In the CIS, 58 species of snakes live, of which 10 species are poisonous to humans. These are representatives of the family of vipers (gyurza, sandy epha, viper, steppe, nosy, Caucasian and Asia Minor), pithead or rattlesnakes - rattlesnakes (common and eastern shchitomordnik) and the family of aspids - Central Asian cobra. Mortality from bites depends on the age of the person, the presence of concomitant diseases, the location of the bite (mortality from bites of cobra and gyurza is 8 - 15%, vipers - 2 - 12%).
As a rule, snakes themselves do not attack a person. They bite for the purpose of self-defense, when a person accidentally steps on them, captures them along with grass or branches of a bush, pursues them. Snake venom is a weapon of attack only on small prey, while protecting a snake it is reluctant to use it. A defense bite is almost always preceded by a demonstration of the threat in one form or another: the cobra becomes in the famous stance, efa creaks with scales, the muzzle vibrates with its tail, and a characteristic hiss is heard from the viper.
A few words about already ordinary: usually coal-black with a bluish tint (different subspecies may vary in color variations), two merged yellow or orange spots adorn the back of the head. The attitude towards them is ambiguous: some people believe that the ugly people bring good luck and avert evil (for example, in Yasnaya Polyana, L.N. Tolstoy’s crawled around all the rooms and no one dared to touch them), others - they run away with fear or shouting “Viper” ! ”Begin with a stick
to kill already. Feature vipersthere is a black zigzag on the back, and the head shows a sign similar to the letter "V", the first letter of its generic name is the genus Vipera. It should be noted other differences between snake and viper:
in snakes the head is streamlined, in vipers it is as if square with a sharply pronounced “zygomatic” profile. Eyes - in vipers, the iris is usually red, the pupil is thin, black, vertical, and in the eyes of the eyes - the iris is yellow, the pupil is round.
Viper (Vipera berus) - the only species of poisonous snakes found in central Russia. The abundance is usually from 2 to 9 individuals per 1 ha. Active from May to September, the length of an adult viper is 60 - 80 cm. The color varies greatly from grayish-blue to black. Snakes do not have good hearing, so they do not have time to “hear” a person’s approach in advance. A viper bite in most cases is a protective response to unexpected anxiety.
Snake venom is produced and contains in special alveolar tube glands. When bitten, the venom is squeezed out through the excretory ducts of the glands and canals (in the cobra) or grooves (in the vipers and rattlesnakes) of poisonous teeth reaching a length of 1-1.5 cm. Poisonous teeth are mobile: they accept a vertical position only when the snake's mouth is open.
Viper snake venoms contain almost the same set of enzymes (phosphalipase, hyaluronidase, leticinase) and non-enzymatic toxins. The main non-enzymatic toxin is viperotoxin. Components of poisons have hemocoagulating properties (DIC develops), cause the destruction of red blood cells. At the injection site, the integrity of the vascular wall is violated (hemorrhages occur), cell necrosis occurs.
The severity of symptoms with snakebites depends on many factors. The most dangerous bites in the neck and head, the higher the air temperature, the faster the intoxication develops, the mortality rate in children reaches 25%. The consequences of a bite also depend on the size of the snake (the bite of large individuals is most dangerous), the seasonal factor ("autumn" snakes are more poisonous), and the individual characteristics of the body.
A very severe pain occurs at the site of the bite, in a few minutes hemorrhagic edema develops, which quickly spreads to neighboring areas. The skin takes on a bluish tint. Around the place of the bite there are bubbles with bloody contents, which later turn into a long healing wound. Gradually, general signs of intoxication increase: weakness, dizziness, nausea, tachycardia, shortness of breath.
When the poison directly enters the bloodstream, local symptoms do not have time to develop, because death comes.
1.Cutting and sucking off the poison. Suction of the poison is recommended in the first minutes after a snake bite, especially in children. To do this, you should widely grab the place of the bite into the fold and quickly squeeze a drop of liquid from the wound, after which the wound becomes yawning, and it is possible to suck out the bloody liquid from it. Suction should be done within 5-7 minutes. Swallowed poison is harmless and is not absorbed by the oral mucosa. If a long prehospital stage is foreseen, it is permissible to conduct 2 cuts of the skin and subcutaneous tissue parallel to each other, 1 to 2 cm long.
2.Carry out a wound treatment, apply a dry dressing, immobilize the limb, if possible cold to the site of the bite.
3.Drink plenty of tea (tea, coffee, broth, water). Alcohol should be discarded.
