Fertilizers must be applied in spring (before the beginning of intensive root growth) and autumn (roots in non-freezing layers of the soil also grow in winter).
In establishing the timing of fertilizer application, it is necessary to take into account the specific effect of individual nutrients on physiological processes in fruit plants. So, the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers at the end of June lengthens the growth period, the shoots do not have time to prepare for the winter and freeze. The introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers during this period increases the frost resistance of plants.
Organic fertilizers are best applied in the fall, as they slowly decompose, turning into forms accessible to plants.
Along with the main fertilizers (applied in the fall), fertilizing is used in gardens during the growing season. In autumn they give a full dose of organic, phosphorus-potash and one third of nitrogen fertilizers (preferably in ammonia form).
In the spring (April - May), fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers is carried out, and phosphorus-potash - in the summer (June - July). When deciding on the number and timing of top dressing, species and varietal characteristics, the condition of trees, crop size, shoot length, rates of applied basic fertilizers, soil fertility, and moisture conditions are taken into account.
In household plots, gardens are often planted without prior cultivation. Therefore, when planting, we recommend introducing organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the pits in the doses indicated in the table. 1.
Table 1. Fertilization rates when planting fruit trees, in kg. per hole 100 x 60 cm
|Type of fertilizer||Pomegranate||Stone fruit||Berry bushes|
|Humus||20. 30||10. 12||6. 10|
|Manure, peat or compost||30. 50||15. 25||10. 15|
|double||0,3. 0,4||0,15. 0,20||0,1|
|sulfate||0,15. 0,20||0,06. 0,08||0,04. 0,05|
|chloride||0,10. 0,15||0,04. 0,06||0,025. 0,035|
|(for acidic soils)||0,6. 1,0||0,3. 0,5||0,05. 0,1|
Note. Make one of the types of fertilizers of each group, depending on the availability and quality indicators of specific soils.
In the early years of growth, young trees can be not fertilized, provided that all nutrients are added in advance. As the root and above-ground systems grow, the need for nutrients increases (Table 2).
Table 2. Fertilizing doses per fruit tree
|Age of tree, years||Barrel circle diameter, m||Organic fertilizers, kg||Mineral fertilizers, g per drug|
|ammonium nitrate||superphosphate||potassium chloride|
|3. 4||2,5||20. 25||75||150||50|
|5. 6||3,0||30. 40||100||220||70|
|7. 8||3,5||40. 50||150||300||100|
|9. 10||4,0||50. 60||200||400||130|
When using fertilizers not listed in the table, it is necessary to recalculate, based on the fact that for every 1 m 2 of the trunk circle, 8. 10 g of active substance (dv) of each type of nutrient is required. With the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers, these doses are reduced by half.
For young fruit trees, top dressing with liquid organic fertilizers is of great importance: slurry diluted with 5. 6, feces and bird droppings - 10. 12 parts of water. On 1 m 2 spend one bucket of diluted fertilizer. Mineral fertilizers can be applied both in dry and in dissolved form. In the first case, watering is required.
On fertile soils, you can limit yourself to one early spring top dressing; on poor podzols, two to three top dressings are needed. In addition, at the last once in 5. 7 years carry out liming (1 kg of lime per 1 m 2).
In the first years, young trees do not completely use the entire area of nutrition (in pomegranate root systems close at 8. 10 years, in stone fruit on the 4th-5th year). Therefore, in young gardens of personal plots between trees, you can grow vegetables and other row crops, but under them you need to add additional fertilizer (table. 3).
In fruit-bearing orchards, it is necessary to take into account the frequency of fruiting, in particular, pome breeds, calculating the application dose for the planned crop. So, in a lean year, only organic fertilizers are enough. At this time, nutrients are used by plants to lay generative buds for next year's crop - you cannot create a rich background so as not to overload the trees in the future.
