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Cuban Trogon

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trogoniformes - n. m. pl. ORNITH Ordre d oiseaux tropicaux aux couleurs irisées, à longue queue, au bec court. Sing Un trogoniforme ... Encyclopédie Universelle

Trogoniformes - Trogoniformes ... Wikipédia en Français

Trogoniformes - Trogone Goldkopftrogon (Pharomachrus auriceps) Systematik Klasse: Vögel (Aves) ... Deutsch Wikipedia

Trogoniformes - trogoniniai paukščiai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Trogoniformes angl. trogons vok. Trogone rus. Crowned pranc. trogoniformes ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šiuolaikiniai paukščiai siauresnis terminas - ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

trogoniformes - trogoniniai paukščiai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Trogoniformes angl. trogons vok. Trogone rus. Crowned pranc. trogoniformes ryšiai: platesnis terminas - šiuolaikiniai paukščiai siauresnis terminas - ... ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Trogoniformes - noun trogons • Syn: ↑ order Trogoniformes • Hypernyms: ↑ animal order • Member Holonyms: ↑ Aves, ↑> Useful english dictionary

trogoniformes - ► masculino plural ZOOLOGÍA Orden de aves que comprende la familia trogón> Enciclopedia Universal

order trogoniformes - noun trogons • Syn: ↑ Trogoniformes • Hypernyms: ↑ animal order • Member Holonyms: ↑ Aves, ↑> Useful english dictionary

Couroucou - Trogon> Wikipédia en Français

Evolution and Taxonomy

Fossil Masillatrogon in messel

Position Trogon inside the class Aves had a long secret. These various relationships have been proposed, including parrots, cuckoos, toucans, Yakamarov and pukhovkov, roller, owl and the goats. More recent morphological and molecular evidence suggested a relationship with Mouse birds. The unique arrangement of the toes (see morphology and flight) has led many to consider Trogonas having no close relatives, and to put them in your order, perhaps with the same atypical mouse birds like their immediate family.

The earliest formally described fossil brain specimen from Fur Education in Denmark. Other fossils Crowned were found in Messel from the middle of the Eocene in Germany, in the Oligocene stones from Switzerland and the Miocene of France. To the old New World fossil trogon consists of relatively recent Pleistocene. DNA data confirms African descent trogons, of African descent Apaloderma it would seem commonplace in the family there are two other lines, Asia and America, the gap between 20-36 million years ago. Trogonoid are divided into three subfamilies, each of which reflects one of these branches, Aplodermatinae is an African subfamily and contains one genus, Apaloderma, Harpactinae - Asian subfamily and contains two genera, Harpactes and Apalharpactes. Apalharpactesconsisting of two species in Java and Sumatrahas only recently been accepted as a separate genus from Harpactes.

The rest of the subfamilies, Serbia and Trogonidaecontains the remaining four genera, Trogon, Priotelus, Pharomachrus and Eupilotis. Two Caribbean Species Priotelus used to be different (Temnotrogon in Haiti) and very ancient. Two quetzal childbirth Pharomachrus and Eupilotis possibly derived from the final and most numerous kind Trogon in the neotropics, Trogon. In 2008, a study of genetics Trogon the proposed genus originated in Central America and is radiated in South America after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (as part of the Great American Exchange), thus making Trogon relatively recent arrivals from South America.

Distribution and location of habitats

trogon habitat

Cuban Trogon it is one of two species of living islands The Caribbean. Most trogonsbirdstropical and subtropical forests. They have a cosmopolitan distribution in the world of humid tropics, were found in South America, Africa and Of asia. Several species, common in the temperate zone, Elegant trogonreaching the south of the USA, in particular the southern state of Arizona and its environs. Bridle African Trogon in Africa, a little exceptional in that it uses a wider range localizationthan any other trogonstarting from a dense forest in a fairly open savannah, and from the Equator to South Africa. He is the most common and successful of all. trogons. Eared Quetzal in Mexico also has the ability to use more xeric localization habitat, but predominantly lives in forests. Most other species are more limited in their localization, several species are limited to undisturbed primary forest. In forests, they are usually located in the middle of the thicket, sometimes in a canopy.

tropics and subtropics

Some species, especially ketsaliAdapted to cool mountain forests. There are a number of island species, they include several species found in the Philippines as well as two monophyletic endemic genus in Cuba and Hispaniola, respectively. Outside South Asia and the Caribbean, however, trogons are generally absent on islands, especially oceanic ones.

