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Varieties of lilies - growing and application


I really love lilies. There are many of them in my garden and everyone is different, so I thought it was very difficult to surprise me with a new lily. But this year it happened!

In the spring, at one of the garden fairs, I accidentally saw for sale bulbs of an unfamiliar lily. Near the box where they were lying was a photograph in which there was a plant with flowers in the form of a turban. The seller called her "beautiful lily." Although similar ones had already grown, I still decided to buy a pair of onions, because I really like this unusual shape. No sooner said than done. She planted them on the site (though not in the most visible place) and began to wait. Lilies in due time gave sturdy sprouts, began to reach up, but it seemed they were not going to bloom. By the time almost all my darlings had faded, I had already stopped hoping. She waved her hand at the purchased lilies and almost forgot about them, especially since they grew in the far corner of the garden.

And somehow, in September, passing by, I suddenly saw that they had bloomed. Yes, how! On each stalk there were several large flowers with petals strongly turned outward. One of the lilies turned out to be snow-white, the second - dark pink, almost red, and even with hemp. Moreover, both of them were fragrant.

My delight knew no bounds. After all, so far I have not had lilies that would bloom in the fall. I'd love to learn more about these beauties. Perhaps because of such late flowering, they need to be sheltered for the winter? Or dig out at all? Help me with advice, please!

T.N. Zavrazhina, Moscow region

Expert Commentary

Vasily Chuchin, collector and hybridizer of lilies:

- Lily beautiful (Lilium speciosum) - a plant with beautiful flowers that have a delicate aroma of vanilla, perhaps the best among lilies. It comes from southern Japan.

Lily growers know several varieties of this species with white, pale pink and dark pink color, as well as with a longitudinal light stripe in the center of the red-pink petal (‘Melpomene’). Currently, on sale, as a rule, there are varieties ‘Uchida’ (Japan) and ‘Namber 10’ (Holland), as well as bulbs of species lilies - without a name.

But, despite their amazing beauty, I would like to warn amateur gardeners, especially inexperienced ones, against such a purchase - these plants are very capricious. In the gardens of central Russia, they usually live no longer than one or two seasons. First, the beautiful lily bulbs are unstable to root rot (fusarium). Secondly, any deviation from the agrotechnical requirements for soil composition, watering, or changes in the growing season causes stress in the plant, as a result of which its growth, as a rule, stops and the lily dies. Our harsh climate, alas, is not suitable for this sissy: she needs to grow in those parts where there is no snow in winter, early spring, rainy and warm in summer, and August, September and October - dry, sunny and warm months. In our country, such conditions exist near the Black Sea coast, in the Caucasus and, of course, in the Far East - closer to the homeland of this plant.

If someone from plant lovers still wants to conduct an experiment, I recommend trying to grow beautiful lily in the greenhouse: the soil there warms up faster in the spring and the growing season will be longer. Previously, the bulbs must certainly be processed in any preparation against root rot.

And I advise everyone else to plant a hybrid совет Black Beauty ’lily as an alternative. She was received from L. beautiful, very similar to it, but it grows in our climate without any problems.

Asian hybrids

Asian hybrids are the most popular in gardening. Formed by the intersection of species from Central and West Asia and constitute the largest group in terms of diversity.

  • early flowering
  • undemanding to soil, climate,
  • the group includes lilies that are the most resistant to diseases, therefore hybrids are widespread in gardening,
  • can be propagated from seeds, propagated plants quickly enter the flowering period,
  • most hybrids are odorless, but have beautiful colorful flowers,
  • There are two- or three-color varieties,
  • depending on the species, grow up to 50-100 cm in height.

Due to the shape of the flower, 3 subgroups are distinguished in this group:

  1. on the raised flowers - goblet,
  2. with flowers pointing to the sides - shielded,
  3. with pendant flowers pointing downward and turban-curved.

The group of Asian hybrids includes tiger lily (L. lancifolium). This species produces 10-12 or so hanging flowers on a single shoot. The petals recline back to form a turban and are richly colored with dark dots. Plants in the corners of the leaf produce small bulbs that multiply. The most interesting varieties:

  • "Flor Pleno" Flore Pleno (orange, double flowers),
  • "Pink Tiger" Pink Tiger (pink petals),
  • "White Tiger" White Tiger (white petals),
  • "Red Tiger" Red Tiger (red petals).

A photo. Tiger lily.

A photo. Asian grade "Costa del Sol".