Table 3. Fertilizer application rates for vegetable crops cultivated in garden aisles
|Culture||Organic fertilizers, kg / m 2||Mineral fertilizers, g.v. / m 2|
|Tomatoes||2. 3||6. 9||9. 12||9. 12|
|Cucumbers||6. 12||6. 9||6. 9||6. 12|
|Early and Cauliflower||3. 4||6. 9||4,5. 6||6. 9|
|Middle and late cabbage||3. 4||9. 12||6. 9||12. 18|
|Carrot||__||6. 9||6. 9||9. 12|
|Beet||__||6. 9||4,5. 6||9. 18|
|Bow||3. 4||4,5..6||4,5. 6||6. 9|
|Beans and other legumes||__||0. 6||6. 9||16. 18|
With a weak yield (20. 30 kg per tree), the main fertilizer is applied in the fall, and in the spring, after 2. 3 weeks after flowering, one fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers is carried out (3. 4 g / m 2).
With an average yield (up to 50 kg per tree), it is recommended to carry out a second fertilizing with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers 2. 3 weeks after the first (3 g / m 2).
With a high yield (over 75 kg per tree), a third top dressing with the same fertilizers and at the same interval is necessary. This top dressing contributes to the laying of generative buds, increasing the yield of the next year.
Table 4. Approximate fertilizer rates in fruit-bearing seed crops of an intensive type with an average supply of soils with mobile nutrients
|The soil||Organic fertilizers, kg / m 2 (every three years)||Mineral fertilizers, g.v / m 2|
|Light gray and gray podzolized sandy loam, light and medium loamy||4||12||6||12|
|Dark gray podzolized, chernozems podzolized and leached medium- and heavy loamy||3||9||4,5||9|
|Common and southern heavy loamy chernozems||3||9||4,5||4,5|
Organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied periodically - once every 3 years or even 5 years. Nitrogen fertilizers - annually, and in ammonia form in the fall and spring, and in nitrate form only in the spring. Nitrogen fertilizers must be used up during the growing season. So, with the expected yield from one tree of 25 kg, 250 g of nitrogen fertilizers must be applied under it, with a yield of 50 kg - 300, 75 kg - 350,100 kg - 425 g, etc. (with periodic application of organic fertilizers).
The determination of doses of mineral fertilizers, taking into account the content of nutrients in them, is carried out according to the table. 5.
Table 5. Determination of the dose of fertilizer
|The nutrient content of fertilizers,% AI||The dose of nutrients, g / m 2|
Calculation example. It is necessary to make 6 g of d. on the area of 1 m 2 of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Available - ammonium nitrate, simple superphosphate and potassium chloride. It is known that the nutrient content in ammonium nitrate is 34%. According to the table, we find the intersection of the number 34 in the first column with the number 6 in the sixth column. The dose of ammonium nitrate is 17.6 g. We perform the same operation to determine the doses of the remaining fertilizers. Superphosphate contains an average of 20% d.v., the dose will be 30 g, potassium chloride - 60% d.v., the dose will be 10 g.
When calculating fertilizer application rates for fruiting trees, it is necessary to take into account the soil content system in a particular garden plot: black steam, steam-sideral or sod-humus with sowing perennial grasses, mowing them often and leaving the mowed mass in place as mulch.
Siderata most often sown in the second half of summer (end of July), when the growth of trees ends. The incorporation of green mass is carried out in late autumn or early spring. The positive effect of siderates lasts 2. 3 years, so the sowing is carried out after 1. 2 years, subject to good moisture supply. The use of a steam-sideral or sod-humus system replaces the application of organic fertilizers, but does not exclude mineral fertilizers, taking into account the needs of not only fruit plants, but also sown herbs.
