A young man must be trained by a professional person with great patience and love for his work. In his hands is the whole future life of the animal: it depends on him what kind of attitude a horse will have for a person, to work with him, its specialization and success.
There are certain rules for working with a young horse, which should guide horse owners around the world. In our country, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Horse Breeding has published the “Manual on sports training and testing of young horse breeds”, which describes in detail the stages of work with a young horse. But, despite the abundance of information on this topic, many equestrians prefer to conduct forced work with a young horse. There are several reasons for this - impatience, the desire to quickly teach the animal to perform complex elements, overcome high obstacles, and develop maximum agility. This may be a matter of prestige or the financial component: the more serious the level of competition, the more valuable the prize, and winning it, the horse will be able to recoup his stagnation and even generate income. In addition, often wealthy horse owners who are not particularly versed in the physiology and psychology of the horse, require athletes to achieve high results in the shortest possible time. As a result, at best, at the local level, a horse can become a winner, but at international competitions the results are disappointing.
The foundation is more important than the building
You cannot build a reliable building on a weak foundation. First of all, it is necessary to lay a good foundation that will help the horse withstand the physical and psychological stress of the requirements of equestrian sports or racetracks. This basis is formed, firstly, thanks to unforced training, secondly, patience, and thirdly, painstaking everyday work.
For a long time, the forced work of young horses was a normal occurrence in Russian equestrian sport. But now our equestrians are actively studying and implementing the experience of European specialists in domestic practice. Chasing the result to the detriment of the normal development of the horse becomes bad manners and a sign of unprofessionalism.
First of all, we must always remember that the training of a young horse is not for the prize in the competition, but for the maximum development and full identification of congenital motor, jumping and tacking qualities. Without focused training, it is not only possible to improve the sports qualities of a horse, but also its normal development.
The rules are the same for everyone.
Work with foals begins with their birth: in the suckling period, they are gradually accustomed to halter, to brushes, to walk around, give legs, etc. From weaning (average age - 6 months) and up to 1.5-2 years old, all foals undergo factory group training, the purpose of which is to strengthen the health and general physical development of young animals. After this, the foal (aged 1.5-2.5 years, depending on the breed and individual development) gets into the training department, where individual training of young animals begins, riding a saddle, elementary dressage, learning to overcome obstacles and testing for basic sports qualities.
Even if the foal is in private hands, you should still follow the general rules for working with young animals. A race must be carried out in strict sequence without overloading the horse, either physically or mentally. Until the horse has mastered the current task, in no case should not give a new one. A horse under 3 years old should be treated with extreme caution - it is still being formed. Therefore, walking every day under the rider is contraindicated for her - this can lead to injuries, both physical and mental. It is worth paying attention to the work of the horse in his hands, on the cord and just communicating with her, her taming. Careful attitude to a young animal and leisurely work is the key to the successful development of a horse in all types of equestrian sports.
Since 3 years the horse is already working and is being tested for young horses. By four years, the horse’s skeleton is considered formed. But the training should be conducted according to age - it is not necessary to present higher requirements to the horse than they are stated in tests for young horses. If the horse does not pull this load, go back a few steps, reduce the requirements, do not be afraid to lose time: let the horse learn the basics - then it will be easier for her to catch up with her peers. It is better to develop fundamental skills once than to return to the basics in the future all the time - this way you will lose more time and energy.
Depending on the specialization, young horses undergo different training. Consider the approximate options for the initial training of horses, depending on the direction of their further use. Indeed, the "childhood period" for sports and prize breeds is significantly different.
Training of young trotter breeds
For more than two hundred years of existence of trotting horses, a wealth of practical and theoretical experience has been accumulated in the rational preparation of a young horse for maximum thrust loads. They test trotting horses at the hippodrome in a special running harness and rocking chairs. In the group race, the time taken to play the fast trot race (the main ones - 1600, 2400 and 3200 m) is taken into account and the prize places are distributed.
Racing is the basis for improving the horse-riding qualities of trotters. Therefore, the main task of the training is to prepare young animals for hippodrome tests, in which their performance is identified and evaluated.