4.Applying a tourniquet. This manipulation should be abandoned, because most often, the tourniquet is applied incorrectly: it disrupts the lymph and blood circulation, tissue nutrition, which leads to an increase in the healing process. Secondly, when removing a tourniquet that has been on a limb for a long time, shock may occur due to the ingress of tissue decay products into the blood.
1.Examination of the patient, determining the severity of the condition. In case of impaired consciousness, respiratory and cardiac activity, the patient is hospitalized in the intensive care unit.
2.Specific therapy - the appointment of mono - or polyvalent sera. In Russia, the production of the Anti-Viper serum has been mastered (obtained by immunizing horses with snake venom). Anti-snake serum is a complex of antibodies (Ig G) to viperotoxin vipers. It also contains other proteins and oligopeptides (albumin, alpha and beta globulins, Ig M). Therefore, the introduction of sera can cause the development of serious complications - allergic reactions and even anaphylactic shock. Serum is not prescribed for prophylactic purposes in patients whose symptoms of poison are minimal. With viper bites, the use of serum is especially effective in the first hours after a bite. Later administration of sera rarely gives a positive effect.
Meanwhile, snake venom has healing properties. No wonder the emblem of medicine is a snake wrapping a bowl in which a head with a forked tongue is lowered. For a long time already there are preparations made from snake venom, they are used in the treatment of a number of serious diseases, such as asthma, hemophilia. The poison has analgesic properties and is used to prepare drugs such as lebetox, viprasol (gyurza venom), vipraxin (viper venom), which are very effective in treating polyarthritis and some nervous diseases.
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TOP-10 poisonous plants, the poisoning of which is the most dangerous
Poisoning is observed when poisonous plants are used that are similar in appearance to non-toxic ones. For example, bleached can be confused with poppy seeds, because their seeds are very similar. In the forest, you can pick the fruits of a poisonous raven eye instead of blueberries. There are poisonous plants that cause burns when touched. This wolf bast and hogweed, as well as caustic buttercup.
Poisoning with poisonous plants occurs when the following plants are consumed:
Belladonna. All parts of this plant are poisonous, but the highest concentration of poison is in the fruits and roots of the plant. Belladonna is a poisonous bush with pink flowers and black berries. It grows mainly in moist forests in southern Russia. With its use, the pupils dilate. Mild belladonna poisoning does not cause much harm to health (but this is in the case of quickly provided help), however, with severe intoxication, death is possible.
Datura. Poisoning by seeds of this poisonous "crazy grass", as it is "called" by the people, often happens in the fall. Teenagers use dope for "falling into" intoxication. Since Yemen, plants contain poisons such as scopolamine and atropine. If a small child consumes even a few poisonous seeds, then death is possible.
Castor oil plant ordinary. Castor oil is made from it. The plant is often grown at home. However, when processed, toxins in castor oil are destroyed. When growing this poisonous plant as an indoor one, remember that its seeds are the most dangerous. If eaten, they cause death within a week. Poisoning with castor bean venom (even small doses in the stomach) lead to irreparable consequences, since the ricin contained in the bush is a deadly poison, it destroys tissues.
Hogweed. Many species of this plant grow in the world. There are species that cause poisoning and burns. After touching the plants, while the person is in the shade, everything will be fine with him, but when the wound enters the sun, a painful poisonous burn appears.
Raven eye. This plant is more common in Siberia. In dried form, it is used to prepare tinctures and decoctions as a remedy for headaches. However, an inexperienced person does not need to drink such drugs without the permission of a doctor, since the poison of the raven eye acts as a sleeping pill. The poisonous plant causes other negative consequences. The most dangerous parts of the plant are berries and root.
Spurge. The plant is found almost everywhere. Often it can be seen in schools and kindergartens on window sills. There are many types of milkweed. All of them are very different from each other. Some look like flowers, others are similar to cacti. Poisoning with milkweed causes negative consequences from the poison, up to the loss of consciousness. The flower contains milky poisonous juice, which in ancient times was called "demon milk." White-euphorbia euphorbia causes skin burns, severe allergies, and even blindness if it enters the eye area.
Hemlock. When this plant enters the body, the poison immediately spreads through the bloodstream. The poison affects the nervous system. They use hemlock to treat diseases, most often cancer. However, the tincture of this herb is very poisonous. If a person has weakened immunity, then even a couple of drops can be fatal. The poison in the plant has a negative effect on the kidneys, heart and liver. Koniin is the main alkaloid of the plant and the poisonous beginning, embedded in the hemlock spotted, is a substance with the formula C8H17N. It has a poisonous nerve effect. B oligols - poison, which in ancient times was used for execution.