With moderate and weak laying of generative buds for better fertilization of flowers and preservation in the future, it is good to conduct foliar dressing with microelement solutions at the beginning of mass flowering at a concentration of: borax - 1, zinc sulfate - 0.1. 0.2, manganese sulfate - 0.2 g / l or a mixture of all three trace elements with a halving dose of manganese and zinc. To enhance the effect, NPK is added to microelements per 10 l of water: ammonium nitrate - 20 or urea - 15, superphosphate (dissolved in warm water for an hour) - 100, potassium chloride - 20. 30 or potassium sulfate - 30. 40 g Spray with fine spray (in the form of dew), preventing the solution from dripping onto the soil.
Two weeks after flowering, foliar top dressing can be repeated by doubling the concentration of the solution.
Proper soil fertilization is the first step to high yields
People are used to treating the earth as something inanimate. However, soil is a natural "body" in which reactions associated with living organisms constantly occur. And it is very important that this “body” be saturated with the most important macro- and microelements. Otherwise, we will deal with a barren desert, unable to feed the rapidly growing population of the planet.
Our participation in the “life” and nutrition of the soil begins with the introduction of fertilizer. Wild and - especially! - Agricultural plants annually remove huge amounts of macronutrients from the earth. To make up for them in a natural way, nature needs a long time. But a person cannot be expected: he must regularly receive high and high-quality crops for personal consumption or for sale. And without making mineral products he can not do.
How to feed your land and saturate crops with the help of macro- and microelements, we will tell in this material!
Fertilizer application rates per 1 ha: the nuances of effective rations
There are three main macronutrients necessary for the normal development of green organisms. This is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - or, according to Dmitry Mendeleev’s table, NPK. These substances are contained in mineral fertilizers, which are actively used in agriculture, horticulture, gardening and the cultivation of ornamental crops.
There are single products on the market (they contain one specific macroelement), as well as complex products. In complex fertilizers, there is a place for each of these batteries. Moreover, their concentration can be very different, depending on the needs of green organisms.
Indeed, the most difficult part in optimizing the “diet” is that there is no single recipe for success. Before you start to make drugs, you must consider the following factors:
- the size of the planned harvest (in the case of the agricultural business). For example, to form one ton of winter wheat grain, 37 kg of nitrogen fertilizers, 13 kg of phosphorus and 23 kg of potash are needed. Accordingly, the higher the planned yield - the higher NPK consumption rates should be guided,
- individual characteristics. This is the "key" that determines the correctness of any calculation. Different cultures have different ability to absorb nutrients - primarily because of the root system. For example, in tomatoes, it is weak and does not absorb nutrients well. And carrots - quite powerful and branched. Therefore, the same doses will affect the development of these cultures in different ways,
- developmental phase. When crops are gaining green mass, nitrogen is paramount. But when the crop ripens - including sugar beets, potatoes, fruit and berry crops - they are in dire need of potash fertilizers,
- soil analysis results. It is important not only to know in what volumes a particular battery element is contained, but also how accessible it is. Often, farmers are faced with the fact that their soil, for example, is rich in phosphorus. But it is in an inaccessible form and is not absorbed by "green organisms." In this case, it is important to balance minerals so that they do not experience a deficiency in them.
Dates to keep to
Autumn and spring are the best time to properly "feed" the soil. To do this, you can use organic fertilizer - whether it be manure, bird droppings, compost or something else. However, not all farms have "organic". In addition, given the preference for manure, it is difficult to calculate the doses that will bring real benefits.
It is not surprising that minerals synthesized in factories are much more widespread in agriculture. In the fall, these fertilizers are introduced as the main source of nutrition for wintering plants. They have a prolonged effect and last until spring, until vegetation resumes and a new, more powerful “feed” with minerals is required.
But back to the autumn work! Complete products are recommended for use at this time. Nitrogen affects the growth and development of culture. Phosphorus is assigned the role of an “improver” of soil structure; in addition, it activates the processes of nitrogen assimilation. As for potassium, it takes part in intercellular metabolism and is involved in the accumulation of carbohydrates necessary for successful wintering. In spring, you can use the “mineral water” when snow has fallen, on frozen soil. For this, ammonium nitrate and liquid nitrogen fertilizer CAS are best suited. For now, we must forget about complex mineral products: the fact is that the appropriateness of their use in the cold season is minimized.