Among the Asian varieties with raised flowers and one- or two-color with single or double petals that do not form bulbs in the corners of the leaf, we can mention:

  • "Olina" Olina (maroon, purple, spotted),
  • "Pixel yellow" Pixels Yelow (yellow, brown spotted),
  • Landini Landini (burgundy purple),
  • "Nettis Pride" Nettys Pride (burgundy with white ends of the petals),

  • "Fangio" Fangio (dark pink),
  • Classic Salmon Salmon>
  • Susan Forever Susan Forever (orange-violet),
  • "Spring" Pink "Spring Pink (pink-white, double petals),

  • Fata Morgana (yellow with double petals).

Curvy Hybrids

The first hybrids of this type were created in the Netherlands in 1886 and consist of 2 varieties:

  • very strong plants, characterized by high resistance to viral diseases,
  • belong to the highest lilies - can exceed a height of 2 m,
  • bloom quite plentifully: sometimes more than 50 flowers in an inflorescence,
  • well tolerate our climatic conditions,
  • can be used in planting perennial beds,
  • popular as a cut flower.

A photo. Variety "Maroon king".

A photo. Grape "Goldenflower"

American hybrids

They come from wild species distributed in North America and resembling the structure of L. parrya.

  • small flowers with strongly inverted (turban) bowls,
  • flower color - yellow, orange,
  • flowers are intensely dark colored,
  • plants 1.5 m high
  • require acidic, moist soil, half-sunken position.

A photo. Variety Regale.

A photo. Sargentiae variety

Long-flowered hybrids

Includes lilies formed from crossing varieties:

  • longiflorum
  • formosanum,
  • wallichianum,
  • neilgherrense.

  • very long, narrow white flowering tubes,
  • in the climatic conditions of the middle lane, when grown in open ground, unfortunately, bloom late - in the second half of August,
  • if the frosts are too early, bulbs that are not ready for wintering can freeze.

A photo. Leucanthum variety

Tubular Hybrids

The youngest hybrid group of lilies. Received by the discovery of the Royal Lily in 1903. Hybrids of this group are divided into 4 subgroups due to the different structure of the flowers:

  1. funnel-shaped tubular flowers, long and narrow,
  2. tubular flowers in the shape of a bowl, directed to the sides,
  3. bell-shaped tubular flowers, clearly directed downwards,
  4. tubular flowers, wide open in the shape of a star.

Tubular hybrids are the most common.

  • relatively high resistance to disease, adverse weather conditions,
  • ease of propagation from seeds,
  • strong growth
  • plentiful flowering - bloom from the end of July,
  • emit a strong smell
  • flowers, located on a long stem of 120 cm, monochromatic, are white, yellow, pink, red.

  • Golden Splendor (yellow),
  • Pink Perfection
  • “Regalia Album” (white),
  • The Queen of Africa (Orange),
  • "Casa Rosa" (pink).

A photo. Grade "Royal Lily".

Oriental hybrids

Formed by crossing species of lilies, originating mainly from Japan, China. Based on the structure of flowers, oriental hybrids are divided into 4 subgroups:

  1. long tube-shaped flowers pointing up
  2. flowers wide open in the shape of a bowl, directed to the sides,
  3. flowers with wide open, flat patches pointing down,
  4. flowers strongly inclined back.

All eastern hybrids of extraordinary beauty, but, unfortunately, are sensitive to diseases, adverse climatic conditions, require a suitable substrate.

Oriental hybrids usually have large pink or white flowers with an intense aroma. Nectaries are clearly visible inside the petals. Depending on the variety, oriental lilies grow up to 50-100 cm in height. Traditional varieties have flowers consisting of:

  • individual petals, for example, “Muskad”, “Maru”, “Crystal”, “Simplon”, “Konka D”, “Garden Party”, “Brasilia”,

  • or flowers consisting of several rows, for example, “Miss Lucy”, “North Star”, “Magic Double”, “Surprise”, “Sweet Rose”,

A photo. Oriental hybrid "Medusa".

Interesting information about lilies

  • Lilies in the natural environment are found only in the northern hemisphere. The southernmost areas of growth are southern India, the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The northern limit of the range is the regions of Kamchatka and Central Siberia.
  • Since lilies do not like a too warm climate, species found in the southernmost regions, for example in India, grow only in the mountains at an altitude of more than 2000 m.
  • Lilies, from the point of view of evolution, are the youngest bulb species and come from a plant called nomocharis.

