Sperm Whale Family - Physeter>
it is the largest of the toothed whales. Adult males reach 20 m in length and 50 tons of weight (often more). This is one of the few cetaceans that have a pronounced sexual dimorphism: females are much smaller than males in size, reaching only 13 m, and also differ in physique, number of teeth, size and shape of the head, etc. The appearance of the sperm whale is very characteristic: this The whale is a huge rectangular head in which the so-called spermaceti sac is placed. Sperm whale stands out among other large whales by a number of other unique anatomical features.
Sperm whale is a herd animal, living in large groups, sometimes reaching hundreds and even thousands of heads. It is distributed throughout the oceans with the exception of the polar regions. The sperm whale feeds mainly on cephalopods, including giant squids, reaching a length of 14-18 m, fish usually occupies no more than 5% in its diet. In search of prey, the whale makes the deepest dives among all marine mammals, to a depth of over 2 km, remaining under water for up to an hour and a half. The sperm whale searches for prey using ultrasonic echolocation, in which an important role is played by the spermaceti sac, used as an acoustic lens. Spermaceti organ also helps to ensure the required level of whale buoyancy when diving.
In nature, the sperm whale has virtually no enemies, only killer whales can occasionally attack females and young animals. But man has long hunted for a sperm whale - in the past this whale was the most important object of whaling. Raven and such valuable products as spermaceti and ambergris were obtained from sperm whale. Due to predatory prey, which ceased only in the 1980s, the number of sperm whales decreased significantly, but remained better than the number of baleen whales. Now it is slowly recovering, although this is somewhat hindered by anthropogenic factors (pollution of the seas, intensive fishing, etc.). The current number of sperm whales in the world is difficult to assess, the most probable figure is 300-400 thousand goals.
Sperm whale is considered a very dangerous animal. Being wounded, he shows great aggressiveness, in connection with which the hunt for him was associated with a certain risk. Enraged sperm whales killed many whalers and even sank several whalers.
Sperm whale often attracted the attention of writers because of its unique appearance, fierce disposition and complex behavior. Sperm whale descriptions are found in well-known authors. The role of the sperm whale in the culture of many coastal peoples is also significant.
The appearance of the sperm whale is very characteristic, so it is difficult to confuse it with other cetaceans. The huge head in old males is up to a third of the total body length (sometimes even more, up to 35% of the length), in females it is somewhat smaller and thinner, but also takes about a quarter of the length. The front edge of the massive head when viewed from the side is a straight line, slightly inclined down and back, so that the head in profile has the appearance of a rectangle equal in width to the body. Most of the volume of the head is occupied by the so-called sperm bag, located above the upper jaw, a spongy mass of fibrous tissue soaked with sperm mat, a fatty tissue of complex composition. The weight of the “spermacet bag” reaches 6 tons and even 11 tons. The head of the sperm whale is strongly compressed from the sides and pointed, resembling ship's stem, and the head of females and young whales is compressed and pointed much more strongly than in adult males.
The mouth of the sperm whale is located in a recess from the bottom of the head. The long and narrow lower jaw is seated with large teeth, which are usually 20–26 pairs, and each tooth with a closed mouth enters a separate notch in the upper jaw. There are often fewer teeth, even 8 pairs. Sperm whale teeth are not differentiated, they are all of the same conical shape, weigh about 1 kilogram each and do not have enamel. On the upper jaw there are only 1-3 pairs of teeth, and often not at all, or they do not appear from the gums. Females always have less teeth than males.
The lower jaw can open vertically, 90 degrees. The cavity of the mouth is lined with a rough epithelium, which prevents the slipping of prey.
The eyes of the sperm whale are far from the snout, closer to the corners of the mouth. The breathing is shifted to the left front corner of the head, and has the shape of an elongated Latin letter S - it forms only the left nostril of the whale.
Sperm whale eyes are relatively large for cetaceans - the diameter of the eyeball is 15-17 cm, the length of the palpebral fissure is 6-12 cm. Small and only about 1 cm long crescent ear holes are located behind and slightly below the eyes.