But in the future, crops may need other macrocells. If we talk about phosphate fertilizers, the leading position is given to superphosphate - simple and double. These are universal remedies for almost any crop, including vegetable, fruit and decorative.
In addition, in the spring, plants need potassium: it is highly mobile and is quickly washed out of plant tissues. Moreover, the maximum concentration of potassium is found in young growing parts. The use of optimal doses of this macrocell allows to achieve better flowering and fruit formation, improves the appearance of ornamental crops and the quality of the crop.
Doses: why it is important not to overdo it
So we come to an important topic: NPK usage standards. Many beginner gardeners think “I bring in the maximum products - and I get the same amount!” But in the case of living green organisms this rule does not apply. Busting is sometimes worse than a deficit, and this should be remembered when conducting root dressing. An excess of any battery can lead to the following symptoms and consequences:
- nitrogen. Crops look too “powerful”, have a rich green color and a large vegetative mass. This increases the susceptibility to pathogens. Flowering, as well as ripening of fruits / grain is delayed, yields are formed insignificant, worse quality. With excess liquid ammonia top dressing in vegetable crops, the accumulation of nitrates harmful to human health occurs,
- phosphorus. Leaves begin to turn yellow, prematurely grow old and fall off. Increases the sensitivity of plants to water shortages,
- potassium. Its excess prevents the flow of nitrogen. As a result, plant growth is slowed down, leaves turn pale and yellow, mosaic spots and burns appear on the surface, after which they fall prematurely.
Thus, it is recommended to add exactly as much nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as various plants need in certain phases of their development and depending on the composition of the soil. A universal formula does not exist: one should rely on soil analysis and conduct leaf diagnostics.
And now the following question arises: how to fertilize the earth? Carry out the incorporation of drugs into the ground or use them by scattering application? Let's try to figure it out!
Effective Application Technology
We have already said: snow melting in spring is the first sign that NPK can be used in dispersed ways. This procedure is very simple.But you need to remember that with a surface local application, part of the macrocells will be washed out. And it is not known how much will fall into the root zone and will be available to green organisms. Therefore, in the case of surface depositing, there is a risk that part of the money spent on the mineral water will leak along with melt water. It is known that with a steepness of the slopes of only 2 °, nitrogen losses can reach 20%.
The following method is part of such a global concept of “pre-sowing tillage” and is relevant for those who are just going to sow or plant a cultivated plant. So, the sowing application of NPK. This process is very complicated and recommended in the presence of modern agricultural machinery, since manually a good effect can not be achieved.
It looks like this: simultaneously with seeds, macrocells are introduced into the soil, after which they are immediately closed up. With the tape application in question, NPK does not come in direct contact with the seed: this can cause burns and severe inhibition of the culture. This is an important advantage, because with local treatments it is possible to create a soil layer. Through it, a gradually growing root system and is in contact with the focus of fertilizer.
There are many pluses in the sowing fertilizer of the soil. So, by local application of monopreparations, it is possible to eliminate the deficit of individual nutrients in the soil: a similar problem is characteristic not only of large farmland, but also in private gardens.
In addition, sowing fertilizer allows you to achieve good results even at low flow rates. However, you need to understand that NPK is not a panacea, and this formula does not solve all the problems associated with plant nutrition. What to do? Use sheet liquid top dressing!
Rules for Efficient Leaf Nutrition
There are times when the root system is not able to absorb macro elements contained in the soil. The reasons are very different: either unheated land, or severe drought, or an underdeveloped underground part of plants. And even worse - a combination of factors: in this case, the roots almost cease to fulfill their natural function.
