trachicarpus - trachicarpus ... Spelling dictionary
trachicarpus - noun, number of synonyms: 2 • tree (618) • palm (53) ASIS Synonyms Dictionary. V.N. Trishin. 2013 ... Dictionary of Synonyms
trachicarpus - šiurkštuolė statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Arekinių (Arecaceae) šeimos augalų gentis (Trachycarpus). atitikmenys: lot. Trachycarpus angl. hemp palm vok. Hanfpalme rus. trachicarpus lenk. szorskowiec, trachykarpus ... Dekoratyvinių augalų vardynas
Trachicarpus - (Trachycarpus) a genus of plants of the palm family (See Palms). Tree-like (up to 20 m high and up to 20 cm in diameter) trunks are covered with brown-brown fiber of leaf sheaths and carry up to 30 fan leaves on top. Flowers same-sex or ... ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia
trachicarpus - (lat. Trachycarpus) a genus of fan palm trees growing in subtropical regions of the southeast. Asia, bred in the Crimea and the Caucasus. New dictionary of foreign words. by EdwART,, 2009 ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language
trachicarpus - trahik arpus, and ... Russian Spelling Dictionary
trachicarpus fortune - kanapinė šiurkštuolė statusas T sritis vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Trachycarpus fortunei angl. Chusen palm, windmill palm vok. Hanfpalme, hohstämmige Hanfpalme rus. fan palm, trachicarpus fortune lenk. szorstkowiec Fortunego ... Dekoratyvinių augalų vardynas
TRACHYCARPUS N. WENDL. - TRAHIKARPUS - 120. Trachycarpus H. Wendl. Trachicarpus see ... Plant Reference
Palm trees - (Arecaceae, or Palmae) is a family of tree-like monocotyledonous plants. The trunk is usually unbranched, columnar, with a crown of leaves on top, up to 60 m high (for example, ceroxylon 50 to 60 m) and up to 1 m in diameter (Yubeya), in some species of thoughts ... ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Trachicarpus (Trachycarpus) - a bright representative of the Areca family or Palm. According to various sources, the genus has 6-9 species, the most often cultivated trachicarpus Fortune (Trachycarpus fortunei). Let us consider the description of the plant in more detail. In the natural environment (the tropics of East Asia, Japan, China, Burma, the Himalayas), Fortune's trachicarpus reaches a height of 12-20 m. When growing indoors, you should not be afraid that the palm tree "extends" to the ceiling - the height will be no more than 2.5, and annual growth is small.
Due to its resistance to cold (it can withstand temperatures below -10 ° C), it can also be grown in open ground in warm regions (trachicarpus is common on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Crimea). Street palm is able to reach its natural size after 12-15 years.
The trunk of the trachicarpus is erect, it is covered with dry hairy fibers remaining after the death of the leaves. Palm tree fan. The leaf plate is attached to a long stalk, it is divided into strap-like segments, the slot is almost to the base. Petiole can be studded. The shape of the leaf plate is rounded, the diameter reaches 60 cm. The back side of the leaves is covered with a bluish coating, which is easily erased when touched.
Trachicarpus most effectively looks in large rooms - offices, halls, conservatories, greenhouses, but nothing prevents you from creating a piece of the tropics in the room. Each plant needs care, and trachicarpus requires a more careful attitude. It is worth studying the recommendations for cultivation, getting used to and everything will certainly work out. By the way, the palm of Liviston is less whimsical to care for.
Trachicarpus Fortune from seeds at home
Trachycarpus seeds photo
Growing trachicarpus from seeds is a painstaking task, but such plants are stronger (resistant to diseases and pests). Also, daughter processes can be very curved, and seed reproduction allows you to get beautiful upright specimens. Seed germination is lost quickly, so start sowing as soon as they fall into your hands. In indoor conditions, the palm tree does not bloom and does not give seeds, so the material for sowing is purchased in a flower shop. Seeds older than 2 years may not germinate at all, so pay attention to the expiration date when buying.
- To speed up germination, soak the seeds in warm water overnight and very carefully remove the fleshy membrane.
- Sow in separate containers (peat or plastic cups) one seed each. Fill them with a mixture of sand and peat, do not add about 15 mm to the top. Sow the seeds by pressing them into the soil to the depth of their size.