Behind the head, the body of the sperm whale expands and in the middle becomes thick, almost round in cross section. Then it narrows again and gradually passes into the caudal stem. Sperm whale tail fin - up to 5 m wide, it has a deep V-shaped notch. On the back of the sperm whale there is one fin that looks like a low hump, followed usually by one or two smaller humps. Behind the fins there is an uneven tuberous leathery fold. On the underside of the caudal peduncle there is a longitudinal keel. Sperm whale's pectoral fins are short, wide, bluntly rounded, with a maximum length of 1.8 m, their width is 91 cm. With age, the head section of the sperm whale's body increases relatively, and the tail, respectively, shortens.
Sperm whale when exhaling gives a fountain, directed obliquely forward and upward at an angle of about 45 degrees. The shape of the fountain is very characteristic and does not allow it to be confused with the fountain of other whales, in which the fountain is vertical. The pop-up sperm whale breathes very often, the fountain appears every 5-6 seconds (the sperm whale, being on the surface in the interval between dives for about 10 minutes, takes up to 60 breaths). At this time, the whale lies almost in one place, only moving forward a little, and, being in a horizontal position, rhythmically plunges into the water, releasing a fountain.
With the exception of the head, the entire body of the whale looks wrinkled, although there are several deep parallel wrinkles on the head. On the throat are 10-40 grooves with a depth of 1 cm and a length of 5 to 50 cm. It is believed that the grooves help the pharynx to expand when swallowing large prey, that is, they play the same role as the grooves on the throat of baleen whale whales. In addition, the skin of the sperm whale, especially in older individuals, is covered with many scratches and scars from the suckers of giant squid serving sperm whale food, as well as from the teeth of relatives, which makes the whale “marbling”, especially noticeable on the head. The skin is thick, under it lies a layer of fat, which reaches 50 cm in large sperm whales and is especially developed on the belly.
The color of the sperm whale skin is usually dark gray in different shades, often with a blue tint. Often brown tones are present in the coloration (especially noticeable in bright sunlight), brown and even almost black sperm whales are found. Like most cetaceans, its color is anti-shadow - the back is dark, the lower part of the body is noticeably lighter. The sperm whale belly is the same color as the back and sides, but lighter, and the color around the mouth and navel is off-white. Some males have white or yellowish spots near the fin. White albino whales were also recorded.
There is speculation that the white color of the skin around the mouth of the sperm whale is important for feeding the whale. Perhaps the white color (especially since bacteria that glow in the dark can settle on white areas of the skin) attract squids that willingly swim in white and glow.
Sperm whale is a giant among toothed whales, all other toothed whales are much inferior in size. Sperm whales grow all their lives, so the older the whale, the bigger it is, as a rule, and the males are almost twice as large as the females. The length of males is 18–20 m; larger individuals are very rare. The weight of adult males is on average about 40 tons (for example, a precisely measured 13-meter male weighed 39 tons), but often large sperm whales weigh more, even up to 70 tons, and an average weight of 45-57 tons is also indicated. In the past, when sperm whales were more numerous, occasionally there were specimens whose weight was close to 100 tons.
Females grow only to 11, rarely 13 m and weigh 15 tons. The difference in the sizes of male and female in the sperm whale is the largest among all cetaceans.
When cutting a 16-meter sperm whale, the following data were obtained: his heart weighed 160 kg, lungs - 376 kg, kidneys - 400 kg, liver - about 1 ton, brain - 6.5 kg, the length of the entire digestive tract is 256 m with a weight of about 800 kg At a 13-meter whale, the heart weighed 126 kg, the liver - 420.
The sperm whale brain is the largest in the entire animal world (absolutely, but not relative to body size), it weighs up to 7.8 kg. The size of the heart of the average sperm whale is a meter in height and width. The heart is characterized by a strong development of muscle tissue, which is necessary for pumping a large volume of blood of a whale, which is relatively much larger than in terrestrial animals. The intestines of the sperm whale are the longest in the entire animal world, and in relation to the length of the body, the intestines of the sperm whale are also one of the longest among animals. Its length is 15-16 times longer than the body, only some dolphins have more. This is one of the mysteries associated with this whale, as in predatory animals the intestines are never so long. The sperm whale stomach, like all toothed whales, is multi-chamber.
There are 7 cervical vertebrae, 11 thoracic, 8-9 lumbar and 20-24 caudal vertebrae in the sperm whale spine. Unlike other cetaceans in sperm whales, the first vertebra (atlas) remains free, and the remaining 6 cervical vertebrae grow together. In the forelimb, turned into a fin, five fingers, the humerus sometimes fuses with the ulnar and radius. A narrow scapula (in contrast to baleen whales, in which the scapula is fan-shaped) has a large coracoid process. Ribs up to 11 pairs, of which only 3 are connected to the sternum.
