.

2) In a friendly team, things are arguing.

3) I read the book - I met a friend.

4) Know how to value friendship.

  • Divide the words into two groups of root words.

Water, water, driver, flood, wires, conductor, watery, watery, guide.

If you find an error or a broken link, please let us know - make your contribution to the development of the project.

Biology: root structure and growth features

The root is the axial underground organ of a plant. It has unlimited growth - increases in length throughout the life of the body. This ensures reliable fixation of the plant in the soil. It is believed that the root grows down. But this characteristic is rather relative. It will be more accurate to say that the root grows in the direction of the radius of the Earth. This phenomenon is called positive geotropism. It is easy to prove using simple experience. To do this, you just need to place the plant horizontally. After a certain time in the division zone, the root will begin to bend down. The shoot also possesses the same property, which under these conditions begins to reach upward.

Some roots in appearance can be confused with other plant organs. For example, carrots are often called fruit. A characteristic feature of the roots is the absence of chloroplasts in the cells of all its tissues. In addition, this organ does not have buds from which leaves develop. Variations of the roots are often mistakenly called leek bulbs and potato tubers. In fact, these examples are metamorphoses of escape. To prove this is quite simple. Bulbs are able to form young leaves, which we often call green onions. And tubers of potatoes turn green in the light. This occurs as a result of the transformation of colorless plastids into green ones - chloroplasts.

Types of Roots

The structure of the root of the seedling gives a clear idea of ​​the development process of this organ. Surely each of us sprouted a seed. Its embryo contains the rudiments of all organs of the future adult body. The main root appears first. In a plant, he is always alone. This organ develops from the germinal root. On it, structures that first look like fluff develop. These are future lateral roots. Not all plants have such structures. For example, cereals cannot find one main underground organ. The external structure of the root in such plants resembles a bunch of threads. These are subordinate roots. They are numerous and are formed on the shoot.

Core system

A plant never forms a single root. The structure of the root is determined by whole systems. One of them is the core. It consists of a well-developed main root, from which the lateral ones depart. This structure allows you to provide plants with water in arid conditions. The main root can penetrate to a considerable depth, several times exceeding the size of the aerial part of the culture. For example, in African acacia it reaches 20 meters. At the same time, the size of the shoot of this plant varies from 30 to 80 cm.

If the main root thickens, root crops are formed. They accumulate reserves of water and minerals. Such root modifications are characteristic of biennial plants. Carrots, beets, radishes, turnips, parsley in the first year do not form seeds. In the fall, their ground part dies, and the plant experiences an unfavorable period underground due to the stock of root crops. Only next summer do these plants bloom and form seeds.

Fibrous system

The structure of the root of a plant from the family of cereals - wheat - does not allow moisture to be absorbed from great depths. Its maximum depth barely reaches a meter. All representatives of the monocotyledonous department have a fibrous system, consisting only of subordinate roots that grow from the shoot. With a small length, their weight and area are simply amazing. The roots occupy up to 45% of the total mass of the plant. And the total length can take up to 10 km. Such a structure effectively and regularly provides the plant with the necessary amount of moisture.

The internal structure of the root

The structural features of the root are closely interconnected with the functions performed by it. This is largely determined by the elements of the tissues from which the underground organ is formed. On the cross section, its zones are clearly distinguishable. Outside are the cells of the integumentary tissue - rhizoderma. Root hairs are located here that continuously absorb water. This process requires a large amount of energy, therefore, rhizoderm cells contain many mitochondria.

Under the integumentary tissue is the bark. It is formed by connective tissue. Its cells are large and loose. Between them there are many intercellular spaces. In this zone, gas exchange, water transport with mineral salts, and a supply of substances occur. In the center of the root is an axial cylinder. It is formed by elements of conductive, basic and educational tissues.