Morphology and flight

All Trogons approximately the same in appearance, have compact bodies and long tails (very long in the case of quetzal), and short necks. Trogons vary in size from 23 cm, 40 grams Scarlet supplement Trogon to 40 cm, 210 grams Dazzling quetzal (not including males 3-foot long (0.91 m) streamer tail). Their legs are weak and short, and the trogons, in fact, are not able to walk behind very frequent branches. They are even unable to turn on branches without using their wings. The ratio of leg muscles to body weight in trogon - only 3%, the smallest known ratio of any birds. Skeletons trogons surprisingly slender, in particular skulls, which are very thin. In plumage, many species are rainbow, although most Asian species are not. African trogon usually green, on the back, with a red belt. Current trogons likewise, green or navy blue at the top but more diverse at its bottom. The Asian appearance is usually red at the bottom and brown backs.

Wings are short but strong, muscle ratio wings makes up about 22% of body weight. Despite the strength of their flight, trogons do not fly often, or over long distances, as a rule, fly no more than a few hundred meters at a time. Only mountain views, as a rule, make long-distance flights. Short flights tend to be direct and fast, but longer flights are slightly wavy. Their flight may be surprisingly silent (for observers), although several species are reportedly quite noisy.

Vote

Voices at trogons usually loud and uncomplicated, consisting of monosyllabic screams and whistles, are issued in a different structure and sequence. Vote quetzal Caribbean are the most difficult. Among the Asian genera of Sumatran Trogon (Apalharpactes) has the most atypical voices. The voices of other Asian births, Harpactesare homogeneous. In addition to localization and reproduction, the voices of males and females were recorded during the breeding season, trogons were recorded as having calls of aggression, given males and voices of anxiety.

Behavior

Trogonstend to be inactive outside rare feeding flights. Among bird watchers, biologists, it was noted that part of their Great Beauty, they are notorious ... for their lack of other attractive qualities. Their lack of activity is perhaps a defense against predators, and their heads, which, like owls can rotate 180 degrees to observe.

Diet and diet

Trogons they feed mainly on insects, other arthropods, and fruits, to a lesser extent, on some small vertebrates, such as lizards. Among insects, caterpillars are considered one of the most important type of prey, along with cuckoos, trogons - one of the few groups birds regularly hunting them. The degree to which each type of food is preferred varies more depending on geography localization and species. Three African species trogons exclusively insectivorous, while in Asian and American genera they consume various amounts of fruit. Diet correlates somewhat with size, large species are fed more with fruits, and small species focus on insects.

The victim is almost always caught in flight. The most commonly used feeding technique - Sally - pick up in flight, where trogon catches flies, looking for targets on other branches or in foliage. This type of feeding is commonly used in some species. birdsto get into the prey of insects, have trogons and quetzal it is also used to pick fruit from a tree. Frogs, lizards and large insects on the ground can also be caught by attack from the air. More rarely what trogon can shuffle from branch to branch to get insects, insect eggs, occasionally nesting birds. Violet touch consumes wasps and wasp larvae arising from digging nests.

Breeding

tohorna nest in a hollow tree

Trogons nest in the cavity of the nest. Jacks are in rotting wood or termite mounds, from one species, Violet touchnests in hornet's nests. Nests can be located deep above, oblique pipes, which will lead to complete closure of the chamber, or, even smaller, open niches (of which the bird is visible). Nests are getting ready the beakby the way giving the family her name. The nest can be dug by the male alone or as a pair together. In the case when the nests are hollowed out in the trunks of the trees, the wood should be strong enough not to collapse, but soft enough to dig. Trogons they sit on dead tree trunks and slam their tails on wood, presumably for hardness testing.

Trogon nests smooth. Tab two to four eggs. These are round, and usually glossy white or slightly colored (gray, blue or green), although they become more and more dirty during the incubation period. Both parents incubate eggs (except, in the case of Unshooted Trogon, where, apparently, the male is not involved), with the male, taking one long incubation period per day, and the females incubate the rest of the time.

The incubation period begins after the last egg laid. Incubation period depends on the species, usually lasting 16-19 days. When hatching chicks - blind and naked. Chicks in rocks they fledge quickly, in case of Mountain Trogon in a week, but more slowly, in a species like Black-haired trogonwhich may take twice as long. The period of the chick varies depending on the species and size, in small species, as a rule, taking 16 to 17 days in volume, while larger species may take up to 30 days, although 23-25 ​​days, is more typical.

Relationship with people

Trogons and ketsali are considered "the most beautiful birds“But they are also often withdrawn and rarely seen. Little is known to a large extent about their biology, and much of what is known about them comes from studies of neotropical species by ornithologistand Alexander Skutch. Trogonsnonetheless popular birds for ornithologists and enter the ecotourism industry, in particular, to view quetsaleth in Central America.

Cuban trogon spread

Cuban Trogon is an endemic species of the island of Cuba.

It is found in the provinces of Oriente and the Sierra Maestre. It lives in the mountainous places of the Sierra del Escambray. This species of bird is distributed in Santa Clara. Occasionally observed in the Sierra del los Organos Mountains and in the province of Pinar del Rio. The Cuban trogon lives on the territory of several small islands located in the Caribbean Sea.