The sperm whale breathing (like all toothed whales) is formed by only one left nasal passage, the right one is hidden under the skin, at its end there is a huge bag-shaped extension inside the snout. Inside, the entrance to the right nostril is closed by a valve. In the saccular expansion of the right nasal passage, the sperm whale gains a supply of air, which it uses when diving.
Spermaceti sac (otherwise called spermaceti, or fat pad) is a unique formation in the world of cetaceans that exists only in sperm whales (it is also found in dwarf sperm whales, but it is far from being developed as in a common sperm whale). It is located in the head of the sperm whale on a kind of bed formed by the bones of the upper jaw and skull and accounts for up to 90% of the weight of the head of a whale. The purpose of the spermaceti sac is not yet fully understood.
Detailed studies of the spermaceti sac show that this organ of the sperm whale has a rather complex structure. It consists of two main parts, filled with spermaceti. The first, upper part, is a kind of inverted trough, bounded on the sides and top by a very thick (14-meter sperm whale - more than 11 cm) and a strong layer of connective tissue, on top of which is a layer of muscle, fat and skin. Under this upper part is a second one, which is a group of isolated narrow chambers located one after another. When viewed from the front, the cameras have the shape of a trapezoid expanding upwards, and on the side, an elongated vertical rectangle. They are filled with sponge tissue soaked with spermaceti. In front, the spermaceti sac is conically sharpened, being limited by air chambers. The connective tissue itself, impregnated with spermaceti, has the appearance of a porous mass with very thin pore walls, it contains up to 98% of spermaceti by weight.
One of the most important purposes of a spermaceti pillow, according to new research, is apparently to give direction to sound waves during echolocation. But this body clearly has other functions. It is sometimes believed that the spermaceti organ can serve for cooling, that is, the removal of part of the heat from the body of the sperm whale.
Even in the 1970s, interesting studies appeared, according to which the spermaceti organ regulates the buoyancy of the sperm whale when diving and climbing from the depths. These assumptions were confirmed by modern observations. A whale, by regulating the flow of blood to the head through a dense network of capillaries, can change the temperature in the sperm bag. If the blood flow rises, then spermaceti, whose melting point is low, at 37 ° C completely turns into a liquid state. At the same time, its density decreases, making it easier for the whale to ascend - and vice versa, hardened spermaceti helps to dive. However, both liquid and solid spermaceti are significantly lighter than water - its density at 30 ° C is about 0.857 g / cm³, 0.852 at 37 ° C and 0.850 at 40 ° C. To ensure zero buoyancy of the body at all depths up to 200 m sperm whale it is enough to change the temperature of the spermaceti sac within only 3 degrees, which is easily achieved by changes in blood flow. A similar function is performed by fat in the marine copepod Calanoides acutus.
The substances that make up spermaceti contain such fatty acids, the length of the molecular chains and the degree of unsaturation of which provide the optimum melting point of spermaceti for such a function. Thanks to this, the animal, without resorting to additional efforts, can feed at great depths, while spending a minimum of energy.
It is also possible that a sperm-filled head is used by whales to absorb shock. Indeed, male sperm whales in battles with each other during the mating period or when attacking enemies strike primarily with the head. However, females also have a spermaceti sac, so this issue is not completely resolved.
The voice signals of the sperm whale are generally close to those of other whales. These are three types of sounds — groaning sounds, clicks, and quick popping sounds similar to those of a mechanical typewriter, and creaking. Sperm whales, stranded, roar loudly. The voice of the sperm whale, like all large whales, however, is very loud - some sounds emitted by the sperm whale can reach a literally fantastic volume - up to 236 decibels per micropascal per meter, which gives an absolute volume of about 116 decibels (this is comparable to the noise of engines of a large airliner which reaches 160 decibels). Thus, the voice of a sperm whale is one of, if not the loudest sound in wildlife (however, in a blue whale, the scream can exceed 188 decibels). Even a newborn sperm whale cub sounds up to 162 decibels. This level of volume is characteristic of short “clicks”. Interestingly, the voice signals of young sperm whales are very different from the voices of adults, both in terms of the set of sounds and the acoustic frequency. According to recent studies, sperm whales have better sensitivity to low frequency sounds, including infrasounds, than baleen whales. Accordingly, the voice signals of the sperm whale usually have an average lower frequency - an average of about 4 kHz compared to 10 kHz in the minke whales. Scientists admit that with the help of loud “clicks”, the sperm whale can stun prey, but some researchers doubt it.
