|Latin name:||Garrulus glandarius|
|Body length, cm:||34–35|
|Body weight, g:||145–170|
|Features:||drawing wings, voice|
|Strength, million couples:||5,1–9,4|
|Guard Status:||Berna 3|
|Additionally:||Russian description of the species|
The bird is medium in size, compact in physique; the color of plumage is dominated by a red or gray-pink hue. The wings are black and white, at the folds with characteristic blue “dark mirrors” in the dark ruler. The loin and throat are white, the head with dark longitudinal mottles and a wide black "mustache". There is no sexual dimorphism.
Spread. The species is sedentary, partially wandering in the north. Allocate up to 40 subspecies in Eurasia and North Africa. The European range generally does not go north of 65 ° north latitude. Northern populations make massive irregular movements in a southerly direction. The number of birds nesting in Italy is 200-400 thousand pairs, mostly inhabiting heights below 1,400 meters above sea level.
Habitat. Inhabitant of deciduous and coniferous forests, clean and mixed. It also nests in city parks, tree alleys, and gardens. Prefers oak groves.
Biology. Usually nests on trees, shrubs, and vines. Since April, it lays 5–7 eggs, which are mainly incubated by the female for 16–17 days. Chicks depart on approximately 21–22 days of life. One masonry annually. Jay is an active and cautious bird, kept mainly in plant thickets. Has a habit of storing food: hides seeds and fruits in the ground, near stumps, in hollows. The bird does not search and eats all the pantries, the seeds remaining in the ground germinate, so the jay plays a huge role in the distribution of oak. The flight is rather slow, uneven, gliding and waving, with shallow flapping of wings. Vocalization is diverse, includes gentle meowing and rude laryngeal sounds, its alarming sharp urge is more familiar. It feeds on invertebrates, fruits and seeds, preferably acorns, also attacks small vertebrates, destroys nests, eats carrion and food waste.
Related species. Kuksha (Perisoreus infaustus) has a homogeneous gray-brown color of plumage, nests in the taiga zone of Eurasia.
Common Jay (Garrulus glandarius)
Taxonomy and taxonomy
Jay was one of many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work. Systema naturae . He recognized his affinity with other corvids, calling him Corvus glandarius . The current scientific name is from Latin, Garrulus mean noisy or vibration, and glandarius is the "acorns" in the favored food.
Eight racial groups (33 subspecies in total) recognized by Madge & Burn (1994): The Jena Museum of Philology, Germany, has an excellent display of plumage variations through these races, which is used as a particularly striking example of the changes that can be found within species.
- nominative group (nine European races), streaked with a crown.
- cervicalis a group (three races in North Africa), with a red head, gray mantle, very pale sides of the heads, and streaks or a black crown.
- atricapillus group (four races in the Middle East, Crimea and Turkey), with a uniform mantle and a nape, a black crown and a very pale face.
- race Hyrcanus (Caspian Hyrcanic mixed forests from Iran), small with black forecrown and wide veined hindcrown.
- brandtii group (four races in Siberia and northern Japan), with streaks of a crown, a reddish head, dark irises and a gray mantle.
- leucotis group (two races in Southeast Asia), without white in the wing, white, black forecrown hindcrown and a lot of white on the sides of the head.
- bispecularis a group (six races in the Himalayan region), with an unstreaked red-colored crown, and no white wing patch.
- arotsiz a group (four races in the southern Japanese islands), with a large white band-aid, blackish faces and a scaled crown.
Distribution and habitat
A member of the widespread jay of the group, as well as about the size of the jackdaw, inhabits a mixed forest, in particular, with oak, and is a familiar Skopid acorn. In recent years, the bird began to migrate to urban areas, possibly as a result of the ongoing erosion of its wooded area. Before people began to plant trees commercially on a large scale, Eurasian jays were the main source of movement and distribution for English oak ( Q. Robur ), each bird with the ability to spread over a thousand acorns of each year. Eurasian jays also bury the acorns of other types of oak, and were named to the National Fund as the main promoter of the largest population of stone oak ( Q. Holly ) in Northern Europe, located in Ventnor on the Isle of Wight. The jays were recorded by holding single acorns as far as 20 km, and are listed with the rapid spread of oaks in the north after the last ice age.