White-winged Lark - Melanocorypha leucoptera - slightly larger than the field lark.
Other names - Siberian Lark - Lower Volga, Simbirska Lark - on the Sarp of the Stalingrad Territory, Snow Maiden - Astrakhan, Whitefly - Kherson Region.
In the color of the male, the most notable signs are chestnut-brown tones on the cap, ear, nadhvost and covering wings. The bottom is very light, almost pure white. In flying birds, a wide white stripe striking the posterior edge of the wing is striking. This strip can be subtle against the background of a bright sky, and the wing seems narrow and sharp, like sandpipers. The female is much duller, more of a “lark” type, however the chestnut-brown elements are quite distinct, and the wing has the same white stripe. Females are slightly smaller than males. In the autumn outfit, all birds on the integumentary plumage have buffy-whitish rims that strongly mask the chestnut color, and it is most noticeable on the fold of the wing. Young in the nesting feather look variegated. Above they are brownish, with whitish streaks, below - whitish, with dark streaks, chestnut color on the wing is not bright, but noticeable. Autumn young are indistinguishable from adults. The white stripe on the wing and the chestnut fold of the wing are the main species features in all outfits. White on a folded wing can be closed. Weight 36-53 g, length 17-21, wing 10.3-12.8, wingspan 27-37 cm.
The text of the scientific work on the theme "On the expansion of the range of the white-winged lark Melanocorypha leucoptera in the Tarbagatai region"
alder at a height of 10 m, the second - about 300 m north of the previous one, at the same height, but located on a side branch). The last, third nest was found much further south at the end of the route. It was located even lower on an alder tree and in character also resembled a nest of a buzzard, although there is no complete certainty about this.
Cheglok Falco subbuteo. The only nest was found in an oak forest belt among the fields in the old building of one of the predators, occupied by several species in turn. On the day of discovery (June 21, 1981), an adult bird incubated a clutch of 2 eggs. Upon repeated inspection, the nest contained one small downy chick, while the egg lay on the side on the wall of the nest. Near the nest, three adult birds were worried. Further fate is not traced.
Thus, in a controlled area of about 10 km2 in the west of the Poltava region (the vicinity of the village of Lazorki), as a result of long-term observations, nesting of 3 (possibly 4) Falconiformes species was found. Two species (goshawk and common buzzard) regularly breed, and for two, sporadic nesting is established (caplet, field harrier). The not so rich species abundance can be explained by both the limited study area and the observation time.
The author is sincerely grateful to Vladimir Aleksandrovich Paevsky and Nazar Anatolyevich Shapoval for critical comments and valuable advice expressed in the preparation of this publication.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2013, Volume 22, Express Edition 857: 698-699
On the expansion of the range of the white-winged lark Melanocorypha leucoptera in the Tarbagatai region
N. N. Berezovikov
Second edition. First publication in 2004 *
Over the past five years, in the south-east of Kazakhstan, the process of pulsation of the range of the white-winged lark Melanocorypha leucoptera in the south has been traced (Berezovikov, Levin 2002). On the western outskirts of Tarbagatai, the border of its distribution passed between the Ai and Karakol rivers, and on the Sasasykkol plain it met between the Ertuy channel and Mount Besbakan.
* Berezovikov N.N. 2004. On the expansion of the range of the white-winged lark in the Tarbagatai region // Kaz. ornithol. bull. 2004: 181.
698 Rus- ornithol. journal 2013. Volume 22. Express release No. 857
When examined on June 9-14, 2004, white-winged larks were found already in the southern foothills of the Western Tarbagatai on the Karakol River above the village of Taskesken, at the foot of Mount Zhaitobe near the village of Makanchi and near the village of Bakhty in the valley of the Emel River. In the vicinity of the last point, they were found at the eastern end of the Arkala mountains (46 ° 39 'N, 82 ° 35' E) in the wormwood-grass steppe along the Kutuy river, where 7 individuals were found for 7 km. However, when traveling around the rest of the mountains for 90 km for two days, we no longer met these larks.
Thus, in 2004, the white-winged lark settled eastward along the southern foothills of Tarbagatai from Karakol to Bakhta for at least 250 km, that is, up to the state border of Kazakhstan and China, although in 2000-2003 it was still definitely absent in these places. The white-winged lark regained its historical range, since it is known that in June 1904 and 1908 he lived in the Emel Valley near Bakhta (Khakhlov 1926).