Sperm whale has one of the largest habitats in the entire animal world. It is widespread throughout the oceans, except for the northernmost and southernmost cold regions - its range is mainly between 60 degrees north and south latitude. At the same time, whales stay mostly away from the coast, in areas where the depths exceed 200 m. Close to the coast, they are suitable only in places of underwater canyons and sharp dumps of depths.The presence of a significant number of large cephalopod mollusks, the main feed of this whale, plays an important role for the habitat of sperm whales. Therefore, sperm whales prefer to stay where such mollusks are found. Seasonal migrations in sperm whales are well expressed, which, apparently, is associated precisely with the movement of masses of cephalopods. Males are found on a wider range than females, and it is adult males (only they) that regularly appear in the circumpolar waters. Males also migrate further than females.
Sperm whales are more common in warm waters than in cold ones. According to American experts, “the sperm whale’s headquarters is located in the tropics,” and in each hemisphere the sperm whale’s range expands in the direction of the northern latitudes in summer, and in winter, when the whales return to the equator, it narrows again.
In the Northern Hemisphere, there are more sperm whales off the coast of Africa, along the Azores and in the waters of East Asia. Off the Atlantic coast of North America they are slightly less. In the Atlantic, due to the influence of the Gulf Stream, sperm whale calls to the north are farther than in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. In the southern hemisphere, the largest concentrations are concentrated in the waters of Chile, Peru and off the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.
Sometimes sperm whales, based on differences in biorhythms and due to some morphological differences, are divided into two subspecies - the northern sperm whale (Physeter catodon catodon Linnaeus, 1758) and the southern sperm whale (Ph. C. australis Mac. Leay, 1851), living in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively. The north is smaller in size than the south.
Despite the fact that the range of the sperm whale is extremely wide, these whales prefer to stay in certain areas in which stable populations are formed, called herds, which have their own special features. Labeling of whales made it possible to establish that sperm whales do not make long-distance transitions from one hemisphere to another. For example, American cetologists, who have very thoroughly studied sperm whales living in the waters of the Northern Hemisphere, identify five main herds:
California-Oregon. The whales of this herd stay year-round off the Pacific coast of the United States, but reach their maximum abundance from April to mid-November. In winter, they do not rise to the northern parts of this area (to the coast of Oregon and Washington).
North Pacific. Its range is the Bering Sea, well separated from the main part of the Pacific Ocean by the ridge of the Aleutian Islands, which the sperm whales of this herd rarely cross. A comparison of the tagging data of sperm whales that live in the Aleutian Islands with the results of a blood test of these sperm whales showed that the whales of this herd migrate to Japan and mix with the local herd there.
Hawaiian In summer and autumn, this herd is kept in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. Labeling of whales of this herd led scientists to the conclusion that, while sperm whales are widespread in the tropical waters of the Pacific Ocean in general, their main range in the Pacific Ocean is strongly elongated in the form of a strip from the middle of the ocean to the shores of California.
Flock of the North Gulf of Mexico. Whales are present in these waters year-round, but are more common in summer.
North Atlantic. In winter, the whales of this herd stay east and northeast of Cape Hatteras, in spring the center of the herd shifts north (to the coast of New England) and extends to the middle of the Atlantic. In summer, the herd distribution is the same as in spring, but spreads to some other areas to the north and east. Most sperm whales can be found here in the fall in the waters of the continental shelf of New England.
In the USA, a strict accounting of the number of sperm whales entering the exclusive economic zone is generally kept. In 2004, Americans estimated the number of sperm whales in their waters at 5531 minimum and 7082 maximum, the US Department of Commerce gave the status of strategic stock to the population of these whales.
The spatial separation of the northern and southern herds, as is the case for baleen whale whales, is absent in sperm whales. However, since female sperm whales stay only in waters whose temperature does not fall below 15 degrees during the year, they usually do not swim beyond 40 degrees north and south (it is also possible that such males also include those males who did not manage to acquire a harem ), the researchers suggest that there is a certain isolation between the sperm whales that live in different oceans.