Eliminate nutritional deficiency in such critical conditions with foliar feeding by Lignohumates. This technique has several advantages:
- penetration of active substances through the leaf occurs faster than through the roots,
- the diverse composition of Lignohumate (it contains humic and fulvic acids, macro- and microelements, phytohormones, amino acids and polysaccharides) allows plants not only to “saturate” crops, but also to remove them from stress,
- Lignohumates are used with equal efficiency in agriculture, horticulture, gardening, decorative design, and even when growing indoor plants.
The use of Lignohumate does not exclude the main introduction of mineral preparations. But it helps to optimize nutrient intake and slightly reduce consumption rates. Hence, there is a double effect: plants develop in a “vigorous” mode, and the enterprise’s budget experiences less stress, saving on purchases of an expensive “mineral water”.
General fertilizer recommendations
Proper systematic tillage and fertilizing ensures year after year improvement of its fertility and increase crop yields.
The soil fertilizer system includes: the main fertilizer, sowing (in the grooves or in the holes) or inoculum (in the holes) fertilizer, as well as regular and corrective feeding during the growing season.
You need to know that at different stages of life, plants consume nutrients in different quantities.
During the period of active growth - from the moment of seed germination until the formation of the first flowers - the plants absorb nitrogen most of all, since it is a building material in the formation of plant tissue.
During the formation of generative organs - flower buds, peduncles, buds, flowers - most plants need phosphorus.
During the preparation of plants for winter - an important role is played by potassium.
What can compost do? Compost made according to all the rules performs many different functions. First of all, this is the best organic fertilizer. Manure is also good, but in our time manure is not available for the gardener due to the lack of cows in the nearest village or too expensive. And you can always have your own compost. The value of compost is not only that it serves as food for microorganisms and plants, but also that it is a concentrate of soil microflora. By adding compost to the soil, we not only fertilize it, but also revitalize it.
The use of compost also lies in the fact that the plants fertilized by it are highly resistant to pests and diseases. Resistance to diseases is explained by the fact that fungi living in compost produce antibiotics. They inhibit the activity of pathogenic bacteria in the soil. Antibiotics absorbed by the roots enter the aerial part of the plants and protect it from infection. Predator mushrooms with long sticky threads also live in compost. These threads, piercing the compost, serve as a trap for nematodes. The filaments form rings that hold the nematode that got into them and gradually digest it. Therefore, compost is considered the best cure for nematodes.
Infusion of compost can spray the leaves. It serves as foliar top dressing and a tonic, healing agent. Compost infusion is very rich in microflora, especially mature compost made with the addition of manure. The microflora of compost is an antagonist of pathogenic microflora. Spraying plants with this infusion reduces the spread of a number of fungal diseases - scab on apple trees, powdery mildew on cucumbers. There is evidence that compost infusion can inhibit the development of late blight on potatoes. But only fully ripened compost has this effect.
There is evidence of gardeners using compost that their potatoes are almost undamaged by the Colorado potato beetle. Even if a beetle appears on plantings, it almost does not eat leaves and does not lay eggs, since the leaves are not tasty for it. In terms of taste, the Colorado potato beetle is quite picky. In much the same way, cabbage butterflies are careful not to lay eggs on the leaves of cabbage grown on compost. Instinctively, they feel that this is not a very suitable food for their tracks.
When using fertilizers, you must also adhere to the following recommendations:
- Do not go to extremes using only organics or only mineral mixtures.
- Observe the measure in the application of both organic and mineral fertilizers.
- Try to apply complex mineral fertilizers, that is, those that contain both macro- and microelements.
- During the autumn application of organic fertilizer, it decomposes more slowly and its incorporation into the humus is more intensive and contributes to the creation of soil fertility to a greater extent. If you regularly make compost or manure in the fall, you can create a real black soil in your garden.
- With spring application, organic fertilizer decomposes faster and better supplies plants with soluble nutrients. This is important for plants, since spring and early summer are a period of active growth requiring abundant nutrition. Thus, autumn fertilizing makes a greater contribution to soil fertility, spring - to plant nutrition. Both are important.