Main functions

What role does the root play in the plant? The structure of the root primarily ensures the fixation of the body in the substrate and soil nutrition. These functions are vital because they provide the conditions for the growth and metabolism of plants. With the help of the root, vegetative propagation also occurs. This property is widely used in agriculture to obtain a large amount of planting material.

Root Modifications

To perform additional functions, the structure of the plant root can be modified. For example, in carrots and beets, the main root thickens. This modification is called root crops. If the lateral or subordinate underground organs thicken, root cones or tubers are formed. They are found at clean, sweet potato, dahlia.

Sucker roots are characteristic of parasitic plants. These structures are able to penetrate the tissues of stems of other species and absorb nutrients from them. For example, the dodder is generally devoid of chloroplasts, and eats only the juices of the host plant.

Respiratory roots are formed in plants that have chosen swamps and waterlogged soils. They grow up and rise above the surface of the earth or water. These modifications of the lateral roots are capable of absorbing oxygen directly from the air.

Many climbing plants can grow directly on a vertical support. This is possible due to the presence of trailing roots. They grow along the aerial part of the stem. And in corn, the roots perform the function of props. They maintain the balance of the stem with heavy fruits.

Man makes extensive use of root modifications in his economic activities. Carrots, radishes, beets are eaten, and turnips and turnips go to feed livestock. And various modifications of the roots give plants a number of advantages for adaptation to different places of growth.

What is mycorrhiza

Symbiosis is a way of coexistence of organisms, in which the root can also take part. The structure of the root allows it to absorb moisture from the substrate, providing both itself and other organisms. One such example is mycorrhiza. This is a combination of mycelium filaments and roots of higher plants. Their cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Penetrating through the root hairs, the fungus absorbs organic matter. And the plant receives mineral compounds and a number of substances that accelerate the growth processes. Such a symbiosis is often reflected in the name of mushrooms: boletus, boletus.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria settle on the roots of plants of many types of legumes. They penetrate there from the soil through damaged areas of integumentary tissues. Further, the bacterial cells divide and form nodules, which are clearly visible visually. Developing on the roots of plants, they absorb atmospheric nitrogen and translate it into a form available for autotrophs.

Evolutionary development

The first plants that appeared on Earth - algae - have no roots. To this day, they grow in water, so the function of absorption of aqueous solutions loses its meaning. However, algae has structures that ensure their attachment to the substrate. They are called rhizoids. From the true roots they are distinguished only by the cellular structure without differentiation on the tissue. Rhizoids are preserved in the first immigrants to land - mosses. But other spore plants already have adventitious roots forming the fibrous system. This is due to the differentiation of their cells, resulting in the formation of a number of tissues: mechanical, conductive, integumentary, educational, basic. Higher seed plants have the most developed root systems that allow them to develop a variety of ecosystems.

The best of the best

Now let's get acquainted with the most “outstanding” root systems on the planet. One of them has winter rye. If you add together all its subordinate roots, their total length will be more than 600 kilometers! Record holders in this area are many desert plants. So, the deepest roots of ficus get water at a depth of about 120 meters.

Some underground organs have a very unusual appearance. For example, in a banyan tree they hang directly from the branches. Such roots look like numerous props and more resemble a grove than a single tree. They can easily fit several people at once. According to an ancient legend, the army of Alexander the Great, consisting of several thousand people, took refuge in the roots of one of these plants.

Many roots are famous for their valuable nutritional and medicinal properties. For example, ginger is a whole storehouse of vitamins of groups A, C and B, as well as minerals: iron, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc. Its root is used in the treatment of colds, in order to increase immunity, improve digestion and metabolic processes. And decoctions from the roots of rose hips are used for cholelithiasis and cystitis. The underground organs of raspberries, barberry, and celery also have an immunostimulating effect.

So, the structural features of the plant root - the underground axial organ of plants - allow it to perform the most important functions. These include attachment to the substrate, absorption of aqueous solutions from the soil, supply of nutrients, symbiosis, vegetative propagation.

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