Sperm whales are found in Russian waters primarily in the seas of the Pacific Ocean (they belong to the North Pacific herd), in the Barents Sea, it is also possible to meet sperm whales, since large squids are found there. According to the Russian expedition, which examined the Sea of Okhotsk in the summer of 2008, in particular, the coastal waters of the eastern coast of Kamchatka from Cape Lopatka to Cape Olyutor and the waters of the Commander Islands, sperm whales accounted for 3% of the total number of cetaceans encountered (a total of 106 encounters with different whales). According to other sources, only males are found off the coast of Kamchatka.
The system of toothed whales is not well understood. Differences among scientists are significant even in the number and volume of families. The only thing that all taxonomists agree on is the separation of two families: river dolphins, and beak-feathers.
Suborder Toothed whales (Odontoceti) (Flower, 1867) according to one of the sources includes 8 modern families.
Toothed whales came from four-legged mammals that roamed the shallow waters of large rivers fifty-five million years ago. Gradually, animals began to spend more and more time in water. The nostrils of these animals moved to the crown of the head, the hind limbs were reduced, and the front ones turned into fins. The tail has turned into a fin.
In Peru, a prehistoric whale-leviathan was found. Scientists guessed the existence of this animal earlier on single fossils, or rather, on huge teeth. The remains of a huge sperm whale are dated 12-13 million years. The animal belongs to a new genus and species, now extinct, and is called Leviathan melvillei.
The suborder unites animals mainly of small and medium sizes. The only exception is male sperm whales, whose length reaches 16–18 m. Most of the representatives of the suborder are relatively small, their length usually does not exceed 4.5 m. There is no hair on the head. Mouth and tongue are relatively small.
The body of toothed whales is usually dark above and light below, making them less visible in the water. If you look at the whale from below, its light belly merges with sun glare on the surface of the water. When viewed from above, the dark back of the animal merges with the darkness of the depths.
Edit The structure of the skull
The skull of toothed whales is sharply asymmetric, although in the early stages of embryogenesis it is characterized by all the features characteristic of the skull of terrestrial mammals. The reasons for the asymmetry are still not exactly established. It is possible that the asymmetry characteristic of the skull arose in connection with the development of echolocation and sound signaling devices, when the nasal passages above the skull specialized: one as an airway, the other for producing sounds.
The nasal bones are poorly developed and do not cover the back of the bony nasal opening. The holes themselves are shifted to the left and open into the common chamber. The maxillary, intermaxillary and nasal bones are strongly pushed to the frontal and almost completely cover them. The skull has primitive structural features,
In many toothed whales, the jaws are elongated into the coracoid snout, above which the forehead rises with a special fat pad.
These animals have teeth in the upper, lower, or both jaws, although some are underdeveloped. Teeth from 0/1 or 1/0 to about 65/58
There are 3 types of teeth.
- Simple peg-shaped teeth with a strongly developed cavity of the pulp and thin layers of cement and enamel in adult animals. This type of dental system is found in dolphin-white-barrel, common porpoise, grind and others. In addition to the grind, they all have a large number of teeth evenly distributed.
- For the teeth of the second type, a strong development of the cement layer and the absence of enamel on the teeth of adults are characteristic. Young ones have a thin layer of enamel on the crown. The teeth are simple, peg-shaped, larger than the first type, their number reaches 30-50. The pulp cavity is well developed or absent. This type of teeth has a sperm whale and, apparently, a dwarf sperm whale, beluga whale, gray dolphin, dwarf killer whale, Irrawaddy dolphin, and small killer whale.
- Flat wedge-shaped teeth of the third type have a highly developed enamel layer and cement filling the cavity and thus covering the entire tooth, with the exception of the crown. Moreover, the cement layer kind of overlaps with the enamel layer in the middle part of the tooth. The number of teeth is small, and they are located only in the lower jaw.
Most representatives of the toothed whales are characterized by individual variability in the number of teeth. In some whales, the number of teeth in the upper jaw is less than in the lower, in others, on the contrary, in the upper jaw the number of teeth is greater than in the lower, in the third the number of teeth in the upper and lower jaws is the same.
The digestive system
The digestive system is characterized by complete and permanent separation from the respiratory tract. It has the following main features.