Trachicarpus from seed photo seedlings
- It is necessary to wrap the containers with polyethylene, put under diffuse lighting and maintain the temperature at 22 ° C, daily raise the shelter for ventilation, moisten the soil surface as it dries.
- Seeds germinate over 20-60 days.
- Shelter is removed after the appearance of sprouts.
- When the first leaf reaches a length of 2-4 cm, seedlings can be reloaded in pots with a substrate for adult plants.
Trachicarpus is able to grow in partial shade or even shade, but it is better to keep the lighting scattered. Avoid direct sunlight, they act on the plant depressing, especially in combination with high air temperature. Place a palm tree on a table or stand near a window of eastern or western orientation; if there is a curtain, placement on the south side is acceptable. In order for the crown to develop evenly and look symmetrical, once every 14 days, the trachicarpus should be slightly rotated around its axis.
Types of "Trachicarpus"
|Difficulty of leaving|
The plant is not particularly demanding for temperature, but during the warm season it is better to maintain it within 18-25 ° C. What is especially important is the access to fresh air. When ventilating, do not allow draft, for the summer it is advisable to take it to the garden, to the open balcony. A seasonal decrease in temperature is favorable for palm trees: from late autumn to spring, keep at 16 ° C, a short-term decrease to zero is acceptable. In open ground, under the condition of a fully formed (lignified) trunk, the palm is resistant to frost up to 10 ° C.
How to water
The palm of the trachicarpus is drought-resistant, yet it is not recommended to leave the plant for a long time without moistening the soil, water moderately. From waterlogging, the roots can rot, so that between the procedures the topsoil should dry out a little, be sure to drain the excess liquid from the pallet.
For irrigation, use exclusively purified water (melt, rain, filtered or at least well-maintained tap water) to prevent the substrate from salting.
It is undesirable to spray the plant, it is forbidden to do this at low air temperatures (fungal infections will begin to develop). To remove dust from the leaves, in the summer they are washed with warm water every 2-3 weeks, in the winter they are wiped with a soft moistened cloth. In spring and summer, sprinkle on the leaves, while covering the soil with a bag so as not to flood the earthen lump.
To maintain humidity, periodically place the trachicarpus on a pallet with moist expanded clay, moss, and pebbles. In winter, if possible, use steam generators or special humidifiers; in the absence of such devices, put a regular container of water near the palm tree.
To polish the leaves, prepare a 5% solution of oxalic acid, soak a flannel or other soft cloth and wipe the leaf plates. Then rinse with warm water (do not forget to cover the substrate with a bag) and wipe it with a dry cloth. Chemical polishes should never be used.
How to feed
Also, the palm trachicarpus needs additional nutrition. You can use slowly decomposing granular fertilizer - it is applied once in the spring, such nutrition is enough for the whole season. When using complex mineral fertilizers, feeding should be from April to August. Prepare the concentration of the solution half as much as stated on the package. Under the root, top-dress every 2-3 weeks, every month you can spray from a fine spray with a solution of fertilizer on the leaves.
To maintain decorativeness, periodically trim dry, broken, and out of place leaves. Do not rush to remove slightly yellowed leaf plates, because they continue to nourish the palm. It’s important not to overdo it: you cannot cut more leaves than the palm tree can reproduce in a year of life. The plant spends vitality on young shoots, so they also need to be cut, if you do not plan to plant them for reproduction. When trimming, be careful, the trunk can not be damaged.
Trachicarpus transplant at home
Before the age of three years, transplant annually, then - as the substrate is filled with the root system, which happens approximately every 3 years. Transplant in the spring before the start of a new growing season.
The soil is required loose and permeable to water (when watering, the liquid must pass through the substrate in a matter of seconds and flow out through the drainage holes). Soil acidity (pH level) should vary between 5.5-7.5. The easiest way to purchase a soil mixture marked "Palm".
With independent preparation of the substrate, there are several options:
- In equal proportions sheet, humus earth, perlite and sand,
- 2 parts wet peat, turf and leafy soil, 1 part coarse sand,
- Slag and pumice, pieces of pine bark with a fraction of more than 20 mm, pebbles or rubble of a fraction of 12 mm, perlite, coarse peat, charcoal with a fraction of at least 10 - take everything in equal proportions, add a little dolomite flour.