Individual training of young trotters is divided into two periods: factory and hippodrome. The first stage - factory training - begins in winter with a race of a 10-12-month-old youngster: a foal is trained to a rocking chair, to walk in a harness, to obey control. At 1.5 years old (usually this time falls in the fall) young horses undergo dressage: they develop the correct movements on the step and free trot. The goal of the work is clear steady movements on trot. At this stage, the horse must be treated as calmly as possible, without sudden movements, so as not to damage the psyche of the young animal.
In the spring, two-year-old young animals are sent to the hippodrome, where the second stage of the formation of the trotter horse begins. Training schemes for two-year-old horses for performance in cross-country races are built taking into account the individual characteristics of each hippodrome fighter. As you approach the appearances in the prizes, the training loads are increased to a level conducive to the normal running in races.
Training of young purebred breeds
The main task of training young purebred horses is to prepare the animal's body for lengthy trials (the race season lasts 5-6 months) and maximum tear loads at distances from 1000 to 3200 m.
Work with young animals begins with one and a half years: the foal is taught to saddle and bridle, to work on the cord and under the saddle. In the period from autumn to spring, inclusively, young horses prepare for carvings, and in late spring at the hippodrome they undergo more intensive training. The main type of test for purebred riding horses is smooth racing. At the age of two years, young animals are tested at distances of 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m. For three-year-olds, the distances increase: in addition to the distances of 1200, 1400, 1600 m, they jump at 1800, 2000, 2400, 2800 and 3200 m.
After testing at two and three years of age, you can evaluate the abrasive and distance abilities of the horse, its race class.
Initial training of a sports horse
Initial training of a young sports horse lasts an average of at least 10 months (in some cases it can take 18-20 months) and contributes to the comprehensive development of the horse's body, creating the basis for subsequent specialized training.
During the preparation, it is necessary to observe a gradual increase in the load, in no case to rush the horse, observe the principle of repetition of exercises and the alternation of work and rest. Excessive stress and rough treatment can lead to the formation of bad habits in the horse, from which it will then be very difficult to wean it.
Dressage includes work on the cord, in the hands and under the rider. On the horse’s cord free movements are developed, they are prepared for lateral flexions, they are taught to perform voice commands. Work in the hands teaches the horse to start moving in steps, move to a lynx and retreat to the side from touching the whip to the side of the horse.
Saddle work is basic. Considering that the rider’s mass changes the horse’s center of gravity and disrupts its natural balance, balancing the horse under the rider becomes the most important task of the initial dressage. It is necessary to teach her to maintain balance when moving with various gaits and while jumping. The “gathering” of the horse helps in this - the position in which the neck is raised, the back of the head is the highest point, the head is almost upright, the hind legs are brought under the body. In this position, the horse's center of gravity is transferred to the hind legs, the front ones are released and the horse becomes easier to control. But in no case should you require the young horse to master the “collection” in a short time - this can cause her a defensive reaction and delay the dressage for a long time. More attention should be paid to the development of the correct free movements on the step, trot and gallop. Basically work out the average width of the pads. Gradually and only with short reprises, exercises on added and collected gait are introduced.
At the same time, the horse learns to overcome obstacles: first on poles lying on the ground, then on the “keys” (barriers 0.3 m high). Gradually, the height of the obstacles is increased to 0.8-1 m and the horse is trained to jump first on the cord, and then under the rider with a trot and gallop.
It is necessary to alternate work in the arena with field trips - this will have a beneficial effect on the nervous system of a young horse, and will add variety to the monotonous rhythm of classes. At the end of the initial training, the horse should trust the person, move freely under the rider, maintaining balance and a slight emphasis on the occasion on all gait, understand the impact of controls (Shenkel, occasion) and without resistance to fulfill the requirements of the rider, be strong, hardy, freely overcome small obstacles. You can check the results of the work at special competitions for the initial training of young horses, the program of which includes riding with the performance of exercises on the instructions of the judge and overcoming obstacles of the light class.
Further, for the horse, specialization is determined - dressage, show jumping or triathlon - and begin specialized training.
A young horse is considered to be six years old inclusive. Until this time, regardless of specialization, it is impossible to force its development and put forward increased requirements for its physical and psychological capabilities. Do not work hard to work out elements of adult rides or put too high obstacles. Remember the saying: you go quietly, you will continue. Only a morally stable horse with a good training base can achieve high results not only in national tournaments, but also in the international arena.