- Language, unlike terrestrial mammals, has a different function. Being very mobile, it orientates the caught prey in the oral cavity, pushes it into the throat and prevents water from entering it.
- The soft sky is lost.
- The initial sections of the digestive tract are covered on the inside with stratified keratinized epithelium, which obviously protects them from damage by the solid parts of the whole swallowed food.
- The stomach is multi-chamber, muscular. The last sections of the stomach, apparently, are involved in the process of absorption of food, since their structure is similar to the structure of the intestine.
- The cecum is absent in most species, and the intestine is not clearly distinguished from each other.
In the respiratory system, the unpaired nostril is closed by dense skin-muscle folds so that the protrusions of one go into the cavity of the other. Above the skull is a series of special paired air sacs connected by the nasal canal. Their main function is to lock the nasal passage when diving, and the greater the pressure of water, the stronger their effect. In addition, they are apparently involved in making sounds.
Larynx in the form of a tube. This tube is covered by a special muscle sphincter. Obviously, the system of sphincters serves as an adaptation to changes in pressure in the lungs during frequent diving and strong inhalation and exhalation.
Edit Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism manifests itself most sharply in the size of animals. Males of most species are larger than females.
Some species have other differences. For example, in males of killer whales, the dorsal fin is higher than in females; for males of narwhals, a tusk is characteristic.
Edit Behavior and lifestyle
Toothed whales are widespread in all oceans and in almost all open seas of the globe.
Toothed whales are capable of complex social relationships. They emit sound signals to communicate with each other. When hunting for schools of fish, they show highly developed cooperation. In captivity, some species demonstrate remarkable ability and willingness to learn.
Most toothed whales have very good vision, which plays an important role both above and below the water, but in space they are guided mainly by echo location. Echolocation is better developed in deep diving whales searching for food in the dark, and in rapidly swimming flock of dolphins. Recognition of surrounding objects with the help of reflected ultrasound is the main way to orient the toothed whales in the aquatic environment.
Most toothed whales live in groups of two to three to several dozen animals. These groups can also temporarily unite with other groups and create flocks of several thousand individuals.
Whales move mainly through the vertical movements of the caudal fin. The pectoral fins serve to change the direction of movement, as well as to maintain balance.
Toothed whales swim beautifully. The fastest dolphins swim. For example, a sperm whale can reach speeds of up to 37 km / h, killer whale up to 55 km / h, and some species of dolphins reach speeds of up to 70 km / h.
There are several theories that explain why these cetaceans can reach such great speed.
The skin of such mammals is ideally smooth, and this contributes to the maximum reduction of resistance and helps them move freely through the water column. Friction is also reduced by thin grooves extending from head to tail in accordance with the direction in which water flows around the body of their animals. Some scientists suggest that the surface of the body of whales is covered with a thin spongy layer of skin, it flexibly adapts to the pressure of water.
According to the theory of other researchers, the upper layer of cells of their skin is constantly growing and erasing, forming a "lubricant" that reduces the friction of water on the body of the animal.
All representatives of the toothed whales, unlike the baleen, feed on piece prey. Grabbing prey is often combined with suction, which allows them to draw several fish or shellfish into their mouths at once. Their food is fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans.
Most toothed whales are excellent hunters. They often hunt in groups, surrounding prey, just like lions or wolves do. There are cases when a group of killer whales successfully hunted a polar bear and even a blue whale.
Almost all toothed whales are fast swimmers, due to their feeding habits. Some are capable of deep and prolonged diving.
Breed and offspring
Toothed whales are kept in herds. Males and females usually mate with several partners, for example, in a herd of sperm whales, the dominant male mates with several females. Fierce clashes often occur between male toothed whales, during which animals with their teeth inflict severe injuries on rivals.
Pregnancy, depending on the species, can last from ten to sixteen months. Each time, the female gives birth to only one cub. He is born tail-first. The length of the cub often reaches a sufficiently large size, it can be one third of the length of the body of the mother.
All cetaceans have no lips, so they cannot suck. When the baby is hungry, the nipple is pulled out of the folds of the skin, where it is usually hidden, and milk is injected into the baby’s mouth.
Milk of all cetaceans contains a lot of fat, so their cubs grow quickly. Most species feed their babies milk for about 4 months, only the grind sometimes feed them for several years.
Toothed whales reach puberty by 2-6 years.