Lilies are bulbous plants that bloom in late summer. Some gardeners believe that they are more beautiful than roses, so they should be present in every garden. In the Middle Ages they were considered a symbol of the world, in art - a symbol of purity. Lily has always been associated with greatness and has often been grown in royal gardens. At the turn of the century, many varieties were obtained by breeding and crossing with pure species.

Currently, even tetraploid varieties have been formed. Individual types, varieties differ in height, color, breeding form, color, size, smell of flowers. Flowers bloom in late summer, so they are considered the queens of the season. Among the lilies there are different types, species, varieties from which it is worth creating your own, delightful collection.

Lily classification

Currently, the International Lily Register contains more than 5,000 varieties and over 100 species. All varieties and hybrids are divided into 8 groups, the 9th are wild-growing species. In a rather difficult classification of lilies, the basic ones are considered Asian hybrids (The Asiatic Hybrids), Oriental hybrids (The Oriental Hybrids), Tubular Hybrids (The Trumpet Hybrids), Snow-white hybrids (Candidum Hybrids), Long-flowered hybrids (Longiflorum Hybrids), as well as Martagon hybrids (The Martagon Hybrids). Consider their features.

Snow-white hybrids

They have tubular flowers with bent tips of the petals, grow well on alkaline soils. Varieties are few. The flowers are white or yellow in different shades, they have an intense aroma. Height 1.2-1.8 m. Strongly susceptible to fungal diseases, it is better to grow in the southern regions.

Flowers with bent tips of the petals.Author photo

Martagon Hybrids

Derived from a species of lily curly, or locust (L. martagon). They stand out from the general row (reach 2 m), they are often offered to inexperienced gardeners as a lily tree. Differ in plentiful and long flowering.

The plant looks like a candelabrum, humbled by rather small flowers (5-8 cm) of a chalmoid shape in an orange-brown palette with specks. There are also varieties with purple, cherry, yellow flowers. Variety 'Moonbeam', for example, has white flowers with a dull black-brown speck.

Lily flower Marchagon 'Black Beauty'

On one stalk there can be up to 25 flowers. Durable, not susceptible to fungal diseases. These lilies have a low reproduction rate, which determines their high price. Moreover, the distribution of this group is limited by the fact that the Marchagons extremely dislike transplants. They prefer shady and semi-shady places, loose, rich in acidic soils and deep planting.

Modern groups of lilies

Asian, Oriental, Tubular and Long-flowered hybrids have become the main genetic material for obtaining modern groups of lilies. The presence in the pedigree of new varieties of genes of one or another basic group largely determines the features of growing lilies and caring for them. Therefore, to begin with, you need to figure out how they differ from each other and what requirements they impose on agricultural conditions.

OT hybrid 'Shocking'.Author photo

The success of hybridization has led to the emergence of new groups of lilies that have an abbreviated index - a kind of “key” that makes it easy to find out which group a particular variety belongs to. I give "secret" codes that will not only help you choose the right varieties, but also become a guiding thread in agricultural technology.

So, what do the abbreviations such as LO hybrid, LA hybrid, OT hybrid, LOO hybrid, OA hybrid mean?

  • LA hybrid - This is a hybrid obtained by crossing long-flowered and Asiatic lilies (Longiflorum x Asiatic). The Asian unpretentiousness and winter hardiness and the sophistication and beauty of the Longiflorum lily flower inherit. The requirements for growing conditions are similar to Asian lilies, that is, varieties of this group are quite unpretentious and winter-hardy, resistant to disease. The flowers are larger than those of Asiatic lilies, look up, the petals are more durable. They, unlike Asians, have a delicate aroma that they inherited from a long-flowered lily. Height up to 1 m. Very interesting is the variety 'Royal Sea', which has lingonberry-pink flowers.

The LA hybrid inherits the unpretentiousness of Asians and the sophistication of Longiflorum lilies. Photo from nflora.kiev.ua

  • OA hybrid - This is a derivative result of the crossing of Eastern and Asian lilies (Oriental x Asiatic). The beauty of the flowers was inherited from the eastern lily, many have a wavy edge of the petals. A wide range of colors went from the "Asians." The presence of Oriental "blood" significantly increases the winter hardiness of varieties of this group. They prefer sunny places, but also tolerate partial shade. It is considered a promising group for further breeding work.

OA Hybrid 'Eyeliner'.Author photo

  • LO hybrids - these are varieties obtained by crossing long-flowered and oriental lilies (Longiflorum x Oriental). Height up to 1.5 m. They are distinguished by the extreme beauty of funnel-shaped or tubular flowers, inheriting the best qualities of parents. They perfectly tolerate the climate of the middle strip of Russia, they easily reproduce. However, they do not tolerate excessive humidity and need winter shelter. Among the shortcomings are susceptibility to fungal diseases.