Jumping period (May - September)
During the hippodrome test period, the volume of training loads should be within:
At a trot - 10-15 minutes, a canter for 2 years - 1800-2400m, for horses 3 years and older 2400-3600m with a significant increase in intensity due to frisky gallops and performances.
During this period, an individual approach to horse training is very important. This is especially true for planning the days, distance and agility of training at a gallop. As a rule, frisky work is allowed once a week, however, there may be stages in preparation for a number of prizes, frisky gallops are used more often, mainly for horses 3 years of age and older. In this case, the trainer must take into account the individual characteristics of the horses, their general clinical and physiological condition.
Along with the generally accepted frisky works, in preparation for individual prizes, 2-3 interval training can be carried out.
Transitional period in the race training (September - October)
This period of outdoor activity, when horses do not carry intense loads. During this period they are limited to work at a step (1-1.5 hours), on trot (up to 10-15 minutes). If possible, horses should be left in Levada for 2-3 hours during daylight hours.
By the end of the transition period, the duration of trot work is increased to 20-25 minutes.
The scheme, drawn up taking into account the age and state of training of horses, can serve as a definite guide for trainers in group and individual planning and conducting daily training.
Individual training plans should provide for a gradual increase in the volume of loads, the use of frisky work corresponding to the functional capabilities of the horse, as well as a certain alternation of training intensity. Adjustments may be made to the plan based on the horse’s functional condition.
When hippodrome tests thoroughbred horses apply the group system: from the fourth to the first group, as well as outside the group. Two-year-old horses are enrolled in group 4 upon admission to the hippodrome. When winning the first place, the horse is transferred to the next group. When a traditional prize is won, the horse is transferred to the next group through one, and the second prize winner to the next group.
A horse aged 3-4 years old and older, entered the racetrack, is grouped by winning in the previous season. Horses of 3 years and older, who did not ride or did not win first places in the previous season, are assigned to group 4.
See what "Horse Training" is in other dictionaries:
Horse training - Horse training: a systematic exercise of the horse’s body by working with various gaits with such tension that leads to the strengthening and development of all organs and the body as a whole, increasing efficiency. Source: SP 106.13330.2012. ... ... Official terminology
HORSES TRAINING - (English training), systematic. horse exercises to develop their performance and test preparation. Systems T. l. depend on the type of horse and its purpose. Young animals of all breeds after weaning undergo group training (20 30 goals each) training: ... ... Agricultural Encyclopedic Dictionary
horse training - (Eng. Training), systematic exercises of horses for the development of their performance and preparation for testing. Systems T. l. depend on the type of horse and its purpose. Young animals of all breeds after weaning are group (20-30 goals each) ... ... Agriculture. Great Encyclopedic Dictionary
training - English training. I. a, m. Training, special training mode. T. horses. T. Boxer. T. ballerinas. II. invariable. adj. Boots, shoes, t. Low shoes, type t. * * * Training (English training), 1) in horse breeding and equestrian sports ... ... Encyclopedic dictionary
training - 1. (English training), and, m., Special. Training, special training mode. Tre / ning horses. Boxer Tre / Ning. Tre / ning ballerinas. 2. unchanged., In zn. adj. Boots, tre / ning shoes. Paul ... Dictionary of many expressions
Training - - a system of exercises for an animal, mainly horses and dogs in order to increase its working capacity and prepare for testing, the physiological essence consists in the development of a complex of motor skills and adaptations of all animals ... ... Glossary of terms on the physiology of farm animals
INDIVIDUAL HORSE CONTENT - used in conve for young purebred and trotter dogs, as well as for adults and those undergoing training breeding L. In sports. stables t. contain the entire horse stock, in stables for workers l. trainers, schoolchildren, restless and strict people ... Horse breeding guide
training - a, m. Special. Training, as well as a special training regimen. Training horses. Boxer training. Ballerina training. □ Kononen began her training. He consisted of running along the circular path of the kindergarten. Curtains, Memories. English training ... Small Academic Dictionary
Stable - room for keeping horses. K. for pedigree horses are intended for stallions of producers, queens and young animals, including those being in training (see. Horse training). Pedigree horses are kept in individual stalls without ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Training (animals) - Training (from French dresser - to correct, train, train), methods of influencing an animal in order to develop and fix certain (necessary for a person) actions and skills as a result of the formation of conditioned reflexes. Theoretical ... ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Basic principles of test organization:
1. Training and testing should ensure the development and strengthening of the general physical health of animals with an increase in its special sports qualities without traumatic effects on the body,
2. The tests should cover as many of the reared young animals as possible, which will ensure not only its full selection, but also a more complete and objective assessment of the production composition by the quality of the offspring,
3. The indicators evaluated in the tests should be related to the qualities that determine the performance of horses in equestrian competitions,