A noticeable increase in the number of white-winged larks in 2004 was noted in the northern foothills of Tarbagatai between the Kara-Bug and Tebiske rivers, although in previous years it was noted singly. So, from the village of Shybyndy to the foot of the mountains (800-850 m above sea level) in the wormwood steppe dotted with small gravel, 10 males per 20 km of the route were recorded from the car. Along the field Alauda arvensis and the steppe Melanocorypha calandra along the submontane plume (900-980 m above sea level) in the rocky fescue and feather grass steppe, in places with spirea shoots, on a further route right up to the Tebiske River gorge, the lark regularly met. At the foot of Mount Chilbastau, 9 individuals were recorded per 8 km of the route. Relatively more often than in previous years, they met him in the western and northern parts of Manrak on wormwood and fescue ridges and valleys. In places, especially between the Espe and Taizuzgen rivers, the white-winged lark was the background species of the piedmont steppe.
Berezovikov N.N., Levin A.S. 2002. On the distribution of the white-winged lark in the Kazakh small hills and the Balkhash-Alakol basin // Kaz. ornithol. bull. 2002: 102-103.
Khakhlov V. A. 1926. Materials on the avifauna of the Emil Valley and the western foothills of Barlyk // Izv. Tomsk Univ. 76: 1-8.
Rus ornithol. journal 2013. Volume 22. Express release No. 857
It was obtained at the Chupanatinskiy Heights near the city of Samarkand (1931), and was recorded on Southern Ustyurt (1965), in the vicinity of Mubarek (1970), on the segment of the Chingeldy-Kulkuduk (1970) highway and on the Bukhara-Mubarek (1972) highway. An insignificant number of meetings in winter was recorded in the southern part of the Kyzylkum desert between Mubarek and Chingeldy (1995). In January 2000, 20-22 flocks, a total of 300 individuals, were recorded in desert areas near Lake. Aidar, in April 2000, 7 and 8 white-winged larks were recorded in Aidar and in the Bukhara region, on February 16-21, 2001, one flock of 200 individuals was recorded in the fields near Termez, March 6-10, 2001. near the lake Tuzkan - 5 individuals, 1 individual at Aydar and 25 on the desert site, December 25-29, 2001. in desert areas near the lake. Aydar and Tuzkan, a total of 2 flocks of 20 and 15 individuals were recorded. In January 2003, numerous flocks (5,800 birds) were found in the sandy desert near the southern and southwestern coasts of the lake. Aydarkul, immediately in January 2004 several flocks were found, with a total number of not more than 500 birds. In the period 2000-2005. From the end of November to the beginning of March, the white-winged lark was constantly observed at the winter in the Jeyran Ecocenter. Total abundance in the winter: in 2000-2003 - 85-100 individuals, 2004 - 65-85 individuals. In July 2011 and February 2015, the white-winged lark was recorded in the northern part of the Karakalpak Ustyurt (US and photographs of V. Soldatov). 06/07/2016. per 10 km of the motorway, 63 white-winged larks were taken into account on the interval of the route from the village of Zhaslyk to the village. Buston of the Republic of Karakalpakstan (U.S. Aburaupov T.V.)
Opinions about the nesting of the white-winged lark are contradictory - according to E.A. Kreutzberg white-winged lark in the north of the republic nests, E.N. Lanovenko classifies him as a non-breeding bird in Uzbekistan. Very little is known about ecology during the wintering period. On migration does not seem to be a rare species; during the period of mass migration, several dozen individuals can be observed during the day. Usually keeps in packs on snowy plains, avoids dense grassy thickets and developed territories. It feeds on seeds of hodgepodge and wormwood.
Sources of information
1. Kashkarov D.Yu., Lanovenko E.N., Fotteler E.R., Ostapenko M.M., Sagitov A.K., Sernazarov E., Bakaev SB, Tretyakov G.P., Mitropolsky O .V., Meklenburtsev R.N. Birds of Uzbekistan, Volume 3. Tashkent: "Fan" of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. 1995.276 p.
2. Kreitsberg EA Brief information on the encounters of the white-eyed blackhead, the steppe eagle, the steppe moon, the steppe tirushka, the large godwit, the curlew, the white-winged lark and the blue stone thrush. // Research on key ornithological territories in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Almaty, 2006.175 s.
3. Lanovenko E.N. Information to clarify the status of species in the lists of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN-IUCN) // Studies on key ornithological territories in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Almaty, 2006.181 s.
4. Soldatova N.V. Some data on the abundance and distribution of the steppe eagle, steppe crescent, large spindleog, large curlew and white-winged lark in the territory of the Dzheyran ecocenter (Bukhara region, Uzbekistan) // Studies on key ornithological territories in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Almaty, 2006, 198-199 s.
The length of the bird is 17-19 centimeters, wingspan up to 35 centimeters. The back of the lark is gray with a brown tint and dark brown specks, the tail and wings are dark brown, the top of the head, shoulders are red, and there are also red spots on the sides of the neck and over the tail.
Males and females are noticeably different. Females are generally paler, in addition, the male is larger than the female.
It got its name thanks to the wide white stripe on the wings, the white ones in the lark also have stripes on the sides of the tail, chest and lower torso. The appearance is similar to the Mongolian Lark, however, the latter has black spots on the sides of the neck.