Sagebrush. Growth is used in medicine. But still the plant is poisonous. Wormwood poisoning occurs due to an overdose. That is, in small quantities, the plant is not dangerous. So exposure to poison is dangerous in chronic form. Long-term use of the herb contributes to the accumulation of poisons in the body.
Aconite or buttercup blue. Very dangerous and poisonous plant. In ancient times, a flower was used for suicide. Even insects bypass the poisonous aconite side. Despite this, people use the plant both as a medicine and for landscape design. The toxicity of the plant lies in the high content of toxic aconitine, which has a cumulative effect. When it is first taken, side effects appear in a mild form. In the case of its frequent use, poison can lead to paralysis.
Henbane. It has an analgesic effect. It is used during the treatment of the digestive tract, heart and nervous system. However, it is a powerful hallucinogen. People often confuse Belem with parsley root, so poisoning occurs more often in April or May. With the development of poisoning, first aid is urgently needed, then the symptoms quickly stop.
Eating wolfberries also often causes poisoning. Such a popular name means the fruits of black, as well as red. They grow on various grass plants or bushes. These include belladonna, red elderberry, raven eye, daphne and some other poisonous plants.
Symptoms of poisoning by poisonous plants
Poisons of plant origin often have a negative effect on the human condition. The nature and strength of their action depend both on the properties of the plant itself and on the characteristics of the person, his health and immunity. The same poison in some cases causes harm, in other conditions it is practically not dangerous and does not affect the body.
The causes of acute poisonous poisoning are divided depending on the path by which the poison enters the body:
- food poisoning - the toxin is ingested through the mouth,
- poisoning during inhalation - inhalation of toxic vapor,
- skin poisoning - getting poison on the skin,
- abdominal poisoning - the ingress of a toxic substance through the ears, nose or genitals,
- injection poisoning - the ingress of toxic solutions into the bloodstream after an injection.
In case of poisoning, poisons penetrate the bloodstream, as a result of which they spread throughout the body. Some toxic substances negatively affect all organs and systems, others selectively, only a certain part. Almost all poisons are excreted naturally through the kidneys along with urine. In this case, the excretory organ is severely injured, which leads to pathology.
The most common signs of poisoning are:
- deterioration in general condition,
- loss of appetite,
- sleep disturbance,
- abdominal pain
- digestive tract disorders,
If you characterize the raven eye, the symptoms of poisoning are very easy to identify, because almost immediately the victim develops nausea and vomiting. Strong pain in the stomach is manifested.
Almost all plant poisons cause cardiac abnormalities. The victim’s pulse can either increase or slow down. Blood pressure in some patients rises, in others it decreases significantly. Severe shortness of breath is noted - lack of air, and breathing may slow down or become more frequent.
Poisonous with milkweed, splashing onto the skin, causes burns and ulcers. The skin swells. A person has a fever. If juice enters the eyes, it can cause temporary or permanent blindness. If the juice is in the person’s mouth, it can cause swelling of the tongue and cramps. In this case, the body temperature of the victim decreases.
When poisoning with a poisonous hogweed, the symptoms are manifested by weakness, chills and high fever. The plant has a negative effect on the skin. The skin turns red and begins to itch, blisters with liquid appear on it, which burst over time. In these places, new skin becomes rough. Burn scars often remain throughout life.
Symptoms of celandine poisoning (except for dyspeptic disorders) are manifested by dilated pupils and loss of consciousness, up to falling into a coma. If you do not cleanse the stomach on time, then cardiac arrest is possible. Signs of poisoning bleached bleach are dry mouth, husky voices, slurred speech, delirium and the occurrence of hallucinations.
First aid for poisoning, therapy
In case of poisoning with plant poisons, it is necessary to provide the victim with emergency first aid:
- First of all, you need to call a medical team.
- Provide a person with complete peace and air access.
- To clean (rinse) the stomach. The easiest way is to drink a large amount of water (preferably room temperature). Five glasses are considered optimal. After which it is necessary to immediately induce vomiting. The procedure is repeated several times until only clean water starts to come out. After that, you can drink a couple of sips of non-hot tea without sugar.
- Even at home, you can take enterosorbent - activated carbon or Enterosgel.
- In the presence of high temperature, an antipyretic drug is taken - Paracetamol or Ibuprofen.