Habitats of the Cuban Trogon

The Cuban trogon lives in all forest areas, wet and dry. Distributed in old forests, degraded forests, shrubs near rivers. This species of bird is usually hidden in the crowns of trees. It inhabits pine forests with tall pines. It occurs in a wide variety of places, but prefers mountain areas.

Cuban Trogon is an endemic species of the island of Cuba.

External signs of the Cuban trogon

The Cuban trogon is a small bird with a body size of 23-25 ​​cm and a weight of 47-75 gr. The tail length is about fifteen centimeters.

The plumage in the upper part is blue-green, iridescent from the back to the base of the tail. The tail feathers are blue - dark green, two-layered. Large white spots on the webs and white grooves of the outer primary feathers are visible on the upper part of the wings.

Above the tail, blue-dark green. The tail feathers have a special shape. The ends of the feathers in the center are like shreds, and the ends of three pairs of tail feathers have an external blackish base with white recesses. They go beyond the outer edge, it is clearly visible from the bottom of the tail. In addition, tail feathers, superimposed in layers, form a convex pattern. Such a tail is characteristic of all representatives of trogons. The color of the plumage of the female and male is the same. The lower part of the body, the chest is grayish-white, while the plumage on the belly is red to the very undertail. The tail feathers are white.

This species of bird is usually hidden in the crowns of trees.

The plumage of the head and face has a black tint, while the crown and nape of the head are blue-violet. The cheekbones, sides of the neck, chin and throat are white.

Bill is reddish, culmen is dark gray. The length of the tongue is at least 10 mm, this is a special device for feeding nectar. The iris is red. Paws and fingers of a rosâtres with black claws. The beak is dark red. In the Cuban trogon, the first and second toes are directed backward, while the third and fourth are turned forward. This arrangement of fingers is characteristic of trogons, and is necessary for sitting on branches. In this case, the fingers tightly cover the shoot. The female and the male have the same color of plumage, only the dark red belly is colored paler. The body dimensions of the female are slightly smaller than the male. The feather cover of young Cuban trogons is not described.

Cuban Trogon - a small bird

Subspecies of the Cuban Trogon

Two subspecies of the Cuban trogon are officially recognized:

  1. P. t. temnurus lives on the island of Cuba, including extensive shallows in the northern province of Camaguey (Guajaba and Sabinal).
  2. P. t. vescus is distributed on the island of Youth (Isle of Pines). The size of the individuals of this subspecies is smaller, but the beak is longer.

Features of the behavior of the Cuban trogon

Cuban trogons mainly live in pairs and spend most of their time sitting motionless in one erect posture. Birds are generally more active in the early morning and late afternoon. When eating easily soar.

The basis of the diet of Cuban trogons is nectar, buds and flowers.

They lead a sedentary lifestyle, make local seasonal movements within forests, shrubby habitats and neighboring areas of vegetation. Such migrations are due to the presence of food in a particular area. The flight at the Cuban trogons is undulating and noisy. Even one pair of birds can make loud screams. Males sing on a tree branch, during the performance of the song his tail is seized by a restless tremor.

In addition, the Cuban trogons imitate hoarse barking, giggling, emitting menacing cries and sad trills.

Cuban trogons live mainly in pairs

Reproduction of the Cuban Trogon

Cuban trogons breed in the period from May to August. This species of bird is monogamous. In many species of Trogonidés, pairs form for only one season and then decay. During the mating season, in flight, the birds show a colorful plumage of the face, wings and tail with the effect of gilding. These flights are accompanied by singing, which scares off competitors from the nesting area. Aggressive sound signals are designed for other males.

Cuban trogons nest in the natural voids in the trees.

Often choose a crack in a stump or a hollow in a rotting trunk. Both birds equip the nest. There are three or four bluish - white eggs in the clutch. The female incubates clutch for 17-19 days. The offspring are fed by a female and a male. They bear fruit, berries, flowers, nectar and insects. Young trogons leave the nest after 17-18 days, when they are already able to independently obtain food.

The maintenance of the Cuban trogon in captivity

The colorful plumage of the Cuban trogon attracts the attention of many bird lovers. But this species of bird has not adapted to survival in a cage or in an aviary. At first, feathers fall out, then they stop eating and die.

Cuban trogons breed in the period from May to August.

Specialization of nutrition and reproduction under certain conditions make it impossible to maintain Cuban trogons in the cell.

The conservation status of the Cuban trogon

The Cuban Trogon is a fairly widespread bird species in Cuba. On Guajaba, Romano and Sabinal is less common. Also rare on the Jardines del Rey archipelago (Sabana Camaguey).