- It’s better to do this: make compost or manure in the fall, and in spring and summer feed the plants with liquid fertilizers. It is good to make liquid fertilizers from infusions of nettle, manure or compost, and to enrich them, add ash, phosphorite flour or superphosphate to them. Option: make the majority of the dose of organics in the fall, and the rest in the spring.
- Give soil samples for analysis (content of humus, nutrients, acidity), at least once every 4-5 years.
- It is not recommended to use the same type of fertilizer all season.
- Pay attention to the percentage of nitrogen. If it is in fertilizer more than 5%, the fertilizer can be used from spring to July 15. After July 15, fertilizers without nitrogen or those in which it is not more than 5% are chosen (for example, Kemira Autumn). This recommendation is valid for all perennial fruit and ornamental crops (but not vegetable).
- Observe the rules for mixing fertilizers. So, for example, you cannot mix urea with ammonium nitrate, and nitrophosk with potassium chloride. Do not store the resulting mixture for a long time.
- To apply fertilizers, adhering to the principle: "it is better not to add salt than to salt," especially since fertilizers are not cheap now.
- To fertilize fractionally, several times a season, taking into account the characteristics of each crop.
- In sunny, warm weather, fertilizers are absorbed by plants faster, so feeding should be done more often - 1 time per week. If the weather is cloudy, cold, fertilizer absorption is slower, top dressing should be carried out 1 time in 10-14 days. If you act on this principle and observe the dosage, there will be no danger of the accumulation of nitrates.
Fertilizer doses for berry crops (for soils of medium degree of availability with mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium)
organic (manure, compost), kg / m 2
red, white currants, gooseberries, chokeberry
First year of fruiting
The second year of fruiting
The third year of fruiting
For example, under blackcurrant, it is required to add 9 g of d. nitrogen (N), phosphorus and 6 g of potassium. We have at our disposal a nitroammophosk containing 13% nitrogen and 19% phosphorus and potassium. The calculation of the dose of nitroammophos is carried out for potassium, which will be: 6x100 = 31.6 g 19
The missing amount of nitrogen and phosphorus (3 g a.e.) is replenished with urea (46% N) - 6.5 and simple superphosphate (20% P2ABOUT5) - 15 g. Therefore, under a blackcurrant in a total of 1 m 2 of nutritional area, 31.6 g of nitroammophoska, 6.5 g of urea and 15 g of simple superphosphate must be added.
If the degree of provision with phosphorus and potassium is the same, then the doses recommended in the table are multiplied by correction factors corresponding to the soil of a particular site. In the event that the degree of provision with these elements is different, then the coefficients for recalculating the doses of nitrogen and organic fertilizers are taken from the column of the table here where the supply is the smallest. For example, in the soil of the plot contains 24 milligrams of phosphorus and 6.2 milligrams of potassium, which corresponds in the first case to a high, and in the second to a low degree of security. It is expected to get 65 kilograms of apples from a tree. Recommended doses for the average availability of soil and this crop per 1 square. meter are: organic - 2.5 kilograms, nitrogen - 15 grams, phosphorus - 12, potassium - 18 grams. For our example, the adjusted doses of fertilizers will be: organic - 3.1 kilograms (2.5 x 1.25), nitrogen -18.8 grams (15 x 1.25), phosphorus - 6 (12 x 0.5), potassium - 22.5 grams (18 x 1.25). Now it is necessary to make a conversion from the active substance to the available fertilizers and make them in the soil.
Recommended doses of fertilizers are designed for average crop yields. If it is expected to be higher (during the period of full fruiting from one plant of sea buckthorn - over 9 kg, chokeberry - 12, black currant - 4, red and white currant - 4, gooseberry - 6 and 1 m 2 raspberries, strawberries 1-2 kg), then the dose should be increased by 25%.
Approximate doses of fertilizers of "rare" crops - edible honeysuckle, lemongrass and actinidia are shown in the table.