In case of burns, treatment of the injured person can be performed at home. In case of damage to the skin, it is necessary to treat them with a solution of Furacilin or potassium permanganate. In addition, a person must provide protection for the wound from sun rays (at least for three days). For burns, antihistamines are prescribed - Zodak, Claretin or Suprastin. They reduce itching and relieve allergy. Anti-burn drugs (Panthenol or Zinc ointment) are recommended for wounds.
To prevent dehydration caused by an upset stomach and vomiting, Regidron or Hydrolyte is used. They make up for fluid loss and restore the balance of acid and alkali.
If poison enters the body through the mouth, the medical team introduces an antidote and takes the patient to the hospital. If the victim of the poison is not breathing, then he is connected to a special ventilator. Doctors also provide symptomatic therapy. To save the patient from vomiting, diarrhea and weakness, Tannin is used. Among antiemetic drugs, Cerucal and Omeprazole are more often used. In the presence of diarrhea, drugs are prescribed that eliminate this symptom (Loperamide, Trimebutin). In almost all cases, painkillers and antipyretics are used - Papaverine, No-Shpa, Nurofen.
Possible complications and recovery
There may be various consequences of poisoning with plant poisons. One of them is damage to the nervous system. This is considered the most persistent complication. All consequences depend on the characteristics of each organism. A person may show impaired vision, speech or hearing. Often there are problems with the digestive system and sleep disorders. In many cases, this resolves with timely treatment. In some victims, certain signs remain for life. In the absence of medical care in case of intoxication of the body with plant poisons, a fatal outcome is possible.
After conducting therapy in the hospital, the victim of the poison is recommended to perform some actions to restore health. To remove the remaining toxins of poisonous plants from the stomach and kidneys helps a decoction of rose hips due to the fact that this fruit has a diuretic effect.
To restore the stomach after poisoning by poisonous plants, it is recommended to maintain a therapeutic diet. The following foods should be eaten:
- salted feta cheese
- rice groats (chopped),
- mashed potatoes cooked without oil,
- corn grits
- fruit puree from apples and bananas,
- borsch with the addition of sauerkraut,
- lean meat
- cottage cheese.
Meat dishes can be steamed or boiled. Fried foods must be discarded for a while. Such a diet must be observed for at least a month.
Prevention of poisoning with such poisons is to exclude situations in which there is a touch or, moreover, the ingestion of plants unknown to the person in the mouth.
Types of Cobras
There are four varieties of these reptiles, each of which has its own characteristics:
- Indian cobra (eyeglass snake, naya). On her “hood” is a drawing in the form of two rings connected by a small arc. The drawing resembles the image of glasses. The length of the snake from one and a half to two meters.
- Royal (black) cobra. In length reaches from two to three meters. This is the largest and most poisonous species of cobra, the bite of which can lead to death. The main reason for this is the high rate of absorption of the poison into the blood.
- Spitting cobra. She does not bite her victims, but spits out her poison in them. At the same time, the speed with which toxic compounds spread in the body is from one to two hours. Immediately after a bite, the victim develops complete blindness.
- Egyptian cobra. It reaches two meters in length and is extremely toxic. The most severe symptoms develop 10-15 minutes after the bite. The probability of death is very high.
Having understood the types of cobras, you need to pay attention to how their main weapon - poison.
The action of cobra venom on humans
Its effect depends on the strength of the bite, the amount of injected substance, a variety of reptiles. If a cobra bit a person in a vein or any other vessel, the effect of the poison becomes more pronounced.
It accelerates several times and poses a huge danger to the victim. Regardless of the location of the bite, the heart and urinary system are the most affected.
Symptoms of a cobra bite
Clinical signs of poisoning develop rapidly. At the initial stage, excessive agitation occurs, which is replaced by apathy and drowsiness. Shortness of breath, shortness of breath, and severe nausea may appear.
Often after a cobra bite appears:
- gagging and vomiting,
- episodes of dizziness and fainting,
- visual impairment
- leg and arm cramps
- paralysis of the throat and pharynx.
After a bite of a cobra, numbness of the lips takes place. Speech functions are impaired. Swelling in the eyelids and increased salivation become noticeable. Further, after a bite of a poisonous cobra, symptoms such as:
- fecal incontinence,
- rapid decrease in blood pressure,
- heart rhythm disturbances.
This negatively affects the condition of pregnant women. The poison enters the bloodstream, poisoning the unborn child. Timely and complete treatment will help to avoid critical consequences.