LO hybrids perfectly tolerate the climate of the middle strip of Russia, and easily reproduce. Photo from sad-ogorod.by

  • LOO hybrid - a product of triple crossing (Longiflorum x Oriental x Oriental), an improved version of LO hybrids. Differ in huge flowers and strong aroma.

LOO Hybrid 'Spot On'.Author photo

  • OT hybrids, or, as they are sometimes called, Orienpets are the result of the crossing of oriental and tubular lilies (Oriental x Trumpet). They are distinguished by high growth (1.0–1.5 m), large spectacular flowers, bright aroma. Both parent, as you know, are notable for their capricious nature, reduced winter hardiness, increased requirements for soil conditions, and cannot tolerate acidic soils. However, their offspring (OT hybrids) are much more hardy and winter-hardy, although they need a bright, well-drained area for planting.

OT hybrid 'White Eyes'.Author photo

You can try to determine the group to which a particular variety belongs by the color of the bulb.Asians and LA hybrids tend to have white bulbs, tubular and royal - purple, Longiflorum hybrids - yellowish, in LO, LOO bulb hybrids pink colors, in OT hybrids they can be pinkish-yellow, red-yellow or red-violet.

Despite such a large selection, it is quite possible to understand the varieties of lilies. And then exactly those plants that you want to see and are able to grow will appear in your garden.

Lily-free Lilies

Which lilies are the most unpretentious among the bright flowering of tubular, Asian, oriental and long-flowered varietal plants? For beginning gardeners, it is recommended to start growing with the most unpretentious Asian hybrids.

It is worth buying a package with onions once, in order to soon plant lilies with lilies on the whole farmstead.

Asian hybrids have several advantages:

  • unpretentious to the soil composition
  • bloom not only in open areas, but also in partial shade
  • withstand frosts up to - 40 °
  • build up a lot of kids
  • propagated by axillary onions, which crumble to the ground, quickly take root
  • start blooming first in June when compared to other types of lilies
  • there are not only varieties with simple flowers, but also with terry
  • diameter of a flower cup in full dissolution from 8 to 20 cm
  • have a high decorative effect.

The only drawback is the lack of aroma. Although this quality will appeal to allergy sufferers who cannot tolerate the sweetish smell of lilies. In the wind, fragile plant stems can break, so the flowers provide protection from the wind, tied to pegs.

The many faces of lilies - beauty in the garden

Back in the 19th century, work began on the creation of hybrid varieties of lilies.

For breeders, it was important to maintain the unpretentiousness of the lily, but improving the decorative colors.

Hybrids acquired other, improved qualities when compared with wild predecessors.

Work on creating easy-to-care lilies is ongoing and now, new spectacular plants are being bred, but nobody succeeded in getting the blue pigment in the flower cup.

A variety of hybrids - the choice for aesthetes:

  • Asian hybrids are the most numerous among species plants, have an unpretentious disposition, adapt to any soil and climatic conditions. Prefer neutral fertilized soil. The stem height reaches up to 1.5 meters, different varieties are bred in color and shape of the flower bud.
  • Curly lilies - are resistant to frost, are not exposed to typical diseases. They grow both in sunny areas and in a shaded place. Soils with acid reaction cannot withstand, therefore they do not mulch with peat or sawdust. Grow up to 1.8 meters, about 25 flowers with specks blooms on a high stalk.
  • Oriental hybrids - experienced gardeners will like it. Incredibly beautiful aristocratic lilies are distinguished by bright colors with specks, an incredible combination of juicy shades. They require increased attention to themselves. It should be planted in fertile soil with good drainage, pick up the illuminated area, protected from drafts. Conduct preventive spraying from viral diseases. They also vary in height - from 0.5 to 2.5 meters.
  • Tubular hybrids - hit with huge flowers, similar to long tubes or funnels. They bloom for a long time, are characterized by a stupefying smell, varieties with a diverse color of lilies are bred. They grow on fertilized soil with a neutral reaction.
  • Long-flowered hybrids - grown for quality cutting. It can be planted not only in the garden, but also in the greenhouse. Huge flowers reach a diameter of up to 20 cm, and the stem height is 0.8-1.
  • LA hybrids - have greater resistance to disease, winter hardiness and the density of the calyx of a flower, when compared with parental forms. Possess varieties of different colors, light aroma, grow up to 1 meter.
  • LO hybrids - need preventive shelter for the winter period. They give a high-quality cut, resistant to diseases, reach a height of 1.5 meters.
  • OT hybrids are royal lilies with large flowers. Although they appeared not so long ago, they already deserved the love of gardeners. Lilies not only look spectacular, exude a pleasant smell, but are not susceptible to a number of diseases, do not freeze in frosty winters.