The main fertilizer is applied when plowing or cultivating the soil before sowing or planting vegetables in autumn or spring. On humus-poor soils of the Non-chernozem zone, the main fertilizer usually includes, in addition to mineral fertilizers, also organic (manure, compost, peat, etc.)
According to the data of 1–112, Y. Pantielev, 1986, in conventional agricultural technology, 1 kg of the active substance of complex mineral fertilizers gives an increase in yield: late cabbage - up to 40 kg, table beets - up to 30, carrots - up to 25, cauliflower - up to 15, green (radish, lettuce) - up to 10 kg.
Organic Fertilizer Application
Composts with plant debris should be applied in autumn, especially for early crops. Under cucumber and pumpkin, which respond well to CO 2 and heat, manure and peat-and-manure compost is best done under spring plowing or cultivation. Organic fertilizers should be applied in the warm period - either in early autumn or in spring, when the soil is already warm. It is proved 1–112, Y. Pantielev, 1986 2-3 kg / sq. Of manure or peat-and-manure compost with this application is more effective than a double, and sometimes a triple dose of these fertilizers, introduced in early spring, when they freeze and lose up to 30-50 % of nutrients. Many farmers on light sandy and sandy loamy soils bring manure and rotted compost in the spring, believing that humus is significantly washed out of the soil during the winter.
Fresh manure is best introduced in early autumn. It is recommended to smell it immediately after transportation to the site to a depth of 10-13 cm (on light soils - 14-18 cm). Plants that are too deeply scented may not be used.
Humus manure or compost can be applied superficially (mulch), laying it out with a layer no thicker than 5 cm (on sandy loam - 8 cm).
Depending on the applied crop rotation scheme and other conditions, organic fertilizers are applied either annually, or after a year, or once every 3-4 years, increasing the dose accordingly. The poorer the soil, the more organic fertilizer is required.
Celery, pumpkin, cucumber, late cabbage, spinach, asparagus are most responsive to organic fertilizers. Therefore, manure and other organic fertilizers should be applied primarily under these, as well as perennial vegetable crops. When using compost, these doses should be increased 1.5–2 times. From manure, plants can fatten: shoots grow violently, leaves become dark green, twisted downward, the fruits are not tied. Therefore, tomato and other nightshade, root vegetables, onions, early and cauliflower instead of manure make humus or compost.
Often, the gardener does not have enough time to wait for the compost to fully ripen, and therefore deals with raw, incompletely decomposed compost. Such compost can not be applied directly under the plants, as it can have a negative effect on them. Bean, green crops, root crops and medicinal plants are especially poorly tolerated by raw compost. Therefore, crude compost is usually applied to the soil in autumn or spring and no later than a month before sowing or planting. Raw compost is evenly distributed over the surface of loose and weed-free soil and then rake or hoe is repaired to a depth of about 10 cm. Instead of embedding in the soil, compost can be covered with a 5-7 cm mulch layer. The main thing is that it does not dry out and the conditions for life of microorganisms. However, if organic matter is shed by an EM solution using EM technology that accelerates decay, this rule can be neglected.
Autumn application is especially recommended for very light sandy or very heavy clay soils, in which compost improves their physical properties and stimulates the vital activity of soil organisms. In light soils, it increases water absorption, in heavy soils - water permeability.
Raw compost in autumn is covered with tree-trunk circles of fruit trees and the soil around berry bushes, and on top they are covered with mulch from grass or leaves (leaves not from fruit trees on which pathogens remain). It is recommended to spill with EM-solution. This serves not only as fertilizer, but also as a protection of the root system from freezing.
In household plots of nitrogen fertilizers, ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, and calcium nitrate are most often used.
Ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate) is produced in the form of white granules, it contains 34 - 35% nitrogen.It dissolves well in water and quickly acts on plants, but it cakes during storage, so it is stored in a dry place. Promotes acidification of the soil. The dose of 15 to 25 g per 1 m 2.