In birds of both sexes, in fresh autumn, overcoats with ocher-whitish borders that mask the chestnut color, remaining only on the fold of the wing. Young birds in the nesting feather are mottled: brownish with light streaks on the top, whitish with dark streaks on the bottom, and chestnut-red color on the wings. It is markedly different in color from other larks found in European Russia, primarily due to the presence of a wide white strip on the wing, especially noticeable in a flying bird. In a sitting bird, the white area on the wing looks like an elongated white spot. A white stripe is clearly visible in birds in all outfits, only occasionally brown feathers can slightly cover it with a sitting bird. The wings seem narrow, the flying bird looks more like a sandpiper. Above, the wings have a pattern formed by three stripes: brown-red, then black and after it a wide white stripe. In all outfits, males and females have bright brown-red, chestnut shoulders and upper parts of the wings; males, in addition, have bright brown-red hats and cheeks.
The song is typical for larks, somewhat similar to the songs of the field and steppe larks, but not so beautiful. It is an almost continuous stream of high whistles, trills and murmurs. A lark differs from a song by a slightly lesser unity, a large amount of murmur, high whistles and creaking sounds. The song often contains elements borrowed from songs of other species of birds. It sings in the air, usually flying no higher than 20 m above the ground, like the steppe lark, often making characteristic slow wing flaps in a current flight. Very often, she sings on the ground or in a low perch, for example, on the top of a wormwood bush. Calling - soft "virr", "chirr", "churr", "chip", in addition, makes sounds resembling a short nasal meow.
It occurs in wormwood and fescue steppes, on salt marshes. Breeds in pairs in May - July, nests on the ground, lays 4 to 6 eggs of pale green or yellow color in brown speck. In non-breeding time it is kept in packs. The white-winged lark sings, sitting on the ground or (less often) flying low in the air. The song of the lark is a simple trill, sometimes imitating other birds. The usual urge is a lingering low cry, partly reminiscent of meow.
In the summer, like other larks, the white-winged animal feeds mainly on insects. In the first place are beetles - up to 50% and orthopterans - 32%, then butterflies and caterpillars - 16%, very rarely - hymenoptera and half-winged. Mostly weevils are eaten from beetles (Bothynoderes, Othiorrhynchus), as well as barbel (Dorcadion, Plgionotus), in addition, small ground beetles (Amara, Harpalus), goldfish, leaf beetles, and bedbugs - Eurydema. Of the orthoptera, it eats, among other things, Gomphocerus and Chrysochraon. According to Ryabov (1946), harmful insects in the food of the white-winged lark account for 80-90% of the total mass, neutral and beneficial - 10-20%. The composition of plant foods in the summer includes the seeds of Cygnus, sorrel and other plants. In winter, seeds of Setaria viridis, Carex stonophylla and green sprouts of cereals.
The white-winged lark, like the others, visits the watering place, if possible, without neglecting salt water. On Elton, according to the observations of Lisetskiy, they, although in a much smaller number than other larks, are more often between 11 and 12 hours and then between 15 and 16, and sometimes between 13 and 14 hours. At other hours, rare loners fly to the watering hole.
Singing begins in April and continues until the end of July. The nests are wider than the field lark, deeper and better covered. A tray with a diameter of 8-12 cm, a depth of 5-11 cm and a wall thickness of 1-2 cm. There is one exit from the cover, usually to the north. Clutches - from the beginning of May, usually from 4-6 eggs, most often from 5. According to Zarudny (1888), there are even 8 eggs, then they lie in the nest in two rows.
The eggs are smaller than in the steppe lark, similar in color: pale greenish or pale yellowish with olive-brownish, gray or grayish-brownish spots and dots forming a corolla at the blunt end. Egg sizes: 19.5-24.3x15.5-17.7 mm. In June - early July there is a second clutch. Sometimes even in mid-July, fresh masonry comes across (Novenskoye in Altai). Female incubates - within 12 days. He sits firmly, carefully removes from the nest. Pistons weighing 25-30 g (with an adult weight of 37-50 g) begin to occur from the end of May - June. In early July, white-winged larks begin to gather in flocks, and in August there is already noticeable movement to the south. In winter in the Kherson steppes appears in November in huge flocks.
Taxonomy and taxonomy
Currently, the name of the genus comes from the Latin lark. Specific white-winged means "white winged" of leukos , White, and pteron , "Wing". Previously, the white-winged lark was classified as belonging to the genus. Melanocorypha until moved to Alauda in 2014.
This lark is large and strong, usually 17-19 cm in length, with a wingspan of 35 cm. Both sexes weigh about 44 g. In flight, this is not in doubt due to its striking wing pattern: black outer wing feathers, white inner feathers, and the rest of the chestnut wing. The body is dark gray with veins above and whitish below. The adult male has a chestnut crown, but the floors are otherwise similar.