4. The evaluation of indicators in tests should be as objective as possible.
5. Testing technology should be accessible to all categories of farms.
The first trendy test for riding horses was created in 1926 in Zwion, not far from one of the branches of Trakenen (Germany). Here, one-year training and final testing were held for all young stallions of the Trakenens breed provided for breeding. Only those stallions that satisfied the commission on the quality of gait, work in a light harness and under the rider were later used as producers.
A significant role was played by testing the manufacturing composition in improving the performance of the Hanover breed. In 1928, the first trend depot was organized for stallions in Westerzell. Initially, training and trials were aimed at identifying the horse-riding qualities of stallions. After an 11-month training, tests were carried out for 5 days with breaks between them on the same day.
The main purpose of these tests was not the determination of operability, but the identification of extreme minusvariants, i.e. horses that are not able to fulfill the requirements, and their exclusion from breeding. Since 1930, trials for the Oldenburg stallions became mandatory. All 3-year-old stallions for use in horse breeding were to receive an assessment of performance, consisting of 5 parts: temperament, performance on the move, performance on a lynx, traction power, constitution.
Tests were required to pass all licensed stallions at the age of 3 years. After World War II, the tests resumed. In the GDR, the tests of the stallions took place after an 11-month training in the lightweight eventing program, supplemented by tests in the crew. Additional indicators of the quality of movements were the length and frequency of stride, trot, gallop. A similar performance assessment system was used in Hungary.
Such combined trials were very important at a time when horse riding did not yet play a major role in half-breed horse breeding. However, the recent growing interest in such a form of equestrian sport as driving suggests the possibility of "resuscitation" of this kind of test in half-breed breeds or their introduction in light-duty breeds, which could be reprofiled for use in this discipline.
Tests currently conducted abroad can be classified according to a number of criteria. Tests for young animals include the participation of animals that have not undergone preliminary breeding, but there are also such forms of testing in which horses, previously recognized as suitable for breeding, take part.
In combined trials, both jumping and motor makings of a horse are evaluated, which is characteristic of "universal" riding breeds bred for "all types of use under the saddle" - these include most of the half-breed western breeds - and specialized ones are aimed at identifying one type of working capacity. Tests for stallions are different from those for mares, since selection among males should be much more stringent, because a greater number of offspring are obtained from a stallion and an erroneous conclusion about its makings leads to more serious negative consequences.
Station tests provide for the preparation of animals for a certain period in "standardized" trend conditions, and for "field" tests of animals are presented directly on the day of their conduct and the level of preparation depends entirely on the owner of the horse. In a number of countries, in particular in France, there are no special trends; stallions are evaluated based on the results of the offspring in sports (performance index).
Since 1974, in Germany - the country leading the world of fashion in equestrian sports - stallions intended for breeding that have been preselected on the exterior and main gait have been tested in trends with a state license for training and testing. Until 2002, the so-called “100-day test” was used as a standard test form - the preparatory period was 3 months and ended with combined tests.
On the day of testing, "independent riders" are invited to assess the riding and jumping inclinations in parkour - professional licensed caretakers who provide an unbiased assessment of the young horse. Allures, style of jump and gallop are judged by the judges visually. According to the test results, each stallion receives a general performance index and indices for dressage abilities and jumping qualities.