Urea (urea) - concentrated fertilizer containing 46% nitrogen. It is well soluble in water, cakes during storage. Urea is used as the main fertilizer with incorporation into the soil under a shovel (10 - 20 g per 1 m 2), as well as for foliar fertilizing (50 g per 10 l of water).
Ammonium sulfate (ammonium sulfate) - a crystalline substance of white or gray color, containing 20.5 - 21% nitrogen, is soluble in water. Since ammonium sulfate is well retained by the soil, it can be applied in the fall as the main fertilizer. During the growing season, ammonium sulfate is used as top dressing. Acidifies the soil. Dose 30 - 40 g per 1 m 2.
Calcium nitrate (calcium nitrate, calcium nitrate) - alkaline fertilizer, produced in the form of granules, contains 15.5% nitrogen. Dose 30 - 50 g per 1 m 2.
The most common phosphate fertilizers are superphosphate and phosphate rock, which are used as the main fertilizer.
Superphosphate available in the form of light gray powder and granules, it contains 10% of digestible phosphoric acid from apatite and 14% from phosphorite. It is soluble in water, does not increase the acidity of the soil. Dose 40 - 60 g per 1 m 2.
Phosphorite flour - powder of dark gray or brown color, contains 19-30% soluble phosphoric acid, poorly soluble in water. Phosphate rock flour should not be added at the same time as lime. Dose 30 - 40 g per 1 m 2.
Of these, potassium chloride, potassium salt, potassium sulfate, and also ash are usually used.
Potassium chloride - white with a grayish tint or pinkish crystalline powder containing about 60% potassium oxide. Dose 15 - 20 g per 1 m 2.
Potassium salt - a mixture of potassium chloride with ground sylvinite (potassium oxide 30 - 40%). Dose 30 - 40 g per 1 m 2.
Potassium sulfate - concentrated fertilizer, which is a crystalline friable white powder with a yellow tint, containing 48% potassium oxide. It is well dissolved in water. Dose 20 - 25 g per 1 m 2.
Ash - a valuable fertilizer in which the main trace elements are present. The presence of calcium allows you to use it to neutralize the soil. Vegetable ash is used at the rate of 300 g per 1 m 2, wood ash - 700 g per 1 m 2.
IN integrated fertilizers have two or more basic nutrient elements, sometimes microelements are also introduced into their composition.
Ammophos produced in the form of granules and powder, contains 44 - 52% of digestible phosphoric acid and 10 - 11% of nitrogen. Dose 20 - 30 g per 1 m 2.
Diammophos contains 46% digestible phosphoric acid and 18% nitrogen. Dose 20 - 30 g per 1 m 2.
Nitroammofoska contains 13 - 17% nitrogen, 10% phosphoric acid and potassium oxide. Dose 70 - 80 g per 1 m 2.
Crystalline (rastrin) - a rapidly dissolving fertilizer. The industry produces four grades of crystallin with a content of 10 - 20% nitrogen, 2.2 - 17.5% phosphorus, 8.3 - 16.6% potassium. Fertilizer is best used for dressing.
In addition to the listed complex fertilizers, there are various mixtures (fruit and berry, garden and others). They are also used as liquid top dressing.
The most important characteristic of a mineral fertilizer is the content of the active substance in it - that part of the fertilizer that plants use. Since the norms and doses of fertilizers are indicated in the active substance, you need to know how to convert the dose of fertilizer from the active substance to the specific type of fertilizer available. For example, on 10 m 2 it is recommended to add 50 g of phosphorus (in the active substance - P2ABOUT5) In the presence of granular superphosphate with a content of 20% P2ABOUT5 its dose will be:
(50 · 100) / 20 = 250 g per 10 m 2 .
For convenience, you can use the data in table 1, where all calculations have already been made.
Table 1. Determination of fertilizer dose based on nutrient content
|The active substance in fertilizer,%||The dose of fertilizer in the active substance, g per 10 m 2|
Note. The dose of fertilizer (g per 10 m 2) is expressed by the number at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal graph.