A beginner gardener is provided with a wide range of lilies. To begin with, it is better to stop on the bulbs of Asiatic lily in order to practice using knowledge in practice.

Variety of varieties

How to plant and care for lilies of Asian hybrids, if they are the most unpretentious of the entire arsenal of flowering plants?

The most important thing is to choose a variety that meets the color scheme of the garden so that it creates a single composition with other plants.

Lily forms on the stem many buds (up to 30 pieces) that do not exude aroma.

Asian hybrids will quickly explore the site area if you plant the bulbs in fertilized soil with a loose structure.

Gardeners prefer to plant varietal lilies:

  • Lollipop is the leader in popularity among elegant flower lovers. The core of the bud is striking with white with small splashes of purple, and the tips are painted in raspberry color. A cluster of brownish pollen floats on the greenish stamens. On the stem, 5 flowers are formed, resembling open bowls.
  • Golden Stone - Blinds with saturated stars of yellow flowers with a scattering of cherry spots.
  • Aphrodite - fluffy skirts of terry flowers are painted in a delicate pink shade. The Dutch beauty grows the bush up to half a meter wide, and 20-30 flowers sway on each stem.
  • Fata Morgana - striking with the poisonous yellow color of terry buds showered with a third of burgundy freckles.
  • Mapira - for lovers of lilies of cherry color, almost black. Fiery orange stamens rise from the core of the bud. 5 to 15 flowers alternate on the stem.
  • Tinos - in the middle of a snow-white or creamy core of the bud, orange or raspberry-colored strokes are applied.
  • Spring pink - lush snow-white or pale pink flowers, sometimes have a border or purple dots. A lot of buds can form on the stem - up to 30 pieces.

All varieties have endurance, quickly adapt to cold wintering. For one variety, it is recommended to determine more space, taking into account the growth of the Asian hybrid, which will soon form a curtain in the garden.

When to plant a lily

About the correct period of planting a lily will tell her vegetative period. After flowering for several weeks, the bulb enters the dormant period, then again starts to sprout. They plan to plant at the end of September so that the lily has time to take root before the first frost.

Sometimes spring plantings are allowed. Gardeners dig bulbs in October, carefully clean them from the ground, and place them in polyethylene, where they leave several openings for ventilation. Then a layer of moist sawdust is poured between the bulbs, the package is moved to a cold place. Lilies are planted on beds with the onset of warm weather.

Choosing a place to plant lilies

After acquiring the bulbs, you need to know how to plant and care for lilies.

Plants will grow well in bright places, soils are best chosen with a neutral reaction.

Lilies will not grow in areas where melt or rain water stagnates for a long time.

Usually, for each bulb, they dig a deep hole equal to its three diameters in depth.

You can dig a lily a little deeper to protect it from freezing. To low-growing varieties, a sufficient depth will be up to 10 cm, and high ones are planted by 20 cm. The width between the lilies is also left relative to the varietal characteristics.

If for low plants 15 cm in row spacing is enough, then for tall plants you need twice as much.

Soil preparation

To improve the quality of the soil, measures are taken before planting:

  • dig the soil to a depth of 40 cm
  • choose weed rhizomes, remove from the site
  • take care of drainage so that rainwater does not stagnate
  • add fresh soil if other crops were grown here
  • try to achieve a neutral soil reaction, that is, in acidic soil
  • add wood ash or chalk
  • connected to the soil with needles and some sand

Do not use manure as fertilizer. A little rotted compost is placed on the prepared site.

Outdoor lily planting

Before planting, the bulbs are kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. You can buy in the store a special tool for disinfecting bulbs, follow the instructions. Before the procedure, the bulbs are washed well in the water from the remnants of the earth, long roots are cut, rotten scales are turned out.

For landing, choose a fine day with dry weather. Bulbs are planted on a prepared place, sprinkled with loose soil, covered with a non-woven material. The place should not be inclined, so that during the snowmelt, water does not penetrate under the shelter.

How to grow beautiful lilies in the garden - on the video:

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