First aid for a cobra bite
It is necessary to place the victim in the shade - so that the head is located below the whole body. It is important to carefully inspect all clothing, because a small amount of poison may remain on it. The bite wound is washed with water.
Further, in the framework of emergency care, it is necessary:
- During the first five minutes after the attack, the poison is drained from the wound using a bandage and a rubber bulb. If there are no similar devices, the poison is sucked out by mouth. But this can be done only if there is no caries, wounds or other damage to the mucous surface of the mouth.
- It is advisable to remove at least 40% of the poison in the first five minutes. The sucked liquid must be spit out. After this, the oral cavity must be rinsed with a weak manganese solution.
- After aspiration of the poison, the wound is washed with soapy water. Then apply a sterile bandage.
- It is recommended to apply a tourniquet on the limb above the cobra bite area. This will slow the spread of the poison through the blood vessels, but keep the tourniquet for longer than 30 minutes. not allowed.
It is important to slow down the absorption and spread of toxins. To do this, cool the bitten area and fix a cold lotion on the wound surface.
The immobility of the damaged limb should be ensured. A tire or other solid material is suitable for this.
Next, for first aid after a bite of a cobra, you must:
- Drink a warm drink. Due to this, the concentration of poison in the body will decrease.
- Stimulate urine excretion. For this, diuretics are used, for example, Furosemide or Veroshpiron. You can use a decoction of lingonberry leaves, strong tea or coffee, if they are at hand.
- Take antihistamines. It is recommended to give the victim two to three tablets of Suprastin, Tavegil or other anti-allergic drugs.
Next, be sure to consult a doctor. This will help neutralize the poison of the royal and any other cobra.
What can not be done
It is unacceptable to burn a problem area - this will make it impossible to remove the poison from the body. You can not use such folk recipes as applying to the bite of the leaves of plantain or dirty soil. These methods are not only useless, but also dangerous.
It is also unacceptable to cut the damaged area after a cobra bite, to bleed blood from it.
Another prohibition concerns the use of alcohol. This can lead to inhibition of reactions and a deterioration in the general condition of the patient, increased nausea, headaches.
Cobra Bite Treatment
Treatment after a cobra bite should be carried out in a medical facility. It is important that:
- The patient was given at least 10 vials of antidote. Tiger Snake Serum is the antidote. It is effective for breeding all components of the venom of the royal and other species of cobras.
- Ringer's solution was intravenously administered at a rate of at least 250 ml for 60 minutes.
- The poison was neutralized in a medical facility without interruption. For small wounds, four to six serum ampoules are used. For deeper and more complex use at least eight, and sometimes up to 20 units of antidotes from the bite of a royal cobra.
A victim from a cobra bite quickly develops a serious condition. It is accompanied by a short excitement, then - apathy and drowsiness. Among the consequences of a cobra bite, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, vomiting, and nausea are distinguished.
Other dangerous symptoms:
- severe dizziness, up to the inability to move normally,
- blurred consciousness, brief fainting,
- paralysis of the arms and legs, oral cavity,
- speech distortion
- inability to swallow normally.
Paralysis progresses quite slowly, but gradually begins to affect the area of the trunk and the respiratory system. In the most difficult situations, paralysis develops within 15-20 minutes and leads to death by suffocation.
How to avoid a cobra bite?
First of all, it is recommended not to visit cobra habitats. If this happened, then approaching the reptile, if it took a stand, or touching it with a stick is unacceptable.
It is important to remember other rules:
- You can’t walk barefoot - especially in those places where dangerous reptiles are known to live. For example, in the desert, reeds and other tall plants.
- Shoes should be high and tight, with a durable sole.
- If you need to pass through high thickets in which cobras can live, you need to touch the ground with a long stick first. High and thick boots are required.
- In case of spending the night in a tent, the entrance there must be closed all the time.
- Before getting things out of backpacks or bags, they are shaken.
- Do not stay for the night in places where there are many stones, because snakes often choose just such areas for living. It is dangerous to spend the night where there are many burrows of mice, small rodents, because they are the main food for cobras.
Avoiding a bite of a reptile will allow compliance with other precautions. So, it is unacceptable to put your hands under stones or in the hollow of trees, because cobras may well live there.
It is also recommended not to make long transitions at night. At this time of day, cobras and other species of snakes exhibit a peak of activity.
Despite the fact that the poison of reptiles is useful and is used to treat many diseases, its bite is one of the most dangerous. Therefore, it is recommended to do everything possible to avoid such damage. It is equally important to know the rules for the provision of first aid and treatment after a cobra bite.