Subspecies P. t. vescus was once widely settled in the southern part of Pen Island, but its presence in these places is now rare. The number of individuals is stable and is estimated at 5000 pairs. There are no visible threats to the existence of the species. The Cuban trogon has the status of a species with minimal threats to numbers.

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Trogonoid

Trogon

Pharomachrus auriceps
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Eumetazoi
Infraclass:Newborn
Squad:Trogonoid (Trogoniformes Wetmore & Miller, 1926)
Family:Trogon
International scientific name

Trigonovs or trones (lat. Trogonidae) - a treasure (family) of newborn birds, the only one in the squad trophoid (Trogoniformes). The most ancient fossil remains of the carrion-like belong to the Ypresian Eocene.

Spread

In appearance - typical tropical birds. They have a very bright color of plumage, in which green, red or blue tones predominate (usually with a metallic sheen), plumage is loose. They are characterized by medium and large sizes: the body length in most species ranges from 20 to 35 cm (quesal is much larger: it has a body length with a tail of 120 cm). The wings are short and rounded, have 10 primary wing feathers. The tail of the trogons is long; there are 12 tail feathers. The beak is short and wide, the legs are weak, the foregrip is feathered. A distinctive feature of the trogon is the arrangement of the toes: the first and second toes are directed backward, the third and fourth to the front (while in other taxa of birds a different pattern is observed: if two fingers are directed backwards, then this is the first and fourth).

Distribution |

Trogon

Trigonovs or trones (lat. Trogonidae) - a treasure (family) of newborn birds, the only one in the squad trophoid (Trogoniformes). The most ancient fossil remains of the carrion-like belong to the Ypresian Eocene.

Trogon

Pharomachrus auriceps
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Eumetazoi
Infraclass:Newborn
Squad:Trogonoid (Trogoniformes Wetmore & Miller, 1926)
Family:Trogon
International scientific name

Order 30. Trogoniformes - trogoniformes

In appearance, birds of the tropical forests of Africa, Southeast Asia, Central and South America are somewhat reminiscent of jays (see Fig. 131).

Weight 60 - 200 g. Beak in most species is broad at the base, strong, of moderate length, with a slightly curved apex, sometimes ending with a small hook. The edges of the beak are often jagged. Large bristles in the corners of the mouth. The nostrils are holorinal, not through. Skull schizognathic with a large opener. Most species have functioning basipterygoid joints. Cervical vertebrae 15. On the posterior edge of the sternum, 2 pairs of deep notches. Coracoids on the sternum touch. Spade-shaped fork at the end. The muscle formula is AH-. The tarsus is short, partially feathered. The paw is heterodactyl (the only case in the class of birds): the first and second fingers are directed back, the third and fourth are forward. The claws are sharp, large. Carotid artery only left. Larynx tracheo-bronchial, with weak muscles. The tongue is short, slightly flattened. There is no goiter. The muscular stomach is thin-walled, but of a large volume. The cecum is short. The coccygeal gland is not feathered. The skin is very thin, the feathers are weak. The plumage is quite loose. Contour feathers with large side trunks. There is no fluff. The primary wing 10. The wing is eutaxic. The tail is usually long, out of 12 tail. Sometimes the upper covering tail is longer than the tail. The color is very bright, with a metallic tint: mostly green, often with large areas of blue, red, yellow. Females are somewhat dimmer than males; in young birds, the color is less bright.


Fig. 144. Queensal Pharomachrus mocinno Llave

Inhabit rainforests of various types, many species have mastered cultural landscapes. American species, apparently, feed mainly on small fruits that pluck on the fly or sitting on a branch, less often feed on the ground. Species of the Old World feed mainly on insects: usually a bird sits on a branch and, taking off, catches prey in the air, less often pecks insects on branches and on the ground, fruits, seeds are rarely eaten. Monogamy. Both partners are involved in incubating and feeding the chicks. Eggs are laid without laying in natural hollows. In clutch 2 - 3, rarely 4 monochromatic glossy eggs: white, brownish, light blue or greenish. Incubation 17 - 20 days. Chicks hatch naked and blind. Fly out of the nest fully feathered. Even in herbivorous species, chicks, at least in the first half of nesting life, are fed by insects. The only family in the squad Trogonidaeincluding 8 genera with 35 species. In America, there are 21 species of 5 genera: Trogon (12 types) Euptilotis, Pharomachrus (6 types), Priotelus Temnotrogon. Only 3 species of 2 genera live in Africa: Apaloderma and Geterotrogon, in Asia - 11 species of the genus Harpactes.

The likely center of occurrence is the New World, although the earliest fossil remains are found in sediments of the Lower Oligocene - the Upper Eocene of France. 4 fossil species are described. Apparently, we can talk about the distant kinship of trogons, goats, owls, mice and rash-like birds. The trogons are supposedly isolated from the trunk, which later gave rise to owls and goats.

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