At present, the German Equestrian Federation, together with the tribal unions, has developed a new, stepwise, test organization system. The preparation period for traditional tests is reduced from 100 to 70 days, while their program remains the same, with the exception of some simplification of field tests. Successfully completed 70-day trials give the right to final registration in the studbook and "lifelong" admission to breeding.
Another option for performing a “standoff” for one’s own performance can be passing sports tests for young horses after a 30-day test with a score of at least 7.5 points. Of course, if a stallion starts in show jumping tournaments no lower than class S, or in dressage at the level of the Grand Prize, in triathlon of class M and S, he does not have to undergo station tests - the results of his performances in sports confirm his performance.
In the face of increasing competition in the sports horse market, the value of mare trials has increased. In Germany, there are several forms of testing mares. Since the number of mares assigned to the tests is very large, the tests for mares are carried out either in the form of a “field” test, or after a short station preparation. The basis for entering the tested animals into the Stud Book of the Equestrian Federation of Germany is field trials, in which 3-7-year-old mares are assessed by the quality of gait (step, lynx, gallop), distance (independent rider and judge), jumping inclinations in springarten.
Since 1983, the Holstein breed breeders' union introduced station tests of breeding mares. The training plan covers 14 days and the final tests. Throughout the entire period, the mare’s complete anonymity is observed, trainers and judges evaluate: in training - character and temperament in the stall and at work, flexibility, jumping makings, leaving, basic paces, on the day of the final tests - leaving, basic paces, spring jumping style . Along with the tests, a commission assessment of the mares on the exterior is carried out. Similar tests are now accepted in most breeder unions.
Trials of riding horses are not limited to potential breeding animals. There is a whole system of testing young sports horses, on the basis of the results of which they make a conclusion about the heredity of the producers. Since 1973, 4-year-old riding horses have been tested in Sweden, which provide a comparatively early opportunity to evaluate producer stallions for offspring quality.
This is the only system in the world of voluntary testing of young horses in the world, in which more than a third of 4-year-olds are tested annually, so this is actually the most ambitious standardized test of young animals, which assesses gait, jumping makings, stamina, exterior, temperament and health . The 100 best according to the results of regional trials of horses take part in the final, where the winner receives the title of Champion of the Kingdom. A similar championship system exists in other European countries.
At the age of 3-4 years, horses undergo initial combined trials, where their degree of movement, the development of natural paces, physique, overall impression, temperament are assessed. At the age of 4-6 years, the trials consist of representing the horse under the rider in all gait and successively overcoming at least 4 obstacles.
In addition to the above "basic" combined tests, there are specialized "entrance" tests separately for the disciplines. Manege riding is carried out for potential trainers, during which performance is assessed for riding, basic gait, as well as the general impression of a dressage horse.
For competitive horses 4-6 years old standard parkour classes are arranged: initial (6-12 obstacles 1.0-1.1 m high), light (8-14 obstacles 1.1-1.2 m high), medium (for 5- bating horses 8-14 obstacles 1.2-1.3 m high). Depreciation is estimated, including the style of jumping on a 10-point scale minus penalty points for errors on the route.
In 2003, in Moscow, the Crystal Debut tournament was held using this system. Potential triathlon horses are judged by their off-road ability, jump style, and gallop quality over various lengths of field distance of 1,500–2,000 m with 12–20 obstacles. Such a step-by-step organization of tests allows you to prepare a horse gradually, while gaining experience in tournament performances. At the same time, a sports class of the animal is revealed, which makes it possible to select the most promising ones for further performances.
The expression of the animal’s assessment on a single 10-point scale from 0 (non-fulfillment of requirements) to 10 (excellent) allows us to draw a conclusion about the quality and uniformity of the offspring of breeding animals at the very beginning of their sports career, without involving subjective indicators such as the amount of gain, technical results.
The widespread introduction of tests in the daily practice of sports horse breeding in Western Europe is one of the main prerequisites for the success of European athletes in equestrian sports. A targeted check of the performance of both young animals to evaluate fathers and potential producers for final admission to breeding allows us to focus on working (sports) qualities, rather than the exterior or type. Of course, the right exterior is necessary for a sports horse, but even the most beautiful horse that does not meet the requirements of athletes cannot be realized, and therefore, horse breeding as an economic industry will be unprofitable.