It is advisable to disinfect the substrate of own preparation by calcination in the oven, you can spill boiling water or a weakly pink solution of potassium permanganate (after that, let the soil mixture dry).
Getting to the transplant. Select a container with a slightly larger diameter than the previous one, in a large pot the palm will stop growing. Put drainage (pebbles, expanded clay, small pebbles, foam particles) about 4 cm thick at the bottom. Then pour a little substrate. Trachicarpus is transplanted by transshipment, try to keep the earthen coma as much as possible. Set the palm in the center of the pot, add earth, deepen into the soil to the same level as before the transplant.
The maximum negative temperature that the trachicarpus can withstand is -15 ° C. If your region has a mild climate and mild frosts in winter, trachicarpus can be grown outdoors in the garden.
Trachicarpus in comparison with other types of palm trees prefers cooler, temperate areas: in the subtropics the palm will actively develop, but will feel uncomfortable in the tropics. This plant can withstand small frosts. In its natural habitat, palm trees are sometimes covered in snow and ice. Seedlings are planted in places protected from the wind. Young plants are less hardy and can be damaged by frost at -8 ° C. Very young plants require shelter during the first two winters in open ground.
Where to plant trachicarpus
They choose to plant solar protected areas, especially from cold, dry winds in the north and east in temperate zones, or partial partial shade in subtropical zones.
This palm is moderately salt tolerant and can be planted in sheltered from the wind places where there is no direct effect of the sea breeze. Protection from harsh winds minimizes leaf tears and allows this palm to look its best. Individual leaves live for about three years if they are not damaged by the wind.
The composition of the soil and how to root
Trachicarpus fortune prefers depleted soils with an average humus content, but will survive in almost all cases, except for areas with stagnant moisture.
Fortune palms have deeply penetrating root systems and are usually best rooted in the young stage. Therefore, in areas at the limit of their winter hardiness, it is wise to grow plants in containers for several years, giving them winter protection, and planted in a permanent place only when they reach a very large size. Plant them in open ground at the end of spring or early summer, after the last expected frost.
These palm trees can also be transplanted, even when they are very large. Although thick fleshy roots are easily damaged and / or dried, new roots usually reproduce fairly quickly.
Watering and feeding
Watering is required regularly, but no frills. Create a small hole around the plants to hold water for longer. Mulching prevents the small roots of the palm from drying out. Trachicarpus fortuna is relatively easy to tolerate short periods of drought.
Trachicarpus should be fed regularly with palm fertilizers, strictly following the manufacturer's instructions.
Propagation of the trachicarpus by the lateral processes
Propagation of trachicarpus at home
More reliable root processes. Please note that they appear with sufficient humidity in the room. The shoot should have a diameter of at least 7-10 cm. As a rule, it is located at the base of the palm trunk.
- Carefully separate the lateral process with a sharp knife at the site of narrowing of the trunk, trying to minimize damage to the mother plant, sprinkle the cut on the palm with charcoal or treat with phytosporin solution.
- Then remove the separated process from the leaves, also treat with phytosporin in the place of the cut, dry for 1-2 days.
- Hold the dried shoot for a day in a solution of a growth stimulator, then plant it in a small container with palm soil in half with perlite or coarse sand.
- Heat and high humidity are necessary: cover the planted processes with a bag and keep the temperature at about 25 ° C.
- Do not forget about daily airing, water moderately as necessary. Even under such conditions, rooting can last about 6 months, because the roots grow slowly.
- After six months or a year, when new leaves appear, the rooting process can be considered successful, the plant is transferred to a pot with soil for adult plants.
Diseases and Pests
Why do trachicarpus begin to darken the tips of the leaves of the photo
In principle, the reaction in trachicarpus to damage by pests and diseases is typical: the tips of the leaves dry out, and then the leaves die off completely. Take a closer look at the plant, consider whether it was properly looked after, if so, these are pests. If the palm tree was not poured, it was not allowed to dry out, and the air in the room was not too dry, pests caused the problem.
In case of damage by a spider mite or other pests, urgent treatment with an insecticide is required. Neem oil treatments are effective for disinfecting leaves from infections: apply it on the leaves in the evening, and gently wash in the morning with a soft cloth so that the leaves of the plant do not experience oxygen starvation.
To diseases as such, trachicarpus is resistant. Difficulties with improper care are possible:
- If the root system was damaged during transplantation, the trachicarpus will stop growing,
- From waterlogging of the soil, the root system will begin to rot.You can try to save by emergency transplant: cut off the rotten parts, treat the roots with phytosporin fungicide, use a fresh substrate, and disinfect the container. In most cases, the palm tree dies, so stay moderate in watering,
- With dry air in the room or high temperature, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out.
It happens that trachicarpus is not purchased in a flower shop, but is brought from warm countries. Along with the plant, its pests "migrate": powdery mealybug (white little worms that leave secretions in the form of cotton lumps), thrips (brownish hard-to-see insects, they can be recognized by the presence of black dots on the leaves), aphids (greenish or gray insects, noticeable to unarmed eye), scabies (dark tubercles-growths will appear on the petioles and leaves) or spider mites. If parasites are found, immediately treat with an insecticide!
Trachicarpus at home cultivation and care
The genus Trachicarpus belongs to the Palm family and has only 9 species. Indoor grow only one of them.
The birthplace of Trachicarpus is the tropical regions of East Asia, but it is able to tolerate a short-term decrease in temperature to -15 ° С.
The appearance of representatives of this genus is characteristic of most palm trees. The thick straight brown trunk has a fibrous scaly surface, which is formed from the remains of dead leaves of the plant. At the crown of the palm is a crown of huge, up to one meter, petiolate, fan-shaped, dissected leaves. Their color on the upper side is dark green, the lower one has a grayish tint.
Trachicarpus in nature blooms with small yellow fragrant flowers of a rounded elongated shape, collected in large cluster-shaped inflorescences. In indoor conditions, flowering is not possible. Fruits of a palm - berries of a bluish-blue, sometimes almost black, color.
Trachicarpus refers to plants that grow well indoors, but in the warmer months they prefer to be on balconies or verandas. Luxurious palm trees feel good in the open-air garden, where they can stay until the fall. The unpretentiousness of Trachicarpus allows the use of a palm tree for decoration of office premises.
Trachicarpus is a tub plant. For its cultivation, a sufficiently spacious container is required, which should correspond to the size of the root coma of the palm. The plant does not like transplants, therefore they are rarely and very carefully produced, as the tank is full. At a young age, the palm tree is renewed annually. An adult specimen is transplanted as rarely as possible. Perform this procedure by transshipment.
Trimming of Trachicarpus, as a result of which the height of the trunk gradually increases, is performed to remove old dying leaves and increase decorativeness.
During the period of active growth from May to September, Trachicarpus needs additional nutrition. Once every two weeks, when watering, special fertilizer for palm trees is applied to the soil. You can add the usual preparations for ornamental plants, reducing the doses indicated in the instructions for use by half.
First steps after purchase
Buying a palm tree, which over time grows to a solid size, requires a room where the plant will feel comfortable.
Deciding to purchase Trachicarpus, it is necessary to carefully examine the plant to make sure that the future pet is healthy. Then the plant must be quarantined and after two to three weeks placed in a constant, well-lit place.
Secrets of Success
Trachicarpus is a photophilous plant that does not tolerate direct sunlight. But a slight shading will allow the palm tree to feel quite comfortable. She also does not like heat. For this plant, it is recommended to maintain the temperature regime at + 16–18 ° С. In winter, Trachicarpus is at rest, and during this period it is advisable to keep it at a temperature of about + 6–8 ° С.
Watering the plant in summer requires moderate, but in winter it is recommended to reduce it to a minimum.
Palm trees need high humidity in the hot season and when kept in a heated room. Dry air is harmful to the plant. Daily spraying will help to solve the problem.
The palm family. Homeland - Burma, India, China, Japan, the Himalayas. This rather unpretentious fan palm tree includes only 6 species.
Plants have a straight trunk, in nature reaching 12-20 m in length (at home, these palm trees grow no more than 2.5 meters). The trunk is covered with dry brown fibers - the base of dead leaves. The leaves are oblong-rounded, about 60 cm in diameter, the segments are divided almost to the base, but in some species only half the leaf. The reverse side of the leaves has a bluish, easily erased plaque. Petioles are long, have small spikes. Axillary inflorescences, peduncle about 30-40 cm long, white flowers in the species Trachycarpus martiana and bright yellow, fragrant in the species Trachicarpus Fortuna Trachycarpus fortunei. Fruit berry.
Trachicarpus is a palm tree that grows slowly at home. In captivity, it will not bloom and, accordingly, bear fruit.
In addition to Trachicarpus Fortune is popular in home gardening Trachycarpus Princess Trachycarpus princeps - originally from China, he has a more sophisticated look. Its leaves are brightly medium green above, slightly with a bluish tinge.
Trachicarpus - care and cultivation
Temperature: Ideal conditions for the growth of the trachicarpus are in the greenhouse or conservatory, in other words, a cool, bright and well-ventilated room. It is perfect for decorating halls, the lobby of offices and hotels, a wonderful plant for decorating a bright assembly hall in a kindergarten or school. Trachicarpus is quite tolerant of normal room temperatures, if there is no battery nearby and no directed warm air flow. Under natural conditions, palm trees have a resting period at which the temperature does not rise above 16 ° C, sometimes there are frosts up to -10 ° C. However, potted plants should not be in a room where the temperature can drop below zero - in a small amount of earth, limited by the size of the pot, the roots will be supercooled. If your home does not have a suitable cool room (a glazed and insulated balcony or a loggia), the only way to save a palm tree in winter is to put it on a window on the landing.
Lighting: Bright light, with some direct sun, is shaded only in the afternoon hours. Ideal location near the south window. Trachicarpus is from those plants that very quickly outgrow the size of the windowsill. While the palm is small, it can live and winter on the window, but when its vai start to crawl out of the window sill (this is extremely harmful in the heating season), it's time to find her another place. If you place a plant in a room, make sure that there is enough light. No need to put a palm tree on the floor near the balcony door - it is not afraid of the cold, but the leaves will be below the stream of light, the palm will begin to stretch and lose its color due to lack of light. Trachicarpus can be illuminated with fluorescent lights and LED lights.
Watering and feeding: In summer, watering is plentiful, in winter it is very moderate, depending on temperature. From May to September, every three weeks, top dressing with fertilizer for palm trees or any other fertilizer for indoor plants, taken in a dose 2 times less than recommended.
What does abundant watering mean: the soil should not dry out completely, to the state of "dust". But she must have time to dry by the next watering in the depths of the pot, and dry in 3-4 days, not longer. If the soil dries up to a week and the likelihood of root decay is very high, you simply ruin the palm. To prevent this, the palm tree should be planted in well-drained soil. In nature, it grows on sandy soils that do not retain moisture for a long time. We also need to add various components to the soil so that it does not caking and does not compact. In winter, the soil in the pot should dry completely, especially if it is cold. For example, at a temperature of 10 ° C - this can be once every 3-4 weeks, if a little warmer - about 12-14 ° C, then once every two weeks. In order not to make a mistake, be sure to check the earth by touch, digging the top layer, water only when you make sure that it has dried.
Air humidity: Trachicarpus loves moderately humid air - within 40%. If there are no hot batteries nearby, you do not need to spray. Humidity requirements increase in winter when kept in a warm, heated room. In this case, it makes sense to spray the plant at least 1 time per day.
Like all palm trees, the trachicarpus does not like frequent transplants, so they are replanted only when the roots fill the entire pot or tub and begin to crawl out of the container. But if a salt coating appears on the surface of the earth - gray-red streaks on the ground and near the walls of the pot, this is an alarming bell, either your water is too hard, or the soil dries out for too long. In any case, salinization of the soil leads to an imbalance of nutrients, some elements are absorbed, others not. From a nutritional deficiency, the leaves will turn yellow and dry. Therefore, saline soil must be removed, replaced with fresh soil. And after heavy watering, loosen the soil. Transplanted in the spring - in March. Young plants, growing to 1-1.5 m - annually, larger after 2-3 years, change the top layer of the earth to a depth of about 5-7 cm annually.
What to plant a palm tree
Young plants are planted in pots; plastic or ceramic does not matter if there are large holes at the bottom for water flow. In a clay pot, drainage is not necessary, but usually there is only one hole, and you need to make sure that it does not clog the ground. In a plastic pot, drainage of approximately 2 cm is needed. Larger plants can be planted in a bucket, flowerpot or wooden tub. In wooden tubs, it is advisable to drill holes at the bottom, and before filling the ground, pick up a plastic bag inside (a 120 l garbage bag will fit).
- Traditional soil mixture: 2 parts of light sod land, 2 parts of leaf (peat), 1 part of humus (well-rotted manure), 1 part of sand (or vermiculite) and some charcoal.
- Another option for palm soil: 2 parts of universal store soil (for example, Terra Vita), 1 part of humus, 1 part of sand (or vermiculite).
As humus land, you can use garden soil, from the beds where cucumbers were grown (manure is usually brought under them). But any soil must be sterilized before planting (soak in the oven on baking sheets for an hour). If the volume of land is very large (for transplanting large palm trees), then instead of sterilization, you can spill the ground with a solution of insecticide and fungicide.
Propagation of trachicarpus
Palm trachicarpus propagated by seeds and only fresh. The seeds are soaked for several days, while it is important to change the water every 24 hours. If you have an aquarium compressor, it is great to use sparging - palm seeds are very responsive to oxygen saturation. The day before planting, it is advisable to soak in a zircon solution, then they are planted, deepening by about 1.5 cm. It is better to plant in a mixture of universal earth (or soil for seedlings) and vermiculite in equal parts. Good results were shown by landing in pure vermiculite. In any case, it is important to sow in a sterilized substrate. Shoots appear after about 4 months, sometimes you have to wait up to 8 months. It is very important to maintain moderate humidity all the time before germination and after germination - the seeds easily rot from excess moisture.
Trachicarpus Fortune from seeds, says Marina Kunitskaya: First, I soaked the seeds in water for three days. Then I took a food container with a transparent lid and holes (for a microwave), put cotton pads on the bottom. For each cotton pad on the seed of the trachicarpus, on top covered with another cotton pad. Set to germinate at a temperature somewhere between 20 ° and 25 ° C. The openings on the lid were open, checking the container weekly, lifting the upper cotton pads and three weeks later discovered the first sprouted seeds. It is important that the discs do not dry out, only the boiled water from the syringe is added to the water. When the root appeared, she waited another two days, then gently took a seed with tweezers and planted it in the ground (in half Terra Vita and vermiculite, steamed in the oven). Sprinkled with earth about 5 mm, set to the light. Palms grow fast at first, then slow down. In caring for trachicarpus grown from seed, it is important not to overmoisten the soil. Be sure to feed - once a week with fertilizer for orchids. Its concentration is low, it is not necessary to dilute according to the instructions, seedlings are no longer needed.
Yellowing leaves - due to lack of watering, lack of nutrients in the soil, excess calcium in the soil, i.e. watering with too hard water, but first of all the leaves turn yellow and dry if in winter the plant is kept in too warm conditions.
Brown leaf tips - The most likely cause is dry air, also possibly due to insufficient watering.
Brown spots on the leaves - with waterlogging of the soil, too high humidity, especially at low temperatures. The root system of the trachicarpus is fibrous, so the pot is not required to be too deep, and excessive watering can be detrimental to the plant.
Brown bottom leaves - in many palm trees, the lower leaves darken with age and die, they are periodically cut with a sharp knife.
Pests - palm trees are subject to attack by scale insects, spider mites and mealybugs (see pests).
1. Seven secrets of success:
Botanical name: Trachycarpus.
Family . Areca.
Palm trachicarpus - origin . Southeast Asia.
Height . This palm can reach 12 - 20 m in nature. When grown indoors it reaches 2 - 3 m., However, it grows slowly.
2.1 Propagation - seed cultivation
Seed in the spring. The germination period is long - up to 1 year, palm trees develop slowly and the whole process will take a long period of time.
2.2.How to care
The tree acclimatizes well in enclosed spaces and belongs to the most unpretentious palm trees. Place the plants in the fresh air in spring and summer, under cover from wind and rain. Cut the yellowed old leaves appearing under the crown at the base. Wipe large leaves from time to time with a damp sponge to remove dust. Trachicarpus does not like a sharp change in the conditions of existence - acclimatize plants gradually to all changes.
2.3. Primer for trachicarpus
Well-drained soil with a sufficient content of coarse river sand and a neutral or slightly acidic pH. A mixture based on peat with the addition of leaf humus, sphagnum moss, pine bark, fallen needles and small pieces of charcoal is suitable. The substrate